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LONDON SCHnOL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE 

NOT TO bE TAKEN AWAY. 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUD1N& 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 



Published unbus, the authority of the Secretabt of 
State for India in Council. 



EDITED BY W. T. BLANFOBD. 



MOTH S.-Vol. I. 



BY 



G. F. HAMPSON. 



LOND ON: 
TAYLOE AND FKANCIS, RED LION COUET, PLEET STEEET. 



CALCUTTA: 
THACKEE, SPINK, & CO. 



BOMBAY: 
THACKEE & CO., LIMITED. 



BEELIN : 

E. FRIEDLANDEE & SOHN, 11 CAEL8TEASSE. 



LONDON SCHOOL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE 

NOT TO BE TAKEN ''away. 



PREFACE 



Any attempt to enumerate^ describe^ and classify the Moths 
of so large a region as British India must^ in the imperfect 
state of our present knowledge, he very incomplete, and more 
and better workers in this interesting branch of ISJatural 
History cannot be expected to come forward until some 
handbook is provided for them. It has been hitherto impos- 
sible to name any but the commonest Indian Moths without 
access to a library, which does not exist anywhere in the 
East except at Calcutta, or to collections of species carefully 
identified by comparison with the types, which collections do 
not exist in the.East at all; and it is hoped that the publication 
of the Volumes, of which the present is the first, will be of 
use to students of the subject, and aid a school of workers in 
the field for the Heterocera such as have arisen for the Rho- 
palocera since the publication of the first volume of Marshall 
and de Niceville's ' Butterflies of India/ 

As no general revision of the Heterocera has been attempted 
since Guen^e's time, and as his system is very much out of 
date, one of the most difficult parts of the present work has 
been the scheme of classification and the correct placing of 
the very numerous species which had been described. It is, 
however, hoped that, by collating the systems of writers who 
have worked at special groups, a natural scheme in accordance 



iv 



PREPAOB. 



with modern ideas on the subject has been evolved, and that 
the keys and illustrations will render this seheme intelligible 
to students and enable them to follow the characters given. 
In the preparation of the system now proposed I have been 
much indebted to Herr P. C. T. Snellen's ' Vlinders van 
Nederland/ the only recently attempted classification of the 
families of Moths that I know of. How admirable a classi- 
fication it is may be judged of by the fact that I have found 
his system, based on the small fauna of the Netherlands, 
applicable with but slight modifications to the large tropical 
fauna of India. 

The material available for study has been almost complete 
as far as it exists, and the descriptions have been drawn up 
and the synonymy worked out, in the large majority of cases, 
from the types of the species, so that it is hoped that com- 
paratively few errors will have crept in. No pains have been 
spared to compare as large a series of each species as was 
possible, and as most of the species were originally described 
from single specimens by their authors, who did not always 
make sufficient allowance for the variation that is known to 
exist amongst the Moths of Europe and other countries 
where they have been largely bred, the synonymy has been 
lengthy and difficult to unravel ; and though some may think 
that more has been done in uniting species than will be 
justified by a future study of the subject, yet as the individual 
peculiarities of each form have been indicated this will but 
help to show their affinities. 

In very few localities in British India have the Moths 
been collected systematically enough over a large number of 
years to give results approaching completeness. Sikhim and 
Ceylon are certainly the best- worked tracts. The former 
yielded the greater part of the fine collection made by the 
late W. S. Atkinson, now in the possession of Dr. Staudinger 



PEEFAOE. 



V 



at Dresden, the only large Indian collection which has not been 
available for reference. The disadvantage caused by want of 
access to Mr. Atkinson's Collection has, however, been greatly 
diminished by the co- types and drawings belonging to Mr. F. 
Moore, who originally described the collection, being placed 
freely at my disposal, and by the fact that Mr. H. G. Elwes 
spent a fortnight at Dresden comparing his magnificent 
Sikhim Collection with the types there, and making numerous 
notes, of which I have been allowed the fullest use. I have 
also examined the more recent collections made in that 
district by the late Otto Moller and by Messrs. Elwes and 
Knyvett, which are now described for the first time. 

Of the Moths of the N,W. Himalayas, the fine collections 
of the Rev. J. H. Hocking and Majors Yerbury and Harford 
(the last of whom made beautiful drawings of the early stages 
of many species) give a very good idea : all three collections 
are now in the British Museum. The collection made by 
Mr. J. H. Leech in Kashmir has been lent to me for study 
and description of the new species, and free access has been 
given to me for purposes of comparison to his unrivalled 
Japanese and Chinese collections. 

The Moths of Bombay, Poona, and other localities in W. 
India have been largely worked by Col. C. Swinhoe, who has 
lent to me any specimens required for study or figuring from 
his very large Indian Collection, and has also enabled me to 
compare Walker's types of Moths in the Oxford Museum, 
which he is now engaged in arranging, with the British Mu- 
seum collection ; by this comparison numerous valuable facts 
have been elicited. Of the Moth-fauna of the Nilgiris my 
own collection gives a fairly complete picture, as, though my 
collecting did not extend over many years, it was carried on 
at all the different elevations and on each of the several 
slopes. 



vi 



PREFAOE. 



The Ceylonese fauna is perhaps the one that has been the 
best worked, and the only one where any large study of the 
earlier stages has been made; the collections of Dr. Thvvaites, 
and the earlier collections of Messrs. Mackwood, E. E. Green, 
and many others, were all described by Mr. Moore in his 
' Lepidoptera of Ceylon,' and the drawings of larvjE figured 
by him ; whilst the later collections of Messrs. Mackwood, 
Green, Butt, and others, all now in the British Museum, 
have been described by myself in the part of the ' Illustra- 
tions of Heterocera ' to be shortly issued. 

In the Assamese and Burmese regions the fine collections 
made by Mr. W. Doherty in Upper Assam, the Naga Hills, 
and various localities in the Burmese hill-ranges, now in 
Mr. Elwes's collection, are described for the first time, as 
also the collection made by Mr. E. Y. Watson in Burma, and 
presented by him to the British Museum, the collection made 
by L. Fea and lent to me by the Genoa Museum, and that 
made by Mr. Doherty in the Tenasserim Valley lent to me 
by Mr. H. Druce; whilst the collections of the Ran- 
goon Museum, and those made in the Khasi Hills by the 
Rev. W. Hamilton, both described by Col. Swinhoe, have 
also been available ; as also have the few species described 
from the Andamans and Nicobars. It is, however, from 
these eastern regions that by far the largest number of 
novelties will appear, and sufficient is known of the fauna to 
show how largely Malayan types are there represented. 

Thus, although the localities in which systematic collecting 
has been done are few, they represent all the extremes of the 
various climatic diff'erences which occur in India, so that it 
may be assumed that sufficient is known of the Heterocerous 
fauna to give some approach to completeness, to prove that 
it is quite as diverse and specialized as in other parts of the 
world, and to show that the main lines of geographical dis- 



PBEFAOE, 



VU 



tribution, as laid down from the study of the Mammalia, Birds, 
Reptiles, Fishes, and Butterflies, are applicable also to the 
Moths, though the more cosmopolitan distribution of the 
genera and our imperfect knowledge of the Moths of the 
surrounding regions do not enable us to define the subregions 
as accurately as in other orders. 

To the authorities of the British Museum, and to the 
assistant-keeper, Mr. A. G. Butler, I am indebted for much 
help and the fullest opportunities of studying the National 
Collection, which contains almost all the types of Walker, 
Butler, Swinhoe, and many others, so that the main portion 
of the present work had necessarily to be done at the Museum. 

To Mr. H. G. Elwes in especial my thanks are due for 
being the originator of the idea of the work, for reading over 
and correcting the whole of the proofs, and for much invaluable 
advice and assistance, besides placing his whole collection at 
my disposal. Mr. F. Moore has given me free access at any 
time to his rich collection containing most of his types, and 
has lent me every specimen and drawing wanted, help all the 
more generous in that he has his own ' Lepidoptera Indica,' 
which will deal with the same subject, in progress. My best 
thanks are also due to Mr. E. Meyrick for his extremely 
useful criticism of the key to the families, to Lord Walsing- 
ham and Mr. J. H, Durrant for help with the TincegeriidcB, to 
the Hon. W. de Rothschild for the loan of specimens, and to 
my artist, Mr. H. Knight, for the careful way he has carried 
out the drawings of structure. 

In conclusion, I may say that the other two volumes have 
made such progress that I hope they will be published within 
the next three years, bringing the work down to the end of 
the Pyralidm proper, which is all that is contemplated for 
the present. The material for the other families is almost 



viii 



PREFACE. 



entirely in liord Walsinghum's collection, and will be worked 
out by him, so that it will not be necessary for others to deal 
with it, excepting the Crambite, Phycid, and Gallerid sections 
of the Pyralidce, which cannot be satisfactorily worked out 
till M. Eagonot publishes his monograph in the EomanofP 
Memoirs. 



November 27th, 1892, 



G. F. HAMPSON. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 



HETEKOCERA 1 

Fam. 1. Satubnud^ 12 

1. Actias, Leach 13 

1. selene, Hubn 13 

2. maenas, Boubl 14 

3. ignescens, Moore .... 14 

2. Attacus, Linn 15 

1. atlas, Linn 15 

2. edwardsi, White .... 16 

3. Cynthia, Drury 16 

4. ricini, Boisd. 17 

3. Anthersea, Hiibn 18 

1. roylei, Moore 18 

2. paphia, Linn 18 

3. knyvetti, Hmpsn 19 

4. helferi, Moore 20 

5. assama, Westw 20 

6. andamana, Moore .... 20 

7. frithi, Moore 21 

4. Saturnia, Schrank 21 

1. zuleika, Hope 21 

2. thibeta, Westw 22 

3. anna, Moore 22 

4. gi-otei, Moore 22 

5. lindia, Moore 23 

6. pyretorum, Westw. . . 23 

7. Simla, Westiv 23 

8. huttoni, Moore 24 

9. cachara, Moore 24 

10. stoliczkana, Feld 24 

5. Loepa, Moore 25 

1 . katinka, Westw 25 

2. simplicia, Maass. Sf 

Weym 26 

3. newara, Moore 26 

6. Salassa, Moore 26 

1. lola, Westxo 27 

2. royi, Elwes 27 

VOL. I. 



7. Cricula, Wlk 28 

1, trifenestrata, Heifer . . 28 

2. drepanoides, Moore . . 29 

Fam. 2. Brahm^id^ 29 

1. Brahmaea, Wlk. 29 

1. wallichii, Gray 30 

2. liearseyi, White 31 

Fam. 3. Bombycidje 31 

1. Bombyx, Hiibn 32 

1. mori, Linn 32 

2. Ecti'octa, Hmpsn 33 

1. diaphana, Hmpsn 33 

3. Ocinara, Wlk 34 

1. signifera, Wlk 34 

2. apicalis, Wlk 35 

3. varians, Wlk 35 

4. Gunda, Wlk 36 

1. javanica, Moore 36 

2. apicalis, Hmpsn 36 

3. sikkima, Moore 36 

5. Theophila, Moore 37 

1. buttoni, Westtv 37 

2. lugubris, Drury 38 

6. Mustilia, Wlk 38 

1. falcipennis, Wlk. . . . . 38 

2. sphingiformis, Moore . 39 

3. hepatica, Moore 39 

7. Andraca, Wlk 40 

1. bipunctata, Wlk 40 

Fam. 4. Ettpterotidje .... 41 

1. Gangarides, Moore 42 

1. roseus, Wlk 42 

2. Pandala, Wlk 43 

1. dolosa, Wlk 43 

b 



X 



SYSTEM A.TIC INDEX. 



Page 

8. Melanothrix, Feld iA 

1. loucotrigona, Ilmpsn. . 44 

4. Dreata, Wlk 44 

1. hades, Wlk 45 

6. Palirisa, Moore 45 

1. lineosa, Wlk 45 

2. cervina, Moore 46 

6. Tagora, Wlk 46 

1. patula, Wlk 46 

2. pallida, Wlk 47 

8. nigriceps, ^Twipsw 48 

4. murina, Moore 48 

7. Pseudojana, Ilmpsn 48 

1. incandescens, Wlk. . . 48 

8. Ganisa, Wlk 49 

1. postica, Wlk 49 

1. pandya, Moore 60 

3. glaucescens, Wlk 50 

9. Apha, Wlk 51 

1. subdives, Wlk 61 

2. floralis, Butl. 52 

3. fenestrata, Butl. 52 

10. Apona, Wlk. 62 

1. caslimirensis, Koll. . . 62 

2. plumosa, Moore 53 

3. shevaroyeBsis, Moore . 53 

11. Eupterote, Hiibn 54 

1. undata, Blanch 64 

2. fabia, Cram 56 

5. moUifera, Wlk 67 

4. flavicoUis, Gu6r 59 

5. diffusa, Wlk 69 

6. primularis, Moore .... 69 

7. geminata, Wlk 60 

8. minor, Moore 60 

9. lineosa, Wlk 60 

10. undans, Wlk 61 

11. testacea, Wlk 61 

12. translata, Swinh 61 

13. flavida, Moore 61 

14. pliimipes, Wlk 61 

15. vialis, Moore 62 

16. citrina, Wlk 62 

17. unicolor, Smpsn 62 

12. Nisaga, Wlk 62 

1. simplex, Wlk 63 

13. Sangatissa, Moore 63 

1. subcui-vifera, Wlk. . . 63 

14. Onethocampa, Stepli 64 

1. cheela, Moore 64 

Fam. 5. SpHiNGiDiE 65 

Subfam. 1. Acherontiina 66 

1, Acberontia, Ochsen 67 

1. styx, Westio 67 

2. lachesis, Fabr 67 



Subfam. 2. iSmerinthiius ^8 

1. Polyptyclius, JIubn 68 

1. dentatus, Q'am 69 

2. dyras, Wlk 69 

3. spectabilis, Butl 71 

2. Cypa, Wlk 71 

1. decorata, Moore 71 

2. decolor, Wlk 71 

3. ferruginea, Wlk 72 

4. floralis, Butl. 72 

3. Daplinusa, Wlk 72 

1. ocellaris, Wlk 72 

2. porphyria, Butl. .... 73 

4. Langia, Moore 73 

1. zenzeroides, Moore . . 73 

5. Leucophlebia, Westw. . . 74 

1. lineata, Westw 74 

2. emittens, Wlk 75 



Subfam. 3. Amhulycince .... 76 

1. Calymnia, Wlk 76 

1. panopus. Cram 76 

2. Ambulyx, Westio 77 

1. substrigilis, Westw. . . 77 

2. semifervens, Wlk 78 

3. rubiginosa, Moore .... 78 

4. rubricosa, Wlk 79 

5. junonia, Butl 79 

6. elwesi, Druce 79 

7. phalaris, Cram 79 

8. bilineata, Wlk 80 

9. deucalion, Wlk 80 

10. pagana, Fabr 80 

11. exusta, Butl 80 

12. ornea, Westw 80 

Subfam. 4. Chcerocamipince . . 81 

1. Acosmeryx, Boisd. 81 

1. ancea, Cram. . . . 81 

2. naga, Moore 83 

2. Ampelophaga, Bi'em. 8^ 

Grey 83 

1 . rubiginosa, Brem. (§" 

Ch'ey 83 

2. dolichoides, Feld 84 

3. Chserocampa, -Dj'/j 84 

1. elpenor, Linn 84 

2. alecto, Linn 86 

3. eson, Cram 86 

4. theylia, Linn 86 

5. celerio, Limi 87 

6. lycetus, Cram 87 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



xi 



7... oldenlaniise, Fabr. .. 87 
8..silhetensis, Wlk 88 



9..Yigil, Gu^r 88 

10. insignis, Butl 89 

11. busiris, Wlk 89 

12. variolosa, Wlk 89 

13. metallica, J5uU. 89 

14. automedon, Wlk 90 

15. mydon, Wlk 90 

16.. aasamensis, Wlk 90 

17. gloriosa, Butl 91 

18. oUvacea, Moore 91 

19..velata, Wlk 91 

20. castanea, Moore 92 

21. helops, Wlk 92 

22. lucasi, Wlk. 92 

23.,butus, Cram 93 

24.. mirabilis, Butl 93 

25. lineosa, Wlk 93 

26. paUicosta, Wlk 94 

27. erotus, Cram 94 

4. Daphnis, Huhn 94 

1. nerii, Linn 94 

2. hypothous, Cram 95 

3. auaamanus, Druce. ... 96 

4. layardi, Moore 96 

6. emestinus, Moore .... 96 

6. bhaga, Moo7'e 96 

7. minimus, Butl 97 

6. Dilepliila., Ochs 97 

1. livornica, Bsp 97 

2. euphorbia, Linn 98 

3. galii. Roth 98 

4. dahlii, Get/er 99 

6. Theretra, Hubn 99 

1. nessus, Drwy 99 

2. actea, Cram 100 

7. Elibia, Wlk 100 

1. dolichus, Westw 100 

8. Angonyx, Boisd 101 

1. testacea, Wlk 101 

2. sculpta, Feld 102 

Subfam. 5. SpMngincs 102 

1, Protoparce, J?Mr»i 103 

1. convolvuli, Linn 103 

2. uniformia, Butl 104 

2, Pseudosphinx, Burm. . . 104 

1. inexacta, Wlk 104 

2. grisea, Hmpsn 104 

3. fo, Wlk 104 

4. nyctipbanes, Wlk. . . 105 

5. cyrtolophia, Butl. 105 

6. discistriga, Wlk 105 

7.. concolor, Hmpsn 106 



Paeo 

3. Apooalypsis, Butl. 107 

1. velox, Butl 107 

4. Nephele, mbn 108 

l. hespera, Fabr 108 

Subfam. 6. MacroglossincB . . 109 

1. Gurelca, Kirby 109 

1. hyas, Wlk 110 

2. masuriensis, BuU 110 

3. maeroglossoideS; Wlk. 110 

4. pusiUa, Butl Ill 

2. Rhopalopsycbe, Butl. . . Ill 

1. nycteris, Koll. Ill 

2. bifaseiata, Butl 112 

3. Macroglossa, Seop 112 

1. fervens, Butl 112 

2. vialis, Butl. 112 

3. gyrans) Wlk 113 

4. affictitia, Butl. 113 

5. stellatarum, Linn 113 

6. belis, Cram 113 

7. belia, Hmpsn 114 

8. proxima, Butl 114 

9. semifasciata, Hmpsn. . 115 

10. bengalensis, Boisd. . . 115 

11. sitiene, Wlk 115 

12. glaucoptera, Butl. .... 115 

13. walkeri, Butl. 116 

14. avicula, Boisd. 116 

15. lepcba, Butl 116 

16. insipida, Butl. 117 

17. gilia, Herr.-Schaff. . . 117 

18. divergens, Wlk 117 

19. imperator, Butl. 118 

20. rectifascia, Feld. .... 118 

21. faro, Cram 118 

22. bemichroma, Butl. . . 118 

23. interrupta, Butl. .... 119 

4. Hemaris, Dalm 119 

1, fuciformis, Linn 119 

2, saundersi, Wlk 119 

3, rubra, Hmpsn 120 

5. Cepbonodes, Hiiln 120 

1, nylas. Linn 120 

6. Sataspes, Moore 121 

1, iniernalis, Westw 121 

2. ventralis; Butl. 122 

7. Bbodosoma, Butl. 122 

1. triopus, Westw 122 

Fam. 6. Notodontidje .... 124 

1, Tarsolepis, 126 

1, fulgurifera, Wlk 127 

2, remicauda, Butl 127 

62 



Xll STBTEMATIC INDEX. 



2. Dudusa, Wlk ^1§8 

1. sphingiformis, ilfooj'e . . 128 

3. Hapigia, Ouen 129 

1. obHqua, Wlk 129 

4. Nadata, Wlk 130 

1. niveiceps, Wlk 130 

5. Baradesa^ Moo7-e 131 

1. lithosioides, Moore . , 131 

6. Rachia, Moore 131 

1. plumosa, Moore 132 

2. striata, Hmpsn 132 

7. Phalera, Iliibn 133 

1. parivala, Moore 133 

2. sangana, Moore 134 

3. torpida, Wlk 134 

4. procera, Feld. 134 

6. raya, Moore 134 

8. Gargetta, Wlk 135 

1. costigera, Wlk 136 

2. nagaensis, Hmpsn. . . 135 

3. curvaria, Hmpsn 136 

4. ingens, Wlk 136 

5. albimacula, Hmpsn. . . 136 

9. Turnaca, Wlk 136 

1. acuta, Wlk 137 

10. NoiTaca, Moore 137 

I. longipennis, Moore . . 137 

11. Niganda, Moore 138 

1. strigifascia, Moore. . . . 138 

12. Pydna, Wlk 138 

1. testacea, Wlk 139 

2. decurrens, Moore .... 139 

3. longivitta, Wlk 139 

4. nana, Sivinh 140 

5. pallida, Butl 140 

6. ochracea, Moore .... 140 

7. galbana, Stvinh 140 

8. metapliaea, Wlk 140 

9. eupatagia, Hmpsn. . . 141 
10. aurata, Moore 141 

II. fasciata, Moore 141 

12. sikkima, Mooi'e 141 

13. nigropuncta, Hmpsn. . . 142 

14. nigrofasciata, Hmpsn. . 142 

15. basistriga, Moore 142 

16. femfera, Wlk 142 

13. -Ramesa, Wlk 142 

• 1. tosta, Wlk 143 

2. fuscipennis, Hmpsn. . . 143 

3. divisa, Moore 143 

4. albistriga, Moore 143 

14. Zana, Wlk 144 

1. lig-nosa, Wlk 144 

15. Anticyra, Wlk 144 

1. combusta, Wlk 145 



Page 

16. Antheua, Wlk 145 

1. servula, Drury 145 

2. exanthemata, Moore . . 146 

17. Zaranga, Moore 146 

1. pannosa, Moore 146 

18. Y&uiom&jButl 147 

1. argentifera, Moore .... 147 

2. brunnea, Moore 148 

3. obliquiplaga, Moore . . 148 

4. apicalis, Moore 148 

6. ocypete, Brem 148 

6. tenebrosa, Wlk 149 

19. Stauropus, Germ 149 

1. maculatus, Moore .... 149 

2. altemus, Wlk 149 

3. sikkimensis, Moore. . . . 150 

4. dentilinea, Hmj}sn. . . 150 

5. apicalis, Moore 151 

6. viridescens, Wlk 351 

7. pallidifascia, 

Hmpsn 151 

8. albi vertex, Hmpsn. . . 152 

9. fasciatus, Moore 152 

10. griseus, Hmjisn 152 

11. orbifer, Hmpsn 152 

12. basiniger, Moore .... 153 

13. vinaceus, Moore .... 153 

14. plagiviridis, Moore . . 153 

20. Somera, Wlk 153 

1. yiridifusca, Wlk 154 

21. Liparopsis, Hmpsn 154 

1. postalbida, Hmpsn. . . 154 

22. Cemra, Schrank 155 

1. liturata, Wlk 155 

2. prasana, Moore 156 

23. Damata, Wlk 156 

1. longipennis, Wlk 157 

2. microsticta, Hmpsn. . . 157 

24. Dicranm-a, Boisd 157 

1. bimalayana, Moore . . 158 

25. Metaschalis, Hmpsn 158 

1. disrupta, Moore 168 

26. Cbadisra, Wlk 159 

1. bipars, Wlk 159 

27. Pbeosia, Hiibn 160 

1. fasciata, Moore 160 

2. pulclierrima, Moore . . 161 

3. excnrvata, Hmpsn. . . 161 

4. grisea, Sivinh 161 

6. strigata, Moore 1 61 

6. sikkima, Moore 162 

28. Notodouta, Ochs 162 

1. albifascia, Moore 162 

2. gigantea, Ehoes 162 

3. moorei, Hmpsn 163 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



xiii 



Page 

4, sikkima, Mooi'e 163 

6. riifa, JBmpsn 163 

29. Hyperaeschra, £utl 163 

1. pallida, Butl. 164 

2. basistriga, Moore .... 164 

3. tenebrosa, Moore .... 164 

4. basalis, Moore 164 

6. nigi'ibasis, Hmpsn. . . 165 

6. dentata, Hmpsn 165 

7. variegata, Moore .... 165 

30. Lophopteryx, Steph 166 

1. saturata, Wlk 166 

2. atrofusa, Hmpsn 166 

3. flavistigma, Moore .... 167 

4. ferruginosa, Mooi-e . . 167 

31. Megaceramis, Hmpsn. . . 167 
1. lamprolepis, Hmpsn. . . 167 

32. Apela, Wlk 168 

1. divisa, Wllc 168 

33. Spatalia, Hiibn 168 

1. argentifera, Wlk 169 

2. gemmifera, Moore 169 

3. costalis, Moore 170 

4. argentata, Moore .... 170 

5. albifasciata, Hmpsn. . . 170 

6. auritractata, Mooi-e , . 170 

7. plusioides, Moore .... 170 

34. Besaia, Wlk 171 

1. rubiginea, Wlk .' .' 171 

35. Cleapa, Wlk 171 

1. latifascia, Wlk 172 

36. Ichthyura, Huhn ] 172 

1. anachoreta, Fabr 172 

2. costicomma, Hmpsn. . . 173 

3. cupreata, Butl 173 

4. restitura, Wlk. ...... 174 

5. undulata, Hmpsn 174 

6. ferruginea, Moore 174 

37. Cyphanta, Wlk 174 

1. xanthochlora, Wlk. . . 175 

2, chortochlora, Hmpsn. . 175 

Fam. 7. CYMATOPHonrD^E . . 177 

1. Habrosyne, Hiibn 178 

1. derasa, Linn .' 178 

2. plagiata, Moore '. 179 

3. armata, Moore 179 

4. argenteipuiicta,irmjos«. 179 
6. sanguinea, Moore .... 179 

2. Thyatii-a, Hiibn I8O 

1. batis, Linn. I8O 

3. Gaurena, Wlk I8I 

1. florens, Wlk 181 

2. aurofasciata, Hmpsn. . 181 

3. florescens, Wlk 182 



Page 

4. fuscescens, Hmpsn. . . 182 

5. licbenea, Hmpsn 182 

4. Polyploca, Hiibn 182 

1. orbicularis, Moore .... 183 

2. anguligera, Hmpsn. . . 183 

3. renalis, Moore 183 

4. albidisca, Warr 183 

5. cuprina, Moore 184 

6. albicosta, Moore 184 

7. albibasis, Hmpsn 184 

5. Nemacerota, Hmpsn.'. . . . 185 

1. cinerea, Warr. ...... 185 

2. alternata, Moore 185 

6. Toxoides, Hmpsn 185 

1. longipennis, Hmpsn. . . 186 

Fam. 8. Seshd^ 187 

1. Trocbilium, Scop 188 

1, ommatiaeforme, Moore 189 

2. ignicoUe, Hmpsn 189 

2. Sphecodoptera, Hmpsn. . . 189 

1. repanda, Wlk 189 

2. flavicoUis, Hmpsn. . . 190 

3. Antbrenoptera, Sioinh. . . 190 
1. contracta, Wlk 190 

4. Trilocbana, Moore 190 

1. scolioides, Moore .... 191 

2. ignicauda, Hmpsn. . . 191 

5. Sciapteron, iStaud. 191 

1. flammans, Hmpsn 191 

2. grotei, Moore 192 

3. cseruleimicans, Hm2Jsn. 192 

4. atkinsoni, Moore 192 

5. noblei, Stoinh 192 

6. sikkima, Moore 193 

7. metallicum, Hmpsn. . . 193 

8. gracile, Sioinh 193 

9. cupreivitta, Hmpsn. . . 193 
10. tenuimarginatum, 

Hmpsn 193 

6. Macrotarsipus, Htnpsn. . . 194 
1. albipunctus, J^mj^>s?^.. . 194 

7. Ichneumenoptera, ^rnp^w. 194 

1. auripes, Hmpsn 194 

2. flavicincta, Hmpsn. . . 195 

3. xanthosoma, Hmpsn. . 195 

4. flavipalpus, Hmpsn. . . 195 
6. ignifera, Hmpsn 195 

8. Sesia, Fabr 196 

1. quinquecincta, Hmpsn. 196 

2. minuta, Swinh 196 

3. unicincta, Hmpsn 196 

4. xanthosticta, Hmpsn. . 197 

5. tricincta, ilfoorc 197 

6. flava, Moore 197 



xiv 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Pago 

7, flaviciiudata, Moore . . 197 

8. flavipes, Hmpsn 198 

9, Adixoa, Hmpsn 198 

1. alterna, Wlk 198 

2. aiuicollum, Hmpsn. . . 198 

10. Trichocerota, Hmpsn. . . 199 
1. ruticincta, Hmpsn. . . 199 

11. Tinthia, Wlk 199 

1. cupreipennis, Wlk. . . 199 

12. Cevatocorema, Hmpsn. . . 200 
1. postcristatum, Hmpsn. 200 

13. Aschistophleps, Hmpsn. . . 200 

1. lampropoda, Hmpsn.. . 200 

2. melissoides, Hmpsn. . . 201 

14. Oligophlebia, Hmpsn 201 

I. nigralba, Hmpsn 201 

15. Melittia, Wlk 202 

1. astarte, Westw 202 

2. pellecta, Swinh 202 

3. volatilis, Swinh 202 

4. eurytion, Westw 203 

5. indica, Butl 203 

6. grandis, Hmpsn 203 

7. newara, Moore 203 

8. kuluana, Mooi-e 204 

9. notabilis, Swinh 204 

10. gigantea, Moore .... 204 

II. chalciformis, Fabr. . . 204 
12. nepcba, Moore 205 

16. Lenyi-a, Wlk 205 

\. astaroth, Westto 205 



Fam. 9. TiNiEGEBnD-2E 



206 



1. Snellenia, Wlsm 206 

1. coccinea, Wlsm 207 

2. tarsella, Wlsm 207 

2. CEdematopoda, ZeJl 207 

1. clerodendronella, 

Staint 207 

3. Eretmocera, Zell 208 

1. impactella, Wlk 208 

Fam. 10. Syntomid^ 209 

1. Sjntomoides, Hmpsn 209 

1. imaon, Cram 210 

2. godartii, Boisd 210 

3. hydatina, Butl 210 

4. hyalina, Moore 211 

5. volans, Swinh 211 

6. incipiens, Wlk 211 

7. brachypecten, Hmpsn. 211 

8. microcnilus, Hmpsn. . . 212 



Paee 

Syntomis, Ochs 2l2 

1. unifascia, Hmpsn. ... 212 

2. atkinsoni, Moore .... 212 
8. bicincta, Koll 213 

4. cyssea, Cram 213 

5. minor, Warr 213 

6. insueta, Swinh 213 

7. georgina, Butl 213 

8. albapex, HmjJsn 214 

9. gelatiua, Hmpsn 214 

10. extensa, Wlk 214 

11. lucina, Brdl 214 

12. khasiana, Butl 214 

13. flavifrons, Hmpsn 215 

14. qiiadnfascia,JTm/Jsw. . . 215 

15. divisa, Wlk 215 

16. masoni, Moore 215 

17. diaphana, KoU 216 

18. mela3na, Wlk 216 

19. albifrons, Moore 216 

20. discinota, Moore .... 216 

21. fervida, Wlk 217 

22. newara, Moore 217 

23. lepcha, Moore 217 

24. sladeni, Moore 217 

25. grotei, Moore 218 

26. Yitrea, Wlk 218 

27. submarginalis, Wlk. . . 218 

28. tigrina, Wlk 218 

29. cblorocera, Hinpsn. . . 218 

30. liiteifascia, Hmpsn. . . 218 

31. berinda, Moore 219 

32. buebneri, 5ois<Z 219 

33. wimbeiieyi, Swinh. . . 219 

34. passalis, Fabr 219 

35. formosse, Butl. 220 

36. eressoides, Hmpsn. . . 220 

37. cberra, Moore 220 

38. multigutta, Wlk 220 

39. blancbardi, Pouj 221 

40. nigra, Hmps7i 221 

41. serrata, Hmpsn 221 

42. aperiens, Wlk 221 

43. ochreipuncta, Hmpsn, . 222 

44. haisea, Stvitih 222 

45. era, Sioinh 222 

46. musa, Swinh 222 

47. confinis, Wlk 223 

48. subaurata, Wlk 223 

49. affinis, Moore 223 

50. aterea, Cram 223 

51. erytbrosoma, Hmpsn. . 223 

52. pectoralis, Wlk 224 

53. tboracica, Moore 224 



SYSTBMA.TIO INDEX. 



XV 



Page 

3. Callitomis, Butt, 224 

1. syntomoides, Butl. . , 224 

2. leucosoma, Butt 226 

3. multifasciata, Hmpsn. 225 

4. Trichaeta, Stoinh 225 

1. teneiformis, Wlk 225 

5. Psichotoe, Boisd 225 

1. duvauceli, Boisd 226 

6. Naclia, Boisd 226 

1. punctata, Fabi- 226 

7. Euchromia,"SM6?z 226 

1. magna, Swinh 227 

2. polymena, Linn 227 

3. orientalis, BuU 227 

4. laura, Butl 228 

5. amcena, Moschl 228 

Fam. 11. Zyg^nid^ 228 

Subfam. 1. Zygcminee 229 

1. Zygjena, Fabr 230 

1. cashmirensis, Koll. . . 230 

2. erythrosoma, Hmpsn. . 231 

3. afghana, Moore 231 

2. Dendrocera, Hmpsn 231 

1. quadripunctata,H»ipsn. 231 

3. Ohrysartona, Siuinh 232 

1. stipata, Wlk 232 

2. refulgens, Hmpsn 232 

4. Brachartona, Hmpsn 233 



1. quadrimaculata, Moore 233 

2. catoxantha, Hmpsn. . . 233 
5. CaUartona, Hmpsn 233 

1. purpurascens, Hmpsn. . 233 



6. Artona, Wlk 234 

1. postvitta, Moore 234 

2. postalba, Elwes 234 

3. discivitta, Wlk 234 

4. zebraica, BuU. 235 

5. zebra, Elwes 235 

6. sikkimensis, Elwes . . 235 

7. confusa, Butl. 236 

7. Tasema, Wlk 236 

1. bipars, Wlk 236 

2. longipennis, Hmpsn. . . 236 

3. Miginosa, Moore 236 

4. nigra, Hmpsn 237 

8. Lophosoma, Swinh 237 

1. cupreum, IVlk 237 

2. quadricolor, Wlk. . . 237 

9. M.oiiosch.alis, Hmpsn 238 

1. virescens, Hmpsn 238 

10. Thyrassia, Butl 238 

1. subcordata, Wlk 238 



Page 

11. Procotes, Butl 239 

1. diminuta, Wlk 239 

12. Clelea, Wlk 239 

1. sappbirina, Wlk 239 

2. discriminis, Swinh 240 

3. nigroviridis, Elwes .... 240 

4. plumbeola, Hmpsn. . . 240 

13. Phacusa, Wlk 240 

1. dolosa, Wlk 240 

2. properta, Swinh 241 

3. tenebrosa, Wlk 241 

4. cyanocera, Hmpsn. . . 241 

5. khasiana, Moore .... 241 

14. Goe, Hmpsn 242 

1. diapbana, Hmpsn 242 

15. Epbemeroidea, Hmjmi. . . 242 

1. ariel, Hmjisn 242 

2. flavocincta, Hmpsn. . . 242 

16. Piarosoma, Hmpsn 243 

1. albicinctiim, Hmpsn. . 243 

17. Platyzygsena, Sioinh 243 

1. molleri, Elwes 243 

18. Aragocera, Hmpsn 244 

1. cyanescens, Hnjjsn. . . 244 

2. posthyalina, Hmpsn, . . 244 

19. Arachotia, Moore 245 

1. flaviplaga, Moore .... 245 

2. vespoides, Moore .... 245 



Subfam. 2. ChalcosiincB 246 

1. Callizyg^na, Feld, 248 

1. nivimacula, Feld. 248 

2. auricincta, Sioinh 249 

3. gana, Sivinh 249 

2. Trypanopbora, KoU 249 

1. semibyalina, Koll 249 

2. flavalis, Hmpsn 250 

3. taprobanes, Wlk 250 

3. Pblebobecta, Hmpsn 251 

1. fuscescens, Moore .... 251 

2. flavicosta, Elwes 251 

4. Soritia, Wlk 251 

1. rubrivitta, Wlk 252 

2. leptalina, Koll. 252 

3. sbabama, Moore 253 

4. viridivena, Hmpsn. . . 253 

5. nigribasalis, Hnpsn. . . 253 

6. circinata, Herr.-Sehdf. 253 

7. obliquaria, Fahr 254 

5. Pidorus, Wlk 264 

1. circumdatus, Wlk '. 264 

2. geminus, Wlk 254 

3. circe, Boisd 255 

4. albifascia, Moore .... 255 



xvi 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



e 1 • ■r^ 

0. glaucopis, Z)w?/ 255 

6. miles, Biiil 265 

6. Heteropan, Wlk 25G 

1. scintillans, Wlk 266 

2. cupreatus, Hmpsn 250 

3. flavimacula, . . 256 

4. ochreus, Ehoes 266 

7. Arbudas, Mooi-e 267 

1. bicolor, Moore 257 

8. Herpa, Wlk 257 

1. venosa, Wlk 257 

2. subhyalina, Moore. . . . 258 

3. primnlina, JElwes .... 258 

9. Pintia, Wlk 258 

1. ferrea, Wlk 258 

2. cyanea, Butl. 259 

3. latipennis, Hmpsn 259 

10. Heterusia, Hope 259 

1. raja, ilfbore 259 

2. alompra, Moore 260 

3. lativitta, Moore 260 

4. tricolor, Hope 260 

5. edocla, Doubl 261 

6. magnifica, Butl 261 

7. virescens, Butl 262 

8. cingala, Moore 262 

9. sedea, Linn 262 

10. drataraja, Moore .... 262 

11. Milleria, Herr.-Schdff. . . 262 

1. xivginalis, Herr.-Schaff. 263 

2. cyanivena, Hmpsn. . . 263 

3. hamiltoni, SwinJi 264 

4. cardinalis, Moore .... 264 

12. Chalcosia, Ifit^w 264 

1. griseifusa, Hmpsn. . . 264 

2. ideeoides, Herr.-Schdff'. 265 

3. argentata, Moore .... 265 

4. adalifa, Doubl. 265 

5. mvrrhina, Hmpsn 265 

6. affinis, GuSr 266 

7. conisca, Boisd 266 

8. thallo, iww 266 

9. pretiosa, Wlk 267 

10. distincta, Gu6r 267 

13. Corma, Wlk 268 

1. zenotea, Wlk 268 

2. maculata, Hmpsn 268 

3. zeUca, Doubl 268 

14. Cyclosia, Hiibn 269 

1. nigrescens, Moore .... 269 

2. parvula, ^M^/ 269 

3. papilionaris, Drury . . 269 

4. australinda, Hmpsn. . . 270 
6. panthona, Q'am 270 



Page 

16. Pompelon, Wlk 271 

1. valentula, Swinh 271 

2, subcyanea, Swinh 271 

16. Amesia, Z)mwc 272 

1. sanguiflua, Drury .... 272 

2. aliris, Doubl. 272 

3. hyala, Druce 273 

17. Erasmia, ^o/ye 273 

1. pulchella, Hope 273 

18. Campylotes, Westtu 274 

1. histrionicus, Westw. . . 274 

2. desgodinsi, Oberth 275 

3. atkiusoni, Moore .... 276 

19. Cadpbises, Moore 275 

1. maculata, Moore .... 275 

2. moorei, Butl 276 

20. Isbarta, Wlk 276 

1. binghami, Butl. 276 

2. imitans, Butl 277 

3. cuprea, Sioinh 277 

21. Callamesia, 5m!;/. 277 

1. midama, Herr.-Schdff. . 278 

22. Gynautocera, Guer 278 

]. papilionaris, G^i&r 279 

23. Histia, Hiibn 279 

1. flabellicornis, Fabr. . . 280 

2. nilgira, Moore 280 

3. albimacula, Hmpsn. . . 280 

4. cometaris, Butl. 280 

24. Oanerces, Moore 281 

1. euschemoides, Moore. . 281 

26. Philopator, Moore 281 

1. basimaculata, Moore . 282 

26. Agalope, Wlk 282 

1. hyalina, M 282 

27. Chelura, Hope 283 

1. bifasciata, Hope 283 

2. eronioides, Moore .... 284 

3. basiflava, ilfoore 284 

4. glacialis, Moore 284 

28. Elcysma, Butl. 284 

1. dohertyi, Blw 285 

Subfam. 3. Phaudince 286 

1. Boradia, Moore 286 

1. carueola, Moore 286 

2. Anomoeotes, Feld 286 

1. basalis, Moore 286 

3. Alophogaster, Hmpsn. , . 287 
1. rubribasis, Hmpsn. . . 287 

4. Phauda, Wlk 287 

1. flammans, Wlk 287 

2. fuscalis, Sioinh 288 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



xvii 



Page 



5. Himantopterus, Westw. . . 288 

1. dohertyi, Elwes 288 

2. caudatus, Moore 288 

3. zaida, Bouhl. 289 

Fam. 12, Psychid^ 289 

Subfam. 1. (Eceticinee 290 

1. CEceticus, Lands 290 

1. tertius, Teinpl 290 

2. Clania, Wlk 291 

1. crameri, Westio 291 

2. variegata, Snell 291 

3. Amatissa, Wlk 292 

1. consorta, Tempi 292 

2. cuprea, Moore 292 

Subfam. 2. Psyehince 292 

1. Acantbopsyche, Heyl. . . 293 
Subgen. (Eceticoides, Heyl. 293 

1. bipars, Wlk 293 

2. elwesi, Heyl. 294 

3. cana, Hmpsn 294 

4. minor, Moore 294 

Subgen. Dasaratha, Moore . 294 

5. bimalayana, Moore . . 294 

6. longicauda, Warr 294 

Subgen. Brachycyttarus, 

Hmpsn 295 

7. subteralbata, Hmpsn. . 295 
Subgen. Pteroma, Hmpsn. 296 

8. plagiopbleps, Hmpsn. . 296 
Subgen. Metisa, Wlk 296 

9. plana, Wlk 296 

10. moorei, Heyl 296 

11. snelleni, Heyl. 296 

Subgen. Amicta, Heyl 297 

12. rhabdopbora, Hmpsn. . 297 

2. Psycbe, Sehrank 297 

Subgen. Manatha, Moore . . 298 

1. albipes, ilfoore 298 

Subgen. Heylaertsia,irOT/?s«, 298 

2. gi-iseata, Hmpsn 298 

3. fusca, Hmpsn 298 

4. nudilineata, Hmpsn. . . 298 
Subgen. Chalioides, Hmpsn. 299 

6. vitrea, Hmpsn 299 

Subgen. Eurycyttarus, 

Hmpsn 299 

6. pileata, Hmpsn 299 

7. nigra, Hmjjsn 299 

8. rotunda, Hmpsn 299 

9. decemvena, Hmpsn. . . 300 



Page 



Subgen. Barandra, Moore. . 300 
10. fumata, Moore 300 

Subfam. 3. ChaliimB 300 

1. Chalia, Moore 301 

1. doubledayi, Westw. . . 301 

2. Mabasena, ilfoore 301 

1. andamana, Moore .... 301 

2. bockingi, Moore 302 

3. Pteroxys, Hmpsn 302 

1. goniatus, Hmpsn 302 

2. uniformis, Hmpsn 302 

Subfam. 4. Canephorince .... 302 

1. MofFatia, Moore 302 

1. plumicauda, Moore . , 303 

Subfam. 5. Psychoidince .... 303 

1. Diabasis, Heyl 303 

1. nilgirensis, Hmpsn. , . 303 

2. Aprata, Moore 303 

1. mackwoodi, Moore. . . . 304 

Fam. 13. Cossid^ 304 

1. Cossus, Fabr 305 

1. acronyctoides, Moore . 305 

2. nigromaculatus, 

Hmpsn 305 

3. cadambae, Moore .... 306 

4. parvipunctus, Hmpsn. . 308 

5. pallidalae, Hmpsn 306 

6. stigmaticus, Moore . . 306 

2. Duomitus, Butl 307 

1. niger, Moore 307 

2. ceramicus, Wlk 307 

3. strix, Cram 307 

4. leuconotus, Wlk 308 

6. mineus. Cram . 309 

6. fuscipars, Hmpsn 309 

3. Azygopbleps, Hmps7i. . . 309 

1. albofasciata, Moore . . 309 

2. scalaris, Fabr 310 

3. pusilla, Wlk 310 

4. Zeuzera, Latr 310 

1. conferta, Wlk 310 

2. indica, Herr.-Schdf. . . 311 

3. postexcisa, Hmpsn. . . 311 

4. multistrigata, Moore . . 311 

5. coffeas, Nietn 312 

5. Phragmataecia, Neium. . . 312 

1. castaneae, Hubn 313 

2. impura, Hmpsn 313 



XVIU 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



6. Eremocossus, Hmpsn 813 

1. fcedus, S%oinh 314 

Fam. 14. AiiBELiDiE 314 

1. Arbela, Moore 314 

1. quadrinotata, Wlk 314 

2. tetraonis, Moore 315 

3. dea, Swinh 315 

2. Encaumaptera, Hmpsn. . . 315 
1. stigm&ttL, IL)i2)sn 316 

Fam. 15. HEPiALiDiE 316 

1. Palpifer, Hmpsn 316 

1. sexnotatus, Moore .... 317 

2. tavoyanus, Moore .... 317 

2. Hepialiscus, Hmpsn 317 

1. nepalensis, Wlk 317 

3. Phassus, Wlk 318 

1. aboe, Moore 318 

2. pimctimargo, Hmpsn. . 319 

3. AdJaoY, Moore 319 

4. purpiu'ascens, Moore . . 319 

5. signlfer, Wlk 320 

6. malabaricus, Moore . . 321 

7. auratus, Hmpsn 321 

8. albofasciatus, Moore . . 321 

9. viiidis, Hmpsn 321 

Fam. 16. CALLiDUi-iDiB .... 322 

1. Cleosiris, Boisd 322 

1. catamita, Geyer 322 

2. Callidula, -^^<fo^ 323 

1. minor, Moore 323 

2. erycinoides, Wlk 324 

3. attenuata, Moore .... 324 

3. Pterndecta, Butl 324 

1. ancboi'a, Moore 325 

4. Herimba, Moore 325 

1. atkinsoni, Moore .... 325 

Fam. 17. DBEPANULiDiE .... 326 

1. Euchera, Hiibn 327 

1. substigmai'ia, Hubn. . . 327 

2. rectificata, Wlk 328 

3. pitmani, Moore 328 

2. Macrocilix, Butl. 329 

1. mysticata, Wlk 329 

2. orbiferata, Wlk 330 

3. Macrauzata, Butl. 330 

1. fenestraria, Moore .... 330 



4. Auzata, Wlk ^1 

1. semipavonaria, Wlk. . . 331 

5. Ditrigona, Mooi-e 331 

1. triangularia, Moore . . 332 

0. Teldeuia, Moore 332 

1. vestigiata, Butl 332 

7. Leucodrepana, Hmpsn. . . 333 

1. idaioides, Hm2)sn 333 

2. nivea, Hmpsn 333 

3. obliquilinea, Hjnpsn. . . 333 

8. Drepana, Schr 333 

1. pallida, Mom-e 334 

2. hyaliua, Moore 334 

3. rufofasciata, Hmpsn. . . 334 

4. ochreipennis, Hmpsn. . 335 
6. quinaiia, Moore 335 



6. innotata, Htnptsn 335 

7. fasciata, Hmpsn 335 

8. specularia, Wlk 335 

9. discispilaria, Moore . . 336 
10. perbamata, Hmpsn. . . 336 



11. muscularia, Wlk 336 

12. violacea, Butl 336 

13. lilacina, Moore 336 

14. orpbnina, Hmpsn 337 

15. prunicolor, Mooi-e 337 

16. postica, Moore 337 

17. vinacea, Moore 337 

18. fenestraria, Moore .... 337 

19. trilinearia, Moore .... 338 

20. exciaa, Hmpsn 338 

21. argenteola, Moore .... 338 

22. argentilinea, Wlk 339 

23. pulcherrima, Hmpsn. . . 339 

24. duplex, Moore 339 

25. specularis, Moore .... 340 

26. ffava, Moore 340 

27. albonotata, Moore 340 

28. sadana, Moore 341 

29. xantboptera, Hmpsn. . . 341 

30. ferrea, Hmpsn . 341 

31. quadri punctata, Wlk. . 341 

32. vira, Moore 342 

33. fulva, Hmpsn 342 

34. byalinata, Moore 342 

9. Spica, Stoiiih 342 

1. luteola, Swinh 343 

10. Tbymistada, Wlk 343 

1. tripunctata, Wlk 343 

11. Deroca, Wlk 344 

1. hyabna, Wlk 344 

2. inconclusa, Wlk 344 

12. Pbalacra, Wlk 346 

1. vidhisara, Wlk 345 

2. excisa, Hmpsn 345 



§YSTEMATIO INDEX. 



XIX 



Page 

13. Drapetodes, Guen 346 

1. mitaria, Guen 346 

14. Cilix, ZeacA 347 

1. glaucata, Scop 347 

15. Oreta, Wlk 347 

1. extensa, Wlk 348 

2. sanguinea, Moore .... 348 

3. violacea, Ilmpsn 349 

4. obtusa, Wlk 349 

5. obliquilinea, Ilmpsn. . . 349 

6. albipuncta, Ilmpsn. . . 349 

7. castanea, Ilmpsn 350 

8. rotundapex, Ilmpsn. . . 350 

9. pavaca, Moore 350 

10. griseotincta, Ilmpsn. . . 350 

11. marginata, Moore .... 351 

16. Camptochilus, Ilmpsn. . . 351 
1. reticulatum, Moore . . 351 



Fam, 18. THYBiDiDiE 



352 



1. Add^a, Wlk 353 

1. trimeronalis, Wlk 353 

2. Striglina, Guen 353 

1. scitaria, Wlk 354 

2. decussata, Moore .... 354 

3. Dixoa, Ilmpsn 355 

1. albatalis, Sioinh 355 

4. Rbodoneura, Guen 355 

1. obliqualis, Warr 355 

2. acaciusalis, Wlk 356 

3. multipunctata, Warr. . 356 

4. reticularis, Moore .... 356 

5. anticalis, Wlk. 357 

6. nsevina, Moore 357 

7. hypargyi-a, Ilmpsn. . . 357 

8. bastialis, Wlk 357 

9. myrsusalis, Wlk 357 

10. myrtsea, Drwy 358 

11. semitesselalis, Wlk. . . 358 

12. loceusalis, Wlk 358 

13. nitens, Butl 359 

14. pallida, Butl 359 

15. glapbyralis, Ilmpsn. . . 359 

16. exusta, Btdl 359 

17. emblicalis, Moore 360 

18. disparalis, Rmpsn. . . 360 

19. atripunctalis, Wlk. . . 360 

20. bipuncta, Ilmpsn 360 

21. vinosa, Butl 361 

22. fasciata, Moore 361 

23. cuprealis, Hmpsn 361 

24. alternata, Mooi-e 362 

25. oligosticba, Ilmpsn. . . 362 

26. subcostalis, Hmpsn. . . 362 



Page 

27. ferrofusa, Ilmpsn 362 

28. uniformis, Ilmpsn. . . 362 

29. micacealis, Wlk 362 

30. striativena, Ilmpsn. . . 363 

31. splendida, Butl 363 

32. bracteata, Ilmpsn. . . 363 

33. rufareta, Ilmpsn 363 

34. hypoxantba, Hmpsn.. . 364 

35. tristis, Hmpsn 364 

36. munda, Warr 364 

5. Hypolamprus, Hmpsn. . . 364 

1. striatilis, Sioinh 365 

2. obscuralia, Hmpsn. . . 365 

3. lobidatus, Moore 365 

4. atrostriatus, Hmpsn. . . 365 

5. subrosealis, Leech .... 366 

6. angulalis, Moore .... 366 

7. trifascialis, Moore 366 

6. Camadena, Moore 366 

1. vespertilionis, Moore. . 367 

7. Herdonia, Wlk 367 

1. osacesalis, Wlk 367 

8. Dysodia, Clem 368 

1. ignita, Wlk 368 

2. viridatrix, Wlk 369 

3. albifiirca, Hmpsn 369 

9. Glanycus, Wlk 369 

1. insolitus, Wlk 369 

2. tricolor, Moore 370 

10. Hypertbyris, Leech 370 

1. aperta, Leech 370 

Fam. 19. Limacodid^e 371 

1. Scopelodes, Westiu 373 

1. venosa, Wlk 374 

2. sericea, Butl 374 

3. unicolor, Westw 376 

4. contracta, Wlk 375 

2. Hypborma, Wlk 375 

1. minax, Wlk 375 

3. Macroplectra, Hmpsn. . . 376 
1. minutissima, Swinh. . . 376 

4. Oxyplax, Htnpsn. ...... 376 

1. ochracea, Moore .... 376 

5. Susica, Wlk , . . 377 

1. pallida, Wlk 377 

6. Tbosea, Wlk 377 

1. cana, Wlk ; . . . 378 

2. aperiens, Wlk 378 

3. tripartita, Moore 378 

4. recta, Hjnpsn 378 

5. fasciata, Moore 379 

6. sinensis, Wlk 379 

7. unifascia, Wik 379 



XX 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



o • Pago 

0. cervina, Moore 379 

9. rara, Swinh 330 

10. cotesi, Swinh 380 

11. divergeus, Moove ... * 380 

7. Natada, Wlk 38O 

1. rufescens, Wlk 380 

2. convergens, Wlk 381 

3. conjuncta, Wlk 381 

4. cephica, Swinh 381 

5. narada, Moore 381 

6. sericea, Hmpsn 382 

7. imicolor, Moore 382 

8. ocellata, Moore 382 

9. velutina, Koll 382 

8. Tetraphleps, Hmpsn 383 

1. breviliuea, Wlk 383 

2. crispa, Swinh 383 

3. nilgirica, Hmpsn 383 

9. Birthama, Wlk 384 

1. junptura, Wlk 384 

2. obliquifascia, Hmijsn. . 384 

10. Coutheyla, Wlk 384 

1. vestita, Wlk 386 

2. propexa, Swinh 385 

3. melanosticta, Hmpsn. . 385 

11. Miresa, mk 385 

1. albipuncta, Herr,- 

Schciff. 386 

2. inornata, Wlk 386 

3. argentifera, Wlk 386 

4. bracteata, Butl 387 

5. decedens, Wlk 387 

6. nivaba, Moore 387 

12. Parasa, Moore 387 

1. lepida, Cram 388 

2. repanda, Wlk 388 

3. dbarma, Moore 388 

4. argentilinea,irm^s?z.. . 389 

5. bilaris, Westio 389 

6. pastoralis, Butl 389 

7. punica, Herr-Schcif. . 389 

8. similis, Feld. , 389 

9. isabella, Moore 390 

10. bicolor, Wlk 390 

11. viridis, Hmpsn 390 

12. albipuncta, Hmpsn. . . 390 

13. berbifera, Wlk 390 

14. dentata, Hmpsn 391 

18. Spatulifimbria, Hmpsn. . . 391 

1. castaneiceps, Hmpsn. . 391 

14. Idonauton, Stoinh 391 

1. apicale, Wlk 392 

15. Chalcocelis, Hmpsn 392 

1. fumifera, Swinh 392 



16. Tnplopbleps, Hmpsn. . . 392 
1. inferma, Swinh 393 

17. Ortliocraspeda, Hmpsn. . . 393 
1. trima, Moore 393 

18. Ceratonema, Hmpsn 393 

1. albifusum, Hmpsn. . . 394 

2. retractatum, Wlk 394 

3. fasciatum, Hmpsn. . . 394 

19. Ara30gyia, Hinpsn 394 

1. spatulata, Hmpsn 395 

2. castanea, Hmpsn 395 

20. Cania, Wlk 395 

1. bilinea, Wlk 395 

2. bandiira, Moore 396 

3. puUigonis, Swinh 396 

21. Altba, Wlk 396 

1. castaneipars, Moore . . 396 

2. nivea, Wlk 397 

3. lacteola, Sioinh 397 

4. adala, Moore 397 

5. riifotessellata, Moore. . 398 

6. contaminata, Hmpsn. . 398 

22. Narosa, Wlk 398 

1. conspersa, Wlk 398 

2. doenia, Moore 399 

23. Belippa, Wlk 399 

1. laleaua, Moore 399 

2. tboracica, Moore .... 400 

3. apicata, Moore 400 

4. lohor, Moore 400 

24. Nagoda, Mooi-e 400 

1. nigricans, Moore .... 401 

25. Mahanta, Moore 401 

1. quadrilinea, Moore . . 401 

Fam. 20. Lasiocampid-j: . . 402 

1. Bbima, Moore 404 

1. undulosa, Wlk 404 

2. Taragama, Moore 404 

1. dorsalis, Wlk 405 

2. siva, Lef. 405 

3. Suana, Wlk 406 

1. concolor, Wlk 406 

4. Lebeda, Wlk 407 

1. nobilis, Wlk 407 

5. Metanastria, Hiibn 408 

1. aconyta, Crajn 408 

2. nan da, Moore 409 

3. latipennis, Wlk 409 

4. fulgens, Moore 409 

6. lidderdalii, Butl 410 

6. ampla, Wlk 410 

7. undans, Wlk 410 

8. hyrtacea, Cram 410 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



xxi 



Page 

9. repanda, Wlk 411 

10. recta, Wlk 411 

11. obliquifascia, -StotmA. . . 412 

6. Argiida, Moore 412 

1. flavovittata, Moore . . 412 

2. bheroba, Moore 413 

3. rosea, Ilmpsn 413 

4. vinata, Moore 413 

5. rectilinea, Hmpsn 414 

6. decurtata, Moore .... 414 

7. albigutta, Wlk 414 

7. Syi'astrena, Moore 414 

1. minor, Moore 416 

8. Bharetta, Moo7'e 415 

1. cinnamomea, Moore . . 415 

2. flammans, Hmpsn. . . 416 

9. Chilena, Wlk 416 

1. similis, Wlk 416 

2. _strigula, Wlk 417 

10. Clisiocampa, Sfeph 417 

1. indica, Wlk 417 

11. Alompra, Moore 417 

1. ferrugiuea, Moore .... 418 

12. Kosala, Moore 418 

1. sanguine a, Moore .... 418 

2. niodnlata, Swinh 419 

3. rufa, Smpsn 419 

4. flavosignata, Moore . . 419 

13. Tricbiura, Steph 420 

1. khasiana, Moore .... 420 

14. Crinocraspeda, Hmpsn. . . 420 
1. torrida, Moore 420 

15. Trabala, Wlk 421 

1. visbnu, Lef. 421 

2. irrorata, Moore 422 

16. Lenodora, Moore 422 

1. vittata, Wlk 423 

2. signata, Moore 423 

3. semihyalina, S^oinh. . . 424 

17. Estigena, Moore 424 

1. pardalis, Wlk 424 

18. Odonestis, Germar 425 

1. laeta, Wlk 426 

2. divisa, Moore 426 

3. castauea, Hmpsn 426 

4. signata, Moore 426 

6. isocyraa, Hmpsn 427 

6. pyriformis, Moore .... 427 

7. piagifera, Wlk 427 

8. lineata, Moore 427 

19. Gastropacha, Ochs 428 

1. undulifera, Wlk 428 

2. sinuata, Mooi'e 428 

3. divaricata, Moore .... 429 



Page 

20. Stenophylloides, Hmpsn. . 429 
1. sikk ima, Moore 429 

Fam.21. Pteeothysanidjb . . 430 

1. Pterothysamis, Wlk 430 

1. laticilia, Wlk 430 

2. atratus, Butl. 431 

3. noblei, Swinh 431 

4. pictus, Butl 431 

Fam. 22. Lymantbiidje .... 432 

1. Varmina, Moore 434 

1. indica, Wlk 435 

2. Lacbana, Moore 436 

1. ladacensis, Moore .... 435 

3. Orgyia, Ochs 436 

1. postica, Wlk 436 

2. yiridescens, Wlk 437 

3. turbata, Sutl 437 

4. Aroa, Wlk 437 

1. maxima, Hmpsn. „ . . . 437 

2. major, Hmpsn 437 

3. plana, Wlk 438 

4. subnotata, Wlk 438 

6. sienna, Hmpsn 438 

6. simplex, Wlk 438 

7. cinnamomea, Moore . . 439 

8. socrus, Geyer 439 

9. pyrrhochroma, Wlk. . . 439 

10. sagi-ara, Sioinh 439 

11. atrella, Hmpsn 439 

12. aurantifascia, Hmpsn. . 440 

13. xerampelina, Sxoinh. . . 440 

5. Lselia, Steph 440 

1. suffiisa, Wlk 441 

2. devestita, Wlk 441 

3. lilacina, Moore 441 

4. rubripennis, Moore . . 441 

6. umbrina, Moore .... 442 
, 6. cardinalis, Hmpsn. . . 442 

7. exclamationis, KoU. . . 442 

8. testacea, Wlk 442 

9. litura, Wlk 443 

10. venosa, Moore 443 

11. atestacea, Hmpsn 443 

12. beterogyna, Hmpsn. . . 443 

6. Pantana, Wlk , 443 

1. bicolor, Wlk 444 

2. visum, Hiibn. 444 

3. terminata, Wlk 444 

4. interjecta, Swinh 445 

5. albifascia, Wlk 445 



xxu 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

7. Thiacidas, Wlk 445 

1 . postica, Wlk 446 

2. vilis, Wlk 446 

8. Cifiina, Wlk 446 

1. locuples, Wlk 446 

2. cervina, Mooi'e 447 

9. Dasychira, Steph 447 

1. complicata, Wlk 447 

2. lineata, Wlk 448 

3. horsfieldi, Saund 448 

4. thwaitesi, Moore .... 449 

5. albescens, Moore .... 449 

6. ciuctata, Moore 449 

7. strigata, Moore 449 

8. varia, Wlk 460 

9. perdix, Moore 450 

10. brunnescens, Moore . . 460 

11. chloroptera, Hmpsn.. . 450 

12. virescens, Moore .... 451 

13. flavimacula, Moore . . 461 

14. olearia, Sivinh 461 

15. bhana, Moore 451 

16. mcerens, Feld. . . 452 

17. mendosa, Hiibn 452 

18. inclusa, Wlk 463 

19. securis, Suhn 453 

10. Mardara, Wlk 454 

1. plagidotata, Wlk 454 

2. iiTorata, Moore 455 

3. caligramma, Wlk 465 

4. albostriata, Hmpm, , . 455 

11. Numenes, Wlk 455 

1. sUetti, Wlk 456 

2. patrana, Moore 456 

12. Pida, Wlk 457 

1. apicalis, Wlk 457 

2. strigipennis, Moore . . 457 

13. Daplasa, Moore 458 

1. variegata, Moore .... 458 

2. irrorata, Moore 458 

14. HeracUla, Moore 458 

1. discivitta, Moore 469 

15. Lymantria, Suhn 459 

1. incerta, Wlk 460 

2. ampla, Wlk 460 

3. obfuscata, Wlk 460 

4. rliodina, Wlk 461 

5. obsoleta, Wlk 461 

6. ascetria, Hiibn 462 

7. concolor, Wlk 462 

8. similis, Moorf^ 462 

9. todara, Moore 463 

10. beatrix, Stoll 463 

11. grisea, Moore 464 

12. mathura, Mooi-e 464 



Page 

13. viola, Smnh 465 

14. grandis, Wlk 465 

15. rosea, Hmpsn 465 

16. lepcha, Moore 465 

17. bivittata, Moore 460 

18. semicincta, Wlk 466 

16. Imaus, Moore 466 

1. mundus, Wlk 467 

2. albus, Moore 467 

17. Himala, Moare 467 

1. argentea, Wlk 468 

18. Gazalina, Wlk 468 

1. apsara, Moore 468 

2. chrysolopha, KolL 469 

3. transversa, Moore .... 469 

19. Topomesa, Wlk 469 

1. subinanis, Wlk 469 

20. Dactylorbynelia, Hmpsn. . 470 
1. pallida, Hmpsn 470 

21. Euproctis, Hiibn 470 

1. negrita, Hmpsn 471 

2. renominata, Hmpsn. . . 471 

3. divisa, Wlk 471 

4. latifascia, Wlk 472 

5. subfasciata, Wlk 472 

6. bimaculata, Wlk 472 

7. lunata, Wlk 472 

8. semisignata, Wlk 473 

9. venosa, Moore 473 

10. rhoda, Swinh 473 

11. inconcisa, Wlk 474 

12. sulpburescens, Moore , 474 

13. fulvipuncta, Hmpsn.. . 474 

14. postincisa, Moore .... 474 
16. semivitta, Moore .... 474 

16. bifascia, Hmpsn 475 

17. flavinata, Wlk 475 

18. varians, Wlk 475 

19. subfiiscula, Hmpsn. . . 476 

20. cervina, 3Ioore 475 

21. anguligera, Butl. .... 476 

22. arenacea, Hmpsn 476 

23. vitellina, Koll 476 

24. digramma, Giier 477 

25. guttata, Wlk 477 

26. fratema, Moore 477 

27. apicalis, Wlk 478 

28. antiphates, Hmpsn. . . 478 

29. costalis, Wlk 478 

30. antica, Wlk 479 

31. plana, Wlk 479 

32. icilia, -SioZ; 479 

33. plagiata, Wlk 480 

34. madana, Moore ...... 480 

35. varia, Wlk 480 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



xxiii 



Page 

36. flavimaculata, Hmpsn. 480 

87. marginata, Moore 480 

38, albopunctata, Hmpsn. . 481 



39. albodentata, Moore . . 481 

40. lativitta, Moore 481 

41. variegata, Hmpsn 481 

42. nigripennis, Empsn. . . 481 

43. abjecta, Sioinh 482 

44. rana, Moore 482 

45. bipartita, Moore 482 

46. sagroides, Hmpsn 482 

47. uniformis, Moore .... 483 

48. luteifascia, Hmpsn. . . 483 

49. scintillans, Wlk 483 

50. basalis, Moore i 483 

51. bipunctapex, Hmpsn. . 484 

62. atomaria, Wlk 484 

53. magna, Swinh 484 

22. Portbesia, Steph 484 

1. xantborrbcea, Koll. . . 485 

2. aurantiaca, Hmpsn. . . 485 

23. Perina, Wlk 486 

1. nuda, Fabr 486 

2. pura, Wlk 486 

24. Leucoma, Steph 487 

1. comma, Hutton 487 

2. submarginata, Wlk. . . 487 

3. flavescens, Moore .... 488 

4. divisa, Wlk 488 

5. diapbana, Moore .... 488 

6. tbyridopbora, Hmpsn. . 488 

7. fenestrata, Hmpsn. . . 489 

8. subvitrea, Wlk 489 

25. Caviria, Wlk 489 

1, cygna, Moore 489 

2, ciara, Wlk 490 

3, sericea, Moore ...... 490 

4, ocbripes, Moore 490 

5, rinaria, Moore 490 

6, costalis, Moore 491 

26. Dendropbleps, Hmpsn. . . 491 
1, semibyalina, Hmpsn. . 491 



Page 

27. Cispia, Wlk. 492 

1, punctifascia, Wlk 492 

2. venosa, Wlk 492 

3, alba, Moore 493 

4, puncticilia, Moore .... 493 

5. flavipes, Hmpsn 493 

28. Eatarda, Moore 493 

1. marmorata, Moore . . 494 

Fam, 23, Hypsid^ 495 

1. Euplocia, Sm^w 495 

1, membliaria, Cram. . . 496 

2. Peridrome, Wlk 496 

1, orbicularis, Wlk 497 

2, subfascia, Wlk 497 

3. Hypsa, Hiibn 498 

1. marmorea, Wlk 498 

2. butleri, Sivinh 499 

3. dominia, Cram 499 

4. monycba, Cram 499 

6. clavata, Butl 500 

6. canaraica, Moore . , , . 500 

7. complana, Wlk 600 

8. tortuosa, Moore 501 

9. beliconia, Linn 501 

10. subsimilis, Wlk 501 

11. egens, Wlk 501 

12. andamana, Moore .... 502 

13. concana, Moo?-e 602 

14. javana. Cram 502 

15. alcipbron, Cram 602 

16. sericea, Moore 503 

17. producta, Butl 503 

18. inops, Wlk 503 

19. privata, Wlk 603 

20. ficus, Jfeftr 604 

4. Digama, Moore 504 

1. burmana, Hmpsn. . . . . 604 

2, bearseyana, Moore . . 505 

3, insulana, Feld. 505 

4. fasciata, Butl. 605 

6. marcbali, Gu6r 505 



LEPIDOPTEEA HETEEOCEEA. 



Bdtterflies and Moths, Lepidopiera, are for the most part easily 
distinguishable from other insects by : — (1) the maxillte being pro- 
duced into a tubular proboscis, which, however, is entirely obsolete 
in some groups, such as the Psychidce, Hepialidce, Phaudince, 
Saturniidce, and some Sesiidce, Pyralidce, &c. ; (2) by the mandibles 
being obsolete except in the low forms {Micropterygidce) and a few 
Tineidce ; (3) by the broad, regularly veined wings, nearly always 
covered with minute scales, which are modified hairs, all the grada- 
tions between the extreme forms of hair and scale being often 
found on the same insect ; the females, however, of Psychids and 
some Lymantriidce, Greometers, Tineas, &c. are wingless. 

The Larvae are cylindrical and worm-like, consisting of a head 
with biting mandibles and eleven somites ; they have three pairs of 
corneous, jointed, thoracic limbs, and from one to five pairs of 
abdominal fleshy prolegs, the legs being but rarely absent, as in 
most Psychidce ; most of the somites have paired, lateral, valved 
stigmata, for conducting the air-supply to the tracheal system, 
which ramifies throughout the body. The Larvae, when full-fed, 
turn to Pupse, in which stage the head and thorax are soldered 
together, as are also the appendages of the head and the limbs. 
During this stage the whole of the tissues of the body undergo 
degeneration into a liquid fatty substance, except the nerve-centres 
and some bodies attached to them known as " imaginal disks," 
which are the rudiments of the future body, wings, and legs, and 
which, by absorbing the products of the degenerated tissues, gradu- 
ally grow and build up the perfect insect till ready to emerge from 
the Pupa skin. 

The Heterocera, or Moths, in their perfect stage, may be known 
from the Bhopcdocera, or Butterflies, by the latter having knobbed 
or dilated antennse, which in all the families except Hesperiidce have 
an abruptly rounded extremity ; in most Hesperiidce the knob of the 
antenna is produced into a hooked tip, gradually fining to a point, 
and this form of antenna is found in some moths, such as the 
Gastniidce and some Sesiidce, but in these famihes the " frenulum " 
or hook for securing the hind wings to the catch or " retinaculum " 
of the fore wing is always present. This is never developed in any 
butterfly, whilst the famihes of moths that have the frenulum 
absent, the Saturniidce, Bombycidce, Hepialidce, Lusiocampidce, some 
OallicLulidcB, &c., never have the antennse knobbed. 8ome other 
famihes of moths, such as the Sphinc/idce, and in a lesser degree the 
Agaristidce, have the antennae gradually thickened into a club; but 
this is very diff'erent from the abrupt knob of butterflies, and in 
these moths again the frenulum is always present. 

The head of a Lepidopterous insect consists of three pieces— the 
occiput or basal piece lying behind the ocelli, the epicranium 

VOL. I. g 



2 



INTRODUCTION. 



behind the antennae and bearing the eyes and ocelli, and the clypeus, 
which constitutes the front of the head and is so distinctive of the 
Lepidoptera by reason of its large size. The labrum is very minute 





Fig. 1. — Head of a Lepidopterous insect from above and from the side. 
(From Packard's Guide, p. 232.) 

at. Antennas. ec. Epicranium. 

c. Clypeus. oc. Occiput. 

e. Eye. m. Mandibles. 

I. Labruni. mx. Proboscis. 

m.p. Maxillary palpi. l.p. Labial palpi. 

0. Ocellus. 

and concealed by the clypeus ; the labium is small, short, and tri- 
angular ; and the mentum nearly obsolete, its place being supphed 
by the maxillae, which form a long grooved proboscis. In some 
important papers by A. Walter*, it is shown that the maxillary 
palpi, whilst obsolete in some species, are from 1- to G-jointed in 
those that possess them ; Micropteryx has the largest number of 
joints, 6 ; in the Tineas and Tortrices the number is very variable ; 
in the Pyrales 4, in the Noctues generally 2, but sometimes 3 ; 
in the Bombyces 1 or 2 ; in BJiopalocera, Sphingidce, and most 
Geometridce, 1. 

Mandibles exist in Micropteryx and a few other Tineidce ; 
M. aruncella and anderscliella have them toothed and capable of 
gnawing, whilst in M. purpurella and scmipurpurella they are not 
denticulated ; in these the maxillae have two palps, whilst in the 
higher Lepidoptera the inner palps are reduced. In the lower 
forms of Micropteryx, which connect the Lepidoptera with tbe lower 
Hymenoptera or Neuroptera, the free palps and typical ligula of the 
lower insects are present, the ligula being formed by the fusion of 
the inner palps into a short tubule open externally, a short hypo- 
pharynx being present on the inner wall. In the higher Lepi- 
doptera the mandibles are rudimentary and consist of horny tubules ; 
the labial palpi are generally well developed and consist usuaUy ot 
three ioints, their shape being of great use in generic distinction ; 
they may, however, be reduced to two joints or to one, or be entirely 
absent in the families in which the mouth-parts are obsolete. 



Jena. Zeit. Nat. xviii. pp. 121-173 (1884), and Jena. Ges. 1885, pp. 19-27. 



INTEODUCTION", 3 

The antennaB are of very different forms, either (1) filiform, 
(2) fusiform, or (3) dilate, and are rarely eimjjle, but usually (1) 
ciliate, (2) with paired bristles at each joint, (3) with both cilia 




1. a. 3 




e. 7. 8. 

Fig. 2. — Antenna3 of moths. 



and bristles, (4) fasciculate, (5) toothed, (6) lamellate, (7) serrate, 
or (8) pectinate, with single or paired branches. 

The thorax is small and consists of three pieces — the prothorax 
bearing the fore legs, the mesothorax the mid legs and fore wings, 
and metathorax the hind legs and hind wings. 

The legs consist of (1) coxa, (2) trochanter, (3) femur, (4) tibia, 




,-ba.r 



,u 



Fig. 3.— Legs of moths. (From Packard's Guide, p. 231.) 



1. Fore leg 
c. Coxa. 
t. Trochanter. 
/. Femur. 
t. Tibia. 
tar. Tarsus. 



Mid leg. 3. Hind leg. 
M. Ungues. 
p. Pulvillus. 
sp. 1. Single anterior spur. 
sp. 2. Paired medial spurs. 
«p. 3. Two pairs of posterior spurs. 

b2 



4 



INTEOBUCTION. 



(5) the 5-jointed tarsus bearing a pair of ungues and the pul villus. 
The fore tibiee bear on their inner side a process which is usually 
small, but large and arising from the femoro-tibial joint in many 
Psychids and a few other forms. The mid tibiaj usually have a 
terminal pair of spurs, the hind tibiaa medial and terminal pairs, 
the inner spur of each pair being often much longer than the outer 
spur. The spurs are as a rule least developed in the higher groups 
of moths, more developed in the lower Noctuidce and Geometridoe, 
longer still in the Microlepidoptera (Tinceidoe, Fyralidoe, &c.), and 
reaching the extreme of development in the PteropJwridce. The 
legs often bear tufts of scales or hairs, developed as scent or sensory 
organs, and the hind legs are often extremely aborted and modified 
as sensory organs, especially in the Hepialidce and in the subfamily 
Acidaliince of the Oeometridce. 

The wings consist of membrane more or less covered with scales 
or hairs, which have their bases inserted in series of pits, and over- 
lap one another like tiles. The membrane is traversed by systems 




a. a 



o.rn. 



Fig. 4. — A. Fore wing ; B. Hind wing. 

c.n. Costal nervure, vein 12 of fore wing, 8 of hind wing. 
s.ii. Subcostal nervure. 
m.n. Median nervure. 

1 a, b, c. Three branches of internal nervure. 
2, 3, 4. Three branches of median nervure. 

5. Lower radial. 

6. Upper radial. 

7. 8, 9, 10, 11. Five subcostal branches of fore wing. 
7. Subco.stal nervure of hind wing. 

of veins, which are tubular structures containing blood-vessels, 

nerves, and tracheae. , , . , 

The fore wing typically has 12 vems— the internal nervure 
with from one to three branches (1 a,b, c), 1 a generally forming a 



cm. Costal margin 

0. m. Outer margin, 

1. m. Inner margin. 
a.a. Apex. 

o.a. Outer angle. 

c. Discoidal cell. 

d. Discocellulars. 



INTEODUOTION. 



5 



fork at the base of 1 6 ; the median nervure with its three branches 
(2, 3, 4) ; the lower radial (5) ; the upper radial (6) ; the subcostal 
with 'five branches (7, 8, 9, 10, 11) ; and the costal nervure (12) ; 
but almost any of these may be absent. 

The hind wing typically has eight veins, the difference from the 
fore wing consisting in the absence of four of the subcostals ; but 
vein 11 is probably represented by the bar between veins 7 and 8, 
present in SpUngidce, Eupterotidce, Zygcenidce, &c. In theHepialidcB 
and Micropterygidce, however, twelve veins are present as in the fore 
wing. Besides the true veins, cross veins, or veinlets between the 
costal nervure and costa, or between vein 1 b and the inner margin 
of the fore wing, may be present in lowly organized forms, or even in 
higher ones. The present form of neuration arose from a system 
of simple longitudinal veins, which by the union of their basal 
portions formed the present branching system ; thus the disco- 
cell alars which close the cell of each wing were formed by the 
junction of the basal portion of two veins, the basal stem being 
then aborted, leaving only an outwardly directed fork of which the 
radials are the extremities ; in the cases where the radials are said 
to arise from the discocellulars, and not from the angles of the 




Fig. 5. 

A. Fore wing of Cossid (slightly diagrammatic). 

c.n. Veinlet in cell, the fork of which forms the discocellulars d. 

s.n. Stalk of veins 9, 10 ; 10 anastomosing with 7 and 8 to form the areola. 

B. Hind wing of Hepialid (slightly diagrammatic). 

7, a, b, c, d. Five subcostal nervules. 

cell, the basal portions of one or two other longitudinal veins have 
also been aborted : the whole process in its various stages is seen 
to perfection in such lowly forms as many Cossids, Psychids, 



G 



INl'UODUCTIOK. 



ZygSBiuds, &c. Thus the neuration of the extinct ancestor of the 
Lepidoptera consisted of at least fifteen simple longitudinal veins to 
each wing, and probably more, as in many groups vein 1 b of the 
hind wing is forked at the base. 

The fore and hind wings of the majority of families of moths 
are united by a " frenulum " arising from the base of the costa of 
the hind wmg and fitting into a "retinaculum " on the fore wing, 



S.'rt. 

1 

Fig. 6. 

1. c? ; 2. A. Fore wing; 

/. Frenulum. s.n 

r. Retinaculum. m.n. 

c.n. Costal nervure. i.n 




B. Hind wing. 

Subcostal nervure. 
Median nervure. 
Internal nervure. 



which consists of a fold from the underside of the costa, a hook 
or tuft of hair arising from the lower side of the costal nervure, or 
a tuft of hair arising from the upper side of the median nervure 
or rarely from the wing-membrane below it. The form of the 
frenulum is of great use in determining sex, as in the males of all 
the forms that possess it it consists of hairs firmly soldered 
together so as to form a single bristle, whilst in nearly all females 
it consists of three or more bristles which are shorter than that of 
the male ; in one female Cossid I have found as many as nine. Also 
in the large majority of moths the retinaculum descends from the 
costal nervure in the male, whilst in the female it ascends from the 
median nervure. 

The abdomen consists of eight or nine segments, the number 
varying in closely allied genera, so that the genital and anal open- 
ings lie usually behind the eighth but sometimes behind the ninth 
segment. The genital armour in the female is very simple, con- 
sisting of two valve-like pieces, whilst in the male it is much more 
complicated, forming long curved hooks for clasping the abdomen 
of the female ; these are said to be of great use for specific and 
but little for generic distinction, but the day is far distant when 
they will have been sufficiently studied to be made use of. 

The tendency in Lepidoptera, as in other groups, is for forms 
from the N.W. Himalayas to be large and pale, from the E. Hima- 
layas and Burma to be large and dark, from the arid parts of 
Continental India to be small and pale, from the moist forests of 
S. India and Ceylon small and dark. Such geographical forms 



IJSTBODUCTION. 



7 



have in many cases deservedly received names ; they wiJl, however, 
be treated as of subspecific value only, partly as giving a truer 
idea oi' their real value, and partly because the evidence is so often 
insufficient to show whether the forms are varieties or geographical 
races, points which must be left to local workers to elucidate. 

The range in space given for many of the species will necessarily 
be found very imperfect ; all the large collections in England have, 
however, been consulted, to make them as correct as possible, and 
all recorded localities are quoted except a few given by the older 
authors which are certainly wrong, those that are considered 
doubtful being indicated by a ? 

Transverse markings are described as bands and lines ; and 
longitudinal as fasciae and streaks. 

Species of which specimens were not- available, and of which 
the descriptions are taken from those in print, are indicated 
by a *. 

" When the sex is not specified the descriptions, measurements, 
&c. apply to both sexes. 

The following references are given : one to the original descrip- 
tion, one to each synonym, one to the best coloured figure, one to 
a description or figure of the larva, and one to Cotes and Swinhoe's 
' Catalogue of the Moths of India,' which must be consulted if 
fuller references are wanted. 

Microscopic slides have been prepared of several genera in each 
family, and the structural details are all taken from drawings 
made by the author, elaborated and worked up by the artist. 
Secondary and sexual characters are treated as of subgeneric value — 
tufts of scales on the legs, modified patches on the wings, fans 
of scent-hairs, and such-like, besides being eminently variable, are 
often present or absent in very closely allied species. The most 
valuable of these characters is the development of pectinations, 
serrations, cilia, &c. on the male antennae ; but if these are used 
for generic distinction, we have the inconvenience of not knowing 
to what genus a species belongs till we have the male. 

The development of secondary sexual characters sometimes dis- 
torts the form to such an extent that the generic and even family 
characters are entirely obliterated, as in the males of Patula and 
Argiva, and the female is then the sex that is of greatest value in 
showing affinity. The contrary often occurs, as in the wingless 
females of Solenobia, Psychidce, Heterogynidce, and some Lyman- 
triidce and Geometridce, these being cases of degradation sometimes 
in connection with a parthenogenetic mode of reproduction. 

Starting from Micropteryx with its biting mouth-parts us the 
nearest ally to the theoretical ancestor {x) of the Lepidoptera, we 
may construct some such genetic tree as follows : — 



8 



INTEODUCTION, 



Epicopiidffi. 



SaturniidtB. 
CeratocampidaB. 
Brahmicidea. 



Uraniide. 



GeometridiE. Epiplemidae. 




I 

Bombycidae. 



Sphingidoi. 



Notodontidee. 



(Ci/phanta.) 



Cymatophoridse. 



Agaristidse. 



Noctuidee Trifldaj. 



Lymantriidae. 



Noctuidae Quadrifldse. 



PterothysanidsB. 



Hypeniiue. 



Alncitidee. 



PterophoridsB. 




Limacodidae. Endromiidae. 



I 



Lasiocampidae. 



, Castniidae. 
Chalcosiinae. 



Nolinae. 



TortriciniB. 



Syntomidse. 

I 

Zygaenidse. 
PhaudinoB. 



Arbelidae. 

CoasidcB. Heterogynidae. 

I I 

f^AlavoTM.) PsyehidaB. 



.Tineidae. 



(Solenohia.) 

HepialidaB. 



MicropterygidaB. 



INTEODUCTIOHr, 



9 



Key to the Families of Moths. 

I. Antennfe knobbed or dilated ; frenulum 

argent RHOPALOCERA. 

II. Antenn£e rarely knobbed ; frenulum gene- (Butterflies.) 

rally present, and always in the forms 

that have knobbed antennae HETEROCERA. 

A. Fore wing with vein 5 from the centre (Moths.) 
of discocellulars, or nearer 6 than 4. 

a. Frenulum rudimentary 27. Epicopiidae. 

b. Frenulum absent. 

a'. Proboscis present ; legs with spurs. 
Hind wing with vein 8 remote 
from 7. 

a^. Fore wing with veins 6 and 7 

stalked 28. Uraniidae. 

h^. Fore wing with veins 6 and 7 

not stalked * Ceratocampidae. 

V^. Hind wing with vein 8 nearly 

touching 7 after end of cell 2. Brahmaeidae. 

b'. Proboscis absent; legs without 
spurs. 

a^. Hind wing with one internal 

vein 1. Saturniidae. 

b^. Hind wing with two or three 

internal veins 3. Bombycidae. 

c. Frenulum present. 

Antennae fusiform 6. Sphingidae. 

5'. Antennae filiform. 

a^. Proboscis absent 4. Eupterotidae. 

h^. Proboscis present. 

a^. Hind wing with vein 8 curved 
and almost touching 7 after 

end of cell ; vein 1 a reaching I • 

anal angle 7. Cymatophoridae. /--'T^ 

Hind wing with vein 8 remote 

from 7 after end of cell, 
a*. Tarsi short as tibiae and i , ^ 

hairy : stoutly built moths . 6. Notodontidae f- r" 
b^. Tarsi long and naked: slightly 
built moths. 
a^. Fore wing with vein 7 
remote from 8, and gene- 
rally stalked with 6 . . . . 29. Epiplemidae. 
¥. Fore wing with vein 7 
given off from 8 ; hind 
wing with vein 1 a short 
or absent 30. Geometridae 



* Not known to occur in India. 

t The genus Cyphanta has vein 5 of the fore wing from lower angle of ceU, 
and may be a connecting link with the Noctuidm. 

X Three genera of Geometridm which do not occur in India have vein 8 of 
the hind wing curved, and nearly touching 7 after end of cell, but are easily 
distinguished from the CymatophoridcB by the shortness of vein 1 a. In two 
or three ancestral or distorted genera vein 7 of the fore wing is stalked with 6 ; 
and in several genera the frenu lum is absent. 



10 



INTEODUCTION. 



B. Fore wing with vein 6 from lower angle 
of cell or nearer 4 than 0. 
a. Hind wing with more than 8 veins. 
a'. Proboscis absent; no mandibles nor 



ligula 16. Hepialidae. 

b'. Mandibles, free palps, and ligula 

present * Micropterygidae, 

b. Hind wing with not more than 8 veins. 
a'. Hind wing witb vein 8 remote from 
7 after origin of veins 6 and 7. 
a-. Frenulum absent. 

a*. Hind wing with one internal 
vein ; vein 8 with a precostal 

spur 21. Pterothysanidae. 



b^. Hind wing with two internal 
veins. 

a*. Hind wing with a bar be- 
tween veins 7 and 8 near the 
base ; vein 1 a to middle of 



inner margin * Endromiidae. 

6*. Hind wing with no bar be- 
tween veins 7 and 8 ; vein 

1 a to anal angle 20. Lasiocampidae. 

c^. Hind wing with three internal 

veins 14. Arbelidae. 

b^. Frenulum present. 

u^. Hind wing with vein 8 aborted. 10. S3mtomidae. 
b^. Hind wing with vein 8 present. 

a*. Antennae knobbed * Castniidae. 



ft*. Antennas filiform, or rarely 
dilated. 
Fore wing with vein 1 c 
present. 
Hind wing with vein 8 
free from the base or 
connected with 7 by a 
bar. 

a'. Proboscis present . . 11. Zygaenidae t- 
b''. Proboscis absent. 
a^. Palpi rarely absent ; 
2 winged; larv89 
wood-borers .... 13. Cossidae. 
^;^ Palpi absent ; $ ap- 
terous. 
a^. 2 rarely with 
legs ; $ and 
larva3 case- 
dwellers 12. Psychidae. 

b\ 2 and larvEe free. * Heterogynidae. 
6*. Hind wing with vein 8 

anastomosing shortly . 
•with 7 19. Limacodidae. 



* Not known to occur in India. , . 

t In Ibo degraded subfamily PhandiiKB the mouth-par s »re absent ond m 
Himantopterm there is no frenulum ; in Anomceotes vem 1 c of the iore mng is 
absent 



INTRODUOTION. 



11 



6\ Fore wing with vein 1 c 
absent. 

a". Hind wing- with vein 8 

rising out of 7 24. Arctiidae *. 

b'^. Hind wing with vein 8 
connected with 7 by a 
bar, or touching it near 
middle of cell. 
a'. Palpi with the third 
joint naked and 
reaching far above 
vertex of head ; pro- 
boscis present 23. H57psidaB. 

¥. Palpi not reaching 
above vertex of head ; 
proboscis absent or 

very minute 22. Lymantriidae t. 

c*. Hind wing with vein 8 
anastomosing shortly 
with 7 near the base ; 
proboscis well deve- 
loped. 

a~. Antennae more or less 

dilated 25. Agaxistidae. 

b\ Antennae filiform 26. Noctuidae D cr^ :i. ■ f^JJ^ 

b'. Hind wing with vein 8 curved and 
nearly or quite touching vein 7, or 
anastomosing with it after origin 
of veins 6 and 7. 
a^. Hind wing with vein 1 c absent. 
ci^. Hind-wing vein 8 with a pre- 
costal spur 16. Callidulidae. 

¥. Hind-wing vein 8 with no pre- 
costal spur, 
a*. Hind wing with vein 1 a 

absent or very short 17. Drepanulidae. 

i*. Hind wing with vein 1 a 
almost or quite reaching 

anal angle 18. Th37rididaB. 

6^. Hind wing with vein 1 c present. 31. Pyralidae §. 
C. Fore wing with veins 4 to 11 arising 
from the cell at almost even distances 
apart. 

a. Wings not divided into plumes. 

a'. Hind wing with vein 8 coincident 

with 7 8. Sesiidae. 



In a iewArctiiTKB vein 8 of the hind wing is constructed as in l^octuidm, 
but they can be discriminated by the bar form of the retinaculum in (S ■ for 
Lithosimce, Nycteolinm, and NolincB, see notes to the subfamilies. 

t In the ancestral genus Ratarda the frenulum is absent. 

t A few genera of NoctuidcB have the proboscis aborted. 

§ In a few lowly Pyralida the veins of the fore wing are given off at even 
distances from the cell, but they can be discriminated by the structure of vein 
o 01 the hind wings. 



12 



SATURNIIDjE. 



6'. Hind wing with vein 8 free. 
a^. Fore wing with vein 1 i simple or 

with a very minute fork at base 9. Tinaegeriidae 
b-. Fore-wing vein 1 a forming a 

large fork with 1 h at base .... 32. Tineidae. 
h. Wings divided into plumes. 

a'. Fore wing divided into at most two ; 

hind wing into three plumes .... 33. 
v. Fore wing and hind wing each 

divided into three plumes. ....... 34. 



^ 



Pterophoridae. 
Alucitidse. 



Family SATURNIIDiE. 

Large crepuscular-flying moths. Proboscis absent; palpi 
minute. Antennae bipectinatetl in both sexes, the branches long 
in c? 5 longest at middle and diminishing to base and apex. Legs 
short, hairy, and ^vithout spurs. Fore wing with vein 1 h forked 
at base ; 1 c absent ; the discocellulars (when present) emitted 
from vein 5, which is stalked with 6 ; veins 10 and 11 absent. 
Hind wing without a fi'enulum ; a precostal vein slightly deve- 
loped : the discocellulars emitted from vein 5, which is stalked 
with 6 ; one internal vein. 

Larvce smooth, with spiniferous tubercles, dorsal humps, long 
fleshy spinous processes, or small warts ; and forming cocoons, 
those produced by several of the species giving the Tussur silks of 
commerce. 




'Eis 'J.—Larraof AnthercBapaphia. |. (From Moore, Lep. 
Cejl. ii, pi. 125, fig. 1 b.) 

Key to the Genera. 

a Hind wing with anal angle produced into a 

long tail! 1. ACTiAS,p.l3. 

h. Hind wing with anal angle not produced mto 

a'. The'cell of both wings open 2. Attacus, p. 15. 

b'. The cell of both wings closed. 

a"". Veins 6 and 6 of both wings given oft tar 
from base. 



ACTIAS. 



13 



Fore wing with costa incurved near 
base, excurved towards apex ; the 
the outer margin highly excised . . 
Fore wing with the costa evenly 

curved ; outer margin less excised, 
j'. Fore wing with apex rounded. 



3. Anthek^a, p. 18. 



TibijB naked 4. 

i'. Tibiae hairy 5. 

6'. Fore wing with apex acute 6. 

V^. Veins 5 and 6 of both wings given off 



Satuknia, p. 21. 
LoEPA, p. 25. 
iSai.assa, p. 26. 



much nearer the base 7. Cricula, p. 28. 



Genus ACTIAS. 

Actias, Leach, Zool. Misc. ii, p. 26 (1815). 

Trop^a, Hiibn. Verz. p. 152 (1818). 

Plectropteron, Hutton, Trans. Ent. Soc. v, p. 45 (1847). 

Argema, Wallengr. Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Ak. 1868, p. 140. 

Type, A. luna, Linn., from N. America. 

Range. N. America ; Natal ; Japan ; China ; throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Andamans. 

Fore wing with the apex produced and acute. Hind wing with 
the anal angle produced into a long tail, veins 2, 3, 4 being curved 
and runuing to the tip of the tail. 



1. Actias selene, Huhn. Samml exot. Schmett. i. pi. 172, fig. 3; 
C. 8f 8. no. 1634; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. pi. 126, figs. 1, la (larva). 
Plectropteron dianse, Hutt. A. M. N. H. xvii, 1846, p. 60. 




orax 



14 



SATUllNIID.l!;. 



with a dark pink band ; legs pink. Eore wing very pale green, 
white at base ; a dark pink costal fascia, darkest along subcostal 
nervure ; an outwardly-oblique pale yellow antemedial line ; two 
inwardly-oblique slightly curved submai'ginal lines ; a pale yellow 
marginal band ; a dark red-brown lunule at end of cell, with a 
grey line on it, bounding inwardly a round ochreous spot with 
pinkish centre. Hind wing similar to the fore wing ; the central 
portion of the tail pinkish. 

2 . The outer margin less excised and waved ; the yellow mark- 
ings less developed ; the antemedial line of fore wing nearer the 
base, and that on hind wing absent ; the tail less pink. 

Larva apple-green ; paired dorsal and lateral yellow spinous 
tubercles on each somite except the last ; dorsal yellow hairs ; 
lateral and ventral black hairs ; the pad to anal claspers rufous. 

Cocoon pale brown and oval. 

Hah. China ; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. Exp., S 
132-166, $ 140-182 mniiin. 



2. Actias msenas, Douhl. A. M. N. H. xix, 1847, p. 95, pi. 7, fig. 1 ; 

a ^ S. no. 1533. 

Saturnia leto, Doubl. Proc. lint. Sac. 1847, p. li, pi. 15 ; C. 8r S. 
no. 1532. 

S . Differs from selene in being pale yellow ; the collar pink ; 
the thorax and abdomen blotched with pink above. Fore wing 
pink at base ; a broad pinkish antemedial band with waved edges 
enclosing a yellow spot below the subcostal nervure ; the lunule 
and ochreous mark in the form of a crescent from the costal band 
to the lower angle of cell, the lunule being reversed and pointing 
inwards ; two waved pinkish postmedial diffused Unes, the outer 
hne double, with a costal streak from it to the apex ; the lower 
half of the outer area pinkish : no marginal pink line. Hind wmg 
with the antemedial band narrower than on fore wmg ; a waved 
postmedial line ; the tail longer, broader, and all pmk except the 
spatulate end. 

9 Without the pink blotches on thorax and abdomen ; wings 
without the broad pink markings ; fore wing with a nearly erect 
antemediaUine; a waved postmedial line which may be obsole- 
scent ; both wings with a marginal pink hne ; tail broad and only 

pink at middle. o,-, / t> c 

Hah. Sikhim; Bhutan; Khasi Hills ; Sibsagar ; Burma, i^xp., 

S 158, $ 172 millim. 

3. Actias ignescens, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 602 -,0.^8. no. 1581. 

^ Differs from mcenas in the basal pink patch of the fore \png 
ioiningthe postmedial band, the pink covering ^^^^ ^^^ole of the 
fore wing except a patch near the base, one before the Imiule, one 
on the costa above it, one below the apex and ^ «pot between 
veins 2 and 3. Hind wing with the pinkish subbasal band broader 



AOTIAS. — A TTACUS . 



15 



than in mcenas, with its outer edge more irregular ; the whole tail 
pinkish, except the tip. 

Hah. Andamans. Exp. 164 millim. 



Genus ATTACUS. 
Attacus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, pt. 2, p. 808 (1766). 
Type, A. atlas, Linn. 

Bange. Mexico; S.America; Africa; Japan; China; throughout 
India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Malacca ; Java. 

Tore wing with the apex produced and rounded ; the outer 
margin excised. Hind wing rounded. Cell of both wings open. 



4. Attacus atlas, Linn. Stjst. Nat. i, pt. 2, p. 808 ; C. ^ S. no. 1535 ; 
Cram. Pap. Exot. iv, pi. 381, fig. C; Moore, Cat. E. I. C. pi. xx, 
figs. 2, 2 a (larva). 
Saturnia silhetica, Heifer, J. A. S. B. vi, p. 41 ; C. ^ S. no. 1542. 
Attacus taprobanis, 3ioore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 124, pi. 127, figs. 1, la; 
C. ^ S. no. 1543. ^ o » . 

Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown ; the basal segment and 
abdomen pale, and each segment with a pale fringe ; legs brown. 
Fore wing with the costa brown ; the basal area brown and red- 
brown edged by red, pale, and black Unes, curved from the costa 




Fig. 'i.— Attacus atlas, <S. ^. 



to vein 2, then oblique to near base of inner margin ; medial area 
red-brown ; a large triangular hyahne spot at end of ceU with a 
black edge ; one or two hyaline streaks above it touching the post- 
medial hue which IS black, pale, and red, and curved inwards from 
the subcostal to vein 2, then outwards to inner margin ; outer 



16 



BATUBNIID^. 



area shading from pink through purplish fuscous to tawny brown ; 
apicill area yellow shading to pink ; the membrane below the eosta 
crimped and suffused outwardly with blue-grey and ending in a 
black spot ; a dark red streak below vein 8 ; a yellow-brown 
marginsil band with a highly waved black line on it. Hind wing 
similar to fore wing ; the antemedial line nearly straight ; no 
streak above the hyaline triangular mark; the postmedial line 
angled to\A ards inner margin but not curved ; apical area not 
variegated ; a series of black spots within the black submarginal 
line which is less waved. 

Some specimens are considerably darker than others ; the form 
taprohanis from Ceylon has the hyaline spots small and narrow ; 
the hyaline streak of the fore wing absent. 

Larva pale green with brownish speckles ; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
somites with dorsal prominences ; 4th to 11th somites with 
long fleshy dorsal and subdorsal blue-green spines projecting back- 
wards ; a series of lateral blue-black spines on 1st to 5th somites ; 
a similar subdorsal series from 1st to 11th somites, both these 
series projecting forwards ; an oval red ring on anal somite above 
the claspers. 

Cocoon pale greyish brown and pyriform. 

Hah. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java. Ex'p., S 
224, $ 250 millim. 

5. Attacus edwardsi, White, P. Z. 8. 1859, p. 115, pi. 57 ; C.^ S. 

no. 1538. 

Differs from atlas in the legs being fringed with white ; the 
thorax and abdomen darker ; the first segment of abdomen white ; 
paired dorsal white segmental streaks from the third segment to 
extremity, which is white ; two lateral and tw'o ventral white 
lines. Fore wing much darker, the antemedial line inwardly 
black, outwardly white; the triangidar hyaline spot edged 
with yellow-brown, and not touching the postmedial line; no 
hyaline streak ; the postmedial line white and broader ; the sub- 
apical streak black and short; a prominent waved white line 
between it and the black spot at end of the crimped membrane ; 
the marginal band yellow within the waved black line, w^hich is 
broader. Hind wing with similar differences from atlas; the 
black spots on the marginal band much larger. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Shillong. Eocp. 250 millim. 

6. Attacus cyntMa, Brwy, Exot. Ins. 11, pi. 6, fig. 2; C. S. 

no. 1537; Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. pi. 20, figs. 3, 3«. 
Attacus vesta, Wlk. Cat. xxxU, p. 525 ; C. ^ S. no. 1644. 
Attacus cannlngii, Wlk. Cat. xxxll, p. 525 ; C. 6,- S. no. 1536. 
Attacus walkerl, Feld. Wien. ent. Man. vl, p. 34. 
Attacus piyerl, Butl. III. Ret. ill, p. 11, pi. 43, fig. 5. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown ; collar and metathorax 
fringed 'with white; abdomen with the 1st segment white; a 



A.TTACUS. 



17 



dorsal white line with, segmental white tufts on each side of it ; a 
series of lateral white tufts ; paired sublateral and ventral white 
lines. Wings pale yellowish brown. Eore wing with a white 
antemedial line, outwardly oblique from the costa to vein 2, then 
bent back to the base of inner margin ; a narrow hyaline lunule 
on the discocellulars, inwardly edged with fuscous, outwardly with 
vellow ; a postmedial fuscous, white, piuk, and pinkish-white 
"band, generally curved and angled at the luuule, sometimes nearly 
straight ; outer area irrorated with fuscous ; apical area suffused 
with pink ; a white and dark oeellated mark near the margin 
between veins 7 and 8, with a waved white line from it to the 
costa ; outer margin pale brown ; a dark submarginal line den- 
tated between veins 6 and 7. Hind wing similar, the antemedial 
line oblique and not angled ; some fuscous streaks on the marginal 
band inside the line. 

Typical cynthia from Java is the palest form, with the pinkish- 
white suffusion beyond the postmedial band of both wings, 
which is nearly straight, diffused along the veins ; wcdkeri=can- 
ningii=vesta from China and India is darker fulvous, with the 
postmedial band curved and the suffusion beyond more restricted ; 
while pryen from Japan is again considerably darker. This is the 
" Arrundi" or "Eria" Moth of silk-culture. 

Larva pale green or whitish, with one dorsal and two lateral 
pairs of darker spines. 

Cocoon pale brown. 

Hab. Japan ; China ; Himalayas ; Assam ; Cachar ; Java ; and 
? Nilgiris. Exy., ^ 136, $ 144 miHim. 



7. AttaCUS ricini, Boisd. Ann. Sac. Ent. I): 1854, p. 755 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 1541 ; Moore, Wardle's Wild Silks, pi. 8, figs. 1, 2. 
Attacus lunula, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1221. 

Attacus gueriiii, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1859, p. 269 ; C. 8; S. no. 1539. 
Attacus obscuriis, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1879, p. 5 ; C. ^ S. no 1540. 
Saturnia iole, Wesiw. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 144 ; C. ^' S. no. 1548*. 

Differs from cynthia in the abdomen having segmental bands of 
white hair above instead of tufts ; the colour usually darker. 
Yore M'ing with the antemedial line more angled and generally 
joining the postmedial band ; the lunule much shorter; the post- 
medial band of both wings with fuscous replacing the pink. 

The palest form is ricini ; obscurus from Cachar is a large dark 
form ; guerini a small dark form ; iole a sport with the markings 
faded, the postmedial band of both wings whitish, broad, and 
diffused. 

Bab. China ; Sikbim ; Assam ; ? Ceylon Kvp., d 100-108, $ 
116 milHm. 



VOL. I. 



c 



18 



Genus ANTHERiEA. 
Antherasa, Hiibn. Verz. p. 152 (1818). 
Type, A. pap?iia, Linn. 

Range. Africa ; Japan ; China ; Philippines ; throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma; Andamans ; Java. 

Fore wing with the costa incurved near base, excurved towards 
apex, which is rounded ; outer margin highly excised. Hind wiug 
rounded ; cell of both wings closed. 

8. Antherjea roylei, Moore, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 256, pi. 64, fig. 1 ; 

C. ^ S. no. 1567. 

(5 . Antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown ; collar, 
prothorax, and basal half of costa of fore wing pinkish brown, pow- 
dered with grey. Tore wing pale greenish brown ; a pale and red 
subbasal line from median uervure to inner margin ; a similar line 
across the middle of cell ; an almost obsolete postmedial line, on 
which is placed a round hyaline spot on the discocellulars sur- 
rounded by an ocellus, which is greenish with a white and pink 
lunule on the inner side, and a yellow and black lunule on the 
outer ; a piuk and pale submarginal line expanding into a grey 
patch at apex ; a slight yellow marginal line. Hind wing similar 
to the fore wing, except that there is a single antemedial angulated 
line ; the submarginal line further from the base, and not reaching 
the costa. 

2 usually with a more ochreous tinge. 

Larva : head pinkish brown with dark dots ; somites bright 
apple-green ; 1st somite with a blue lateral spot ; 2ud to 11 th 
with paired dorsal humps crowned with spinous tubercles : 2nd 
and 3rd somites with the apical tubercle greenish yellow and three 
lateral blue spots ; a lateral yellow band from 4th somite expand- 
ing on anal somite ; 4th and 5th somites with the apical tubercle 
silver, and a silver spot on band ; 6th to 10th somites with the 
apical tubercles blue ; 6th and 7th with a silver spot on band ; 
8th, 9th, and 10th with a blue spot on band. Food-plant 
" Muhowah," "oak," and " birch." 

Cocoon double- walled and thin. 

Hah. Mussobrie ; Sikhim ; Kangra ; Khasi Hills. ExiJ., J 124- 
160, $ 190 millim. 

9. Anthersea paphia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 809, ^ o « 
Anthersea mylitta, Drury, Exot. Ins. u, pi. 5, fig. 1; C. ^- 

AntherL sivalica, Moore, WardUsWildSillcs, p. 7 ; C. ^ -S. no 1557. 
Anther^a cingalesa, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. u, p. 122, pi. 12o, hgs. 1, 

la b (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 1560. 
Artheraja nebiilosa, Button, Moore, Wardle's Wild Silks, p. 5. 
t nther^Ba iv^i^rn^, Moore, P Z S. 1888, p 402 ; C. ^- S no. Io60 a. 
Anther^a pulchra, fasciata, olivescens, ochripicta, and versicolor, 

Moore, A. M. N. H. (6) ix, pp. 448-450. 



ANTHEKJEA. 



19 



(S . Differs from roylei in the colour being reddish or yellowish ; 
the costal brown and grey fascia of fore wing reaching the apex ; 
the hyaline and ocellated spots much larger, the inner lunule and 




Fig. 10. — Anther ma jpaphia, cS . i- 



postniedial line bright pink ; the submarginal line of the hind wing 
much nearer the margin ; no marginal yellow line. 

$ . Either pinkish brown or bright yellowish fawn ; the hyaline 
and ocellated spots usually larger than in the male. 

The form mylitta is the most yellow ; pajjhia is pale brownish 
yellow; «€6mZos« greenish brown, clouded with fuscous as far as 
the postmedial line ; while cingalesa, from Ceylon, is a dark 
brownish-yellow form. 

This is the " Tussur Moth " of the silk-industry. 

Larva green, with paired dorsal series of yellow humps ; lateral 
purple-bordered white lunulate spots on 5th and 6th somites ; a 
lateral yellow line from 7th somite ending in a dilated brown baud 
on anal somite ; spiracles yellow. 

Cocoon brownish grey, hard, oval, and attached by a silken 
peduncle. 

Hah. China ; throughout India and Ceylon. Exp.., S 140-174, 
$ 150-190 millim. 

10. Antheraea knyvetti, n. sp. 

Eeddish or olive yellow in colour, as in jpaphia; the costal 
fascia of fore wing only extending along two-thirds of the costa ; 
the ocelli small, each hyaline spot usually with a dark lunule on its 
inner edge; the marginal line yellow; the submarginal line of 
hind wing further from the margin, as in roijlei. 

Differs from roylei in its reddish-yellow colour, in the ante- 
medial line of the hind wing being generally further from the 
base and touching the ocellus. 

Larva differs from roylei in having sepia streaks on the head ; 
two silver spots only on the lateral band on 4th and 5th somites ; 

c2 



20 



the apical tubercles on 2nd and 3rd somites blue instead of green. 
Pood-phint " wild cherry " and " birch." 

Cocoon small, hard, dark, and pedunculated. 

Hab. Sikhim (Knyvett). Exj). 156 millim. Types in colls. 
Ivnyvett and Elwes. 



11. Antheraea helferi, Moore, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 257, pi. 64, fij?. 2; 
C. ^- S. no. 1562. ^ ^ > o , 

c? . Differs from Icnyvettl in there being a black blotch on the 
upperside of the ocellus of the hind Aving, continued as a line 
round the outer edge; a conspicuous waved dark postmedial line 
M-hich is curved inwards round the ocellus, and joins the ante- 
niedial line below the costa; the hyaline centres of the ocelli are 
almost or quite absent on both wings ; the colour varies from 
pinkish to ochreous. Underside with the antemedial line straight. 

$ . Yellowish, with the postmedial line of the hind wing but 
slightly waved. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp, 150 millim. 



12. Antheraea assama, Westiv. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 41, pi 20. &z 2 • 
C. ^ S. no. 1559. ' i' > b , 

? Saturnia perotteti, Guer. Mag. Zool. 1843, pi. 123 ; C.SfS. no. 1566. 
Antheraea mesankooria, Moore, Wardle's Wild Silks, p. 5 : C. & S. 
no. 15G3. 

c? . Differs from helferi in the colour being ochreous brown to 
dark chestnut-brown ; the ocellus of the fore ^dng entirely yellow- 
brown. Hind wing, with the inner part of the ocellus dark, the 
outer part yellow-brown ; the postmedial line not waved nor so 
much curved, nor joining the antemedial hne. 

$ . The submarginal line of both wings grey. 

This is the " Muga " of silk-culture. 

Larva bright yellow or dark green, with a brown and yellow 
streak at the sides ; the spiracles black ; dorsal spinous tubercles 
red ; head and legs brown ; claspers green, the anal pair with a 
black lateral ring. 

The form perotteti, from Pondicherry, as figured by Guerin, 
differs in having the two submarginal lines of each wing waved. 

Cocoon brown and non-pedunculate. 

Hah. Himalayas from Kangra to Assam, Pondicherry. Exp. 
150-170 millim. 



13. Antheraea andamana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 602 ; C. 8,- S. 
no. 1668. 

2 . Colour as in roylei. Pore wing with the dark postmedial 
line prominent ; the submarginal line dark, with a waved line 



ANTHBR^A. — SATURNIA. 

before it. Hind wing with three waved Hnes, one at the ocellus, 
two postmedial. 

Hah. Andamans, Exp. 186 millim. 

14. Antheraea frithi, Moore, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 256, pi. 65, fig. 1 ; 
C. 8f S. no. 1561. 

S . Differs from all the preceding species in being brown or 
pink suffused with yellow ; a yellow patch in cell of fore wing, and 
a larger patch on costa before apex ; two postmedial highly 
luniilate lines ; the ocelli as in paphia. Underside with the 
anteraedial line waved. 

$ . Brownish. 

Hob. Sikhim ; Bhutan. Exp., S 134-150, $ 170 millim. 



Genus SATUENIA. 

Satumia, Schrank, Faun. Boica, ii, pt. 2, p. 149 (1802). 

Pavonia, Hiihn. Verz. p. 157 (1818). 

Rinaca, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1274 (1855). 

Caligula, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 684 (non descr.). 

Neoris, Moore, Tram. Ent. Soc. (3) i, p. 321 (1862-64). 

Type, ;S^. pini, Schr., from Europe. 

Range. Africa ; Palsearctic region ; Himalayas ; Assam. 

Fore wing with the costa evenly arched; the apex rounded; 
the outer margin but slightly excised. Hind wing rounded. 
Tarsi naked. 

Sect. I. Palpi of moderate size ; branches of antennas in S long. 

15. Satnrnia zxileika, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xix, 1848, p. 132, pi. xi, 
fig. 5 ; C.^S. no. 1574. 

c? . Head and thorax dark red-brown ; collar white ; meta- 
thorax fringed with white ; abdomen brown and grey, with a series 
of lateral crimson spots and two paired series of black ventral 
streaks. Fore wing grey, irrorated with brown scales, and suffused 
with pink towards the apex ; marginal area olive-brown ; a dark 
brown patch at base of inner margin, followed by a deep crimson 
band from median nervure to inner margin, with a dark brown 
outer edge continued upwards across the cell ; a narrow hyaline 
streak at end of cell surrounded by pinkish, grey, and crimson 
lines ; three highly dentate postmedial lines bent inwards below 
the ocellus at vein 2 ; a black triangular patch on the costa before 
the apex, which is pale buff; two submarginal waved black lines. 
Hind wing similar, without the dark patch and crimson band at 
base ; an antemedial curved line ; the ocellus broader ; the disk 
more suffused with pink; the postmedial lines waved aud not 
bent inwards. 



22 



SA-TURNIIDjE. 



In Naga specimens the ocelli of both wings are more rounded. 
Jiah. Sikhim; Naga Hills, ^ap. 136 millim. 




Fig. 11. — Satumia ztileika, (S . | 



16. Saturnia thibeta, Weshv. P. Z. S. 1853, p. 166 ; C. 8f S. no. 1572. 
Rinaca extensa, Butl. III. Set. \, p. 61, pi. 94, fig. 2; C. ^ S. no. 1573. 

Differs from zuleika in being nearly uniform ochreous, varied 
slightly with grey and brown ; the ocellus rounder, with a narrow 
fawn ring. 

Hab. Tibet; Sikhim, 7000 feet ; Assam. Exxo. 124-146 miUim. 

17. Saturnia anna, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 818 ; C. ^ S. no. 1545. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen brown ; collar yellow. Fore wing 
pale yellow, irrorated with black scales ; an indistinct basal 
black patch and antemedial line ; the ocellus large and round, 
red-brown ringed with black, and containing a white lunule and 
black centre with a white streak on it; the apical patch reddish 
brown ; a submarginal brown line with two series of yellow spots 
beyond it. Hind wing with the disk slightly suffused with pink; 
the ocellus as on fore wing except that the outer ring is red- 
brown with crimson inside it; three postmedial highly dentate 
lines on both -wdngs. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 110-120 millim. 

Sect. II. Palpi minute : branches of antennae in J short. 

18. Saturnia grotei, Moo7-e, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 265, pi. 65, fig. 2 ; C. <$- 

S. no. 1547. 

Differs from anna in the ground-colour of the wings being 
brown. Fore wing with the white lunule on the ocellus smaller, 
and no white streak on the black centre ; the submarginal line 



23 

SATURNIA. 

postmedial waved lines. , gQ 

^a6. Himalayas, from Simla to Sikhim ; Tibet. Kvp., 6 ou, 

5 88 millim. 

19 Saturnia lindia, Moore, Trans. EnL Soc. 3rd ser. ii, p. 424, pi. 22, 

' S.tSJi Lti^gSrl't, P,Z. « 1888, p. 402; Bntl. lU. Set. 
vii, pi. 124, figs. 2, 3 ; C. ^ S. no. 1546 a. 

A Differs from anna in the collar and ground-colour being 
erev " Fore wing : the ocellus with no crimson ; the postmedial 
lines waved, not highly dentate, no yellow spots. Hmd wmg : 
the ocellus with crimson only on inner side; two waved post- 
medial lines. 

Hab. Kulu. Exp. 86 milUm. 

20. Saturnia pyretorum, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 49, pi. 24, fig. 2 ; 

C. 8c S. no. 1650. . .^o ^ e cy 

Saturnia cidosa, Moore, Tram. Ent. Soc. (3) u, p. 423 ; t. ^ ^. 

no. 1646. 

S . Differs from lindia in the base of the fore wing being mostly 
dark ; the medial area whitish ; the postmedial area heavily suf- 
fused with fuscous so as almost entirely to obliterate the dentate 
lines; a white submargiual line; outer margin fuscous; ocellus 
dark, with a white streak and ringed with yellow and black ; two 
deep red subapical patches. Hind wing similar; the whitish 
medial area very broad; the waved lines entirely obsolete; an 
obsolescent red subapical patch. 

$ . With a large tuft of hair at end of abdomen. 

S. boisduvali, Ersch., from Irkutsk, appears only to differ in 
having a straighter postmedial line to fore wing. 

Hab. China ; Sikhim. Exp. 103 millim. 

21. Saturnia simla, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 41, pi. 20, fig. 1 ; C.8f S. 

no. 1671. 

Head and thorax pale chestnut ; collar grey ; metatborax fringed 
with grey ; abdomen with the first segment chestnut, the others 
greyish brown. Fore wing : costa grey ; basal area chestnut, with 
a dark red line on its outer edge, angled at median nervure, but 
sometimes almost straight ; an oblique chestnut line from the costa 
before apex nearly meeting the red line on inner margin, the space 
between the two lines pinkish grey ; the area outside the oblique 
line chestnut ; margin brown ; an ocellus consisting of a hyaline 
streak on a dark brown ground surrounded by pale brown, edged 
inwardly by black, white, and red, outwardly by black ; a black 
mark before the apex, which is pinkish grey ; two dentate obso- 
lescent postmedial lines. Hind wing brownish ; the upper discal 



24 



BATUBNIID^. 



area pink ; an antemedial curved red-brown line ; ocellus as on 
fore wing, but larger and better defined; two waved postniedial 
red-brown lines; outer area bright chestnut; margin brown. 
SikhU^^""^''^ browner than others, especially those from 

Cocoon dark and fenestrated. 

Bab. N.W. Himalayas. Ex^. 120-158 millim. 



22. Saturnia huttoni, Moore, Tram. Unt. Sac. (3) i, p. 321 • C & S 
no. 1561. \ / 7 r , • ^ • 

2 . Differs from simla in the antemedial line of the fore wing 
being waved ; the space between that and the postmedial line 
darker ; the ocellus large, but only the lunulate inner part pro- 
minent. Hmd wing with the antemedial line straight ; the ocellus 
with the black ring narrow ; the postmedial lines less waved, the 
outer one prominent. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas. Exp. 110 millim. 



23. Saturnia cachara, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 578 ; C. ^ S. no. 1570. 

_ c? . Differs from simla in being without the red tinge. Fore 
wing without the basal brown patch ; the hyaline spot surrounded 
by a circular flesh-coloured ocellus, inwardly edged by pink, out- 
wardly by black ; the waved hues dark. Hind wing with the red 
and black margins to the ocellus broad ; the waved postmedial 
lines dark ; the submargiual pale line waved. 

Bab. Cachar. Exj>. 106 millim. 



Sect. III. The branches of antennae in $ much longer ; palpi 

moderate. 

24. Saturnia stoliczkana, Feld. Jieis. Nov. pi. 87, fig. 3; C. ^ S. 
no. 155.3. 

JSTeoris shaduUa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 677; C. ^ S. no. 1552. 

2 . Head, thoi-ax, and abdomen pale red, the collar white : 
metathorax fringed with white. Wings with the ground-colour 
grey. Fore wing with the costa grey ; a brick-red basal patch ; a 
dark antemedial line slightly angled at the median nervure; a 
hyaline lunule bordered inwardly \^■ith yellow, black, and white, 
pink and black outwardly with two waved'postmedial diffused lines, 
beyond which the colour is pale ; marginal area pale red. Hind 
wing similar to fore wing; the white ring extending all round the 
ocellus. 

The Cis-Himalayan form has the ground-colour of the wings 
pinkish grey. 

Bah. N.W. Himalayas ; Tarkand ; Ladak, 12,000 feet. Exp. 
16-132 millim. 



LOEPA. 



25 



Genus LOEPA. 

Loepa, Moore, Lep. E. I. C. ii, p. 399 (1858). 
Khodia, Moore, R Z. S. 1872, p. 578. 

Type, L. JcatinTca, Westw. 

Jianqe. Japan ; Himalayas ; Assam ; Yunnan ; Java. 
Shape and nearation as in Saturnia. Tarsi thickly clothed with 
hair. 

25. Loepa katinka, Westto. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 25, pi. 12, fig. 2 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 1554. p c< 

Loepa miranda, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) u, p. 424 ; C. ^ -b. 

no. 1555. 

Loepa sikkima, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1865, p. 818 ; C. ^ S. no. 1556. 

Bright chrome-yellow. Pore wing with the costa grey, sufFused 
with fuscous ; a subbasal more or less angled pink line ; a large 
rounded or oval ocellus at end of cell, which is pinkish brown, 




Fig. 12. — Loepa katinka, ^ . 



containing white and black lunulate marks ; a highly waved post- 
medial dark line ; double submarginal lines, the inner line pinkish 
and angled below the costa, the outer grey and terminating 
in a black spot between veins 7 and 8, above which is a pinkish 
patch on the costa, edged exteriorly with white and pink ; a series 
of almost marginal pale lunules. Hind wing differs from the fore 
wing in the first line being' further from the base, narrow, and 
dark ; the subcostal patch and spot absent. Underside with a 
pink and white apical patch to hind wing developed in sikkima and 
the Javan form. 

. The form miranda is large and pale, with the ocellus small, 
round, and almost blind ; katinka is a similar but small form ; 
while sikkima is small and dark, much suffused with fuscous 



26 



SATURNIID^. 



towards the apex of fore u-iug, in the male the ocellus large and 
round or elongate, with a prominent pupil. The branches of the 
antennae vary much in length. 

Larva brown and hairy, with six pink tubercles on each somite ; 
white sublateral irregular blotches from 4th to 10th somites ; 
claspers pink. 

Hab. Himalayas ; Assam ; Yunnan ; Java. Exp. 90-124 millim. 

*26. Loepa? simplicia, Maass. <§• Weym. Beitr. zur Schmett. pt. ii, 
fig. 20; C. ^ S. uo 1508. 

S . Yellow. Fore wing with a pink and white antemedial line 
from the subcostal to the inner margin, bent at the median nervure ; 
an ocellus at end of cell, with white centre ringed with yellow, 
black, and pink; a subapical pink patch, with dark specks on it, 
and a straight brown submarginal line from it. Hind vdng with 
the antemedial line angled near inner margin ; the ocellus larger 
than on fore wing ; the brown line postmedial, slightly bent and 
waved, and arising below the costa. 
Mab. E. Indies. Exp. 160 millim. 

27. Loepa newara, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 578 ; C.^S. no. 1575. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen bright yellow ; collar grey ; patagia 
bordered by reddish lines. Fore wing yellow, irrorated with grey, 
fuscous, and pink scales, except at centre of inner margin and 
outer area; some pink hairs at base; a grey and fuscous ante- 
medial line, angled at median nervure ; a large subtriangular hya- 
line spot at end of cell ; a dark postmedial slightly curved and 
oblique line ; a sickle-shaped white subapical mark, with a black 
spot above it and a pink streak below it, from which runs a highly 
waved submarginal line ; a marginal olive band. Hind wing 
yellow ; a pink and dark antemedial line ; a hyaline spot at 
end of cell edged with fuscous ; a postmedial line, beyond which 
the area is suffused with pink and fuscous, with a waved outer 
edge. 

Cocoon pale blue-green, and suspended by a silken peduncle. 
Hab. Nepal; Sikhim. Exp., J 150, $ 142-150 milHm. 

Genus SALASSA. 

Salassa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 246. 

Type, aS'. lola, "Westw. 
Range. Sikhim ; Sylhet. 

Fore wing with the apex acute; outer margin nearly evenly 
jcurved. Hind wing and neuration as in Saturnia. Tarsi naked. 



SALASSA. 



27 



28. Salassa lola, Westio. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 25, pi. 12, fig. 3 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 15G9. 

c? Head, thorax, and abdomen brick-red. Pore wing brick- 
red ; an antemedial pale and darker curved line ; a hyaline spot 
beyond the cell very variable in shape and size ; a postmedial dark 
line, with a series of hyaline striae on it ; a submarginal dark band, 
with its inner and outer edges waved ; a grey apical patch. Hmd 
wing similar to fore wing, the ante- and postmedial lines broader ; 
a hyaline spot beyond the cell surrounded by an ocellus, which is 




ringed black, white, and deep red exteriorly ; the hyaline striae 
obsolete beyond the ocellus. IJnderside : the basiil two-thirds of 
wings red-brown sufEused with grey, except exteriorly; a broad 
grey submarginal band, with waved outer edge ; marginal area 
brown. Tibiae and tarsi grizzled. 

One specimen taken in March much paler. 

$ . Brown with dark and reddish hairs.. 

Hah. Sikhim; Sylhet. Exp., 116, $ 120-158 miUim. 

29. Salassa royi, Elwes, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 447; id. Trans. Ent. Soc. 
1888, pi. viii, fig. 2 ; C. ^ S. no. 1550 a. 

cJ . Differs from lola in the colour being very dark purplish red- 
brown ; the hyaline spot large and round ; no hyaline striae on the 
postmedial line. Hind wing with the outer ring of the ocellus 
narrow and black, instead of broad and deep red. Underside with 
the grey suffusion extending to the postmedial line. 

5 . Paler ; the head and prothorax yellow ; the wings clothed 
with olive-yellow hair ; the outer part of the postmedial line grever. 

Mab. Sikhim. Exp., cS 140, $ 154 millim. 



28 



SATDBNIID^. 



Genus CRICULA. 
Cricula, Wlk. Cat. v, p. ]186 (JR.OS). 

Euphranor, Iler.-Schaff. Samml. am. Eur. Schmet. p. 6] (1858). 
Type, C. trifenestrata, Helf. 

Mange. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma; Java. 

lore wing with the costa evenly arched; apex rather acute- 
outer margm highly excised ; veins 5 and 6 given off from the sub- 
costal much nearer the base, ilind wing rounded : veins 5 and 6 
given oft from the subcostal towards the base. 

30. Cricula trifenestrata, mifer, J. A. S. B. vi, p. 45 ; Her.-Schaf. 
Samml. aus^ Fmr. Schmet. pi. 17, fig. 80 ; C. ^ S. no. 1354 ; Moore, 
Lep K I. Co. pi. xviu, fig. 7 a, b (larva and cocoon). 
Lricula burmana, Sioin/i. Trans. Ent. Sac. 1890, p. 198. 

6 . Brown, ochreous, yellowish, or reddish. Fore wing with a 
waved antemedaal dark line ; a small hyaline spot beyond the end 
ot the cell, with one or two others above it, the upper one generally 




Fig. 14. — Cricula trifenestrata, \. 



represented by a dark "spot ; an oblique line from the apex to the 
inner margin beyond the middle, the area beyond it suffused with 
grey. Hind \ving with the oblique line continued to the inner margin 
before the middle ; a hyaline spot beyond the cell ; a snbmarginal 
waved line. Underside wdth the basal area suffused with purple. 

2 . Generally redder ; three large irregularly shaped hyaline 
spots beyond the cell of the fore wing, often with one or two small 
ones inside them. 

Larva black-brown ; 2nd to 11th somites each with six setiferous 
tubercles ; 1st somite and anal claspers crimson ; a pale reddish 
sublateral stripe ; legs and prolegs brown. 

Cocoon composed of bright golden-yellow silk firmly united into 
a network ; a race from the Karen Hills spins a solid cocoon. 

Hab. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Andamans ; Java. 
Exp., d 62-82, $ 72-92 milliin. 



29 



31. Cricula drepanoides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 817; C. Sf 8. 
no. 1353. 

c^" . Differs from trifenestrata in the head, thorax, and abdomen 
being suffused with purplish grey. Fore M'ing purplish grey, the 
outer area ochreous ; an antemedial irregular line ; a large number 
of hyaline specks and blotches, more or less conjoined in, beyond, 
and below the end of the cell ; the oblique line is bent back to the 
costa, which it reaches some way before the apex; an oblique 
streak from the apex meeting the oblique line and then continued 
as a waved submarginal line. Hind wing reddish ochreous ; an 
antemedial hue ; a hyaline spot at end of cell surrounded by five 
small ones ; postmedial and submarginal waved lines. 

Hob. Sikhim. Exp. 6S millim. 



The following sjpecies formerly recorded as Indian are omitted. 

Anthercsa pernyi, Guer., C. & S. no. 1564 (part.), is a Chinese 

non-pedunculate species. 
Attacus fenestra, Linn., C. & S. no. 1354: (part.), is Hylurga 

fenestra from A^enezuela. 
Attacus perspicua. Linn., C. & S, no. 1354 (part.), is TurcJcJieimia 

perspicua from W. Africa. 
Bomhyx irius and saturnus, Fabr., from " India," Syst. Ent. iii, 

i, p. 409, appear to be African species, but the descriptions 

are too vague for recognition. 



Family BRAHMJEID^. 

Proboscis present ; palpi large, rounded, and upturned. An- 
tennae bipectinated in both sexes ; mid tibia with a single pair of 
spurs ; hind tibia with two pairs. Frenulum absent. Fore wing 
with vein 1 b forked at the base ; 1 c absent ; 5 from near the upper 
angle of cell. Hind wing with two internal veins ; the cell short, 
with a veinlet in it; vein 5 from near the upper angle; 6 and 7 
given off near the base ; 8 free from the root and nearly touching 
7 beyond the cell ; a precostal vein. 

Genus BRAHM^IA. 
Brahmgea, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1315 (1855). 
Type B. certliia, Fabr., from China. 

Range. E. and W. Africa ; Palaearctic Asia ; Himalayas ; Burma. 

Palpi large, rounded, and upturned; antennae bipectinated in 
both sexes, the branches short and nearly even throughout. Fore 
wiug with veins 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked together ; 7 and 8 being 
given off on a short stalk. Hind wing with the cell very short and 
with a veinlet in it ; the upper discocellular given off from vein 6. 



30 



BRAHMjEIDjE. 



Larva. The 2nd and 3rd somites swollen and armed with a pair 
ot forwardly projecting lateral spines, which turn into warta at 
the last moult. 

Pupa naked. 

32. BralimaBa wallichii, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 39; C.8f S. no. 1579. 
Brnhmjea conchifera, Butl. A. M.N. H. (5) v, 1880, p. 188: 111. 

Het. V, pi. 95, figs. 3, 4 ; C. 8f S. no. 1677. 
Bombya spectabilis, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 443. 
Bruhmsea rufescens, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, 1880, p. 62 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 1578. 

S . Head black ; antennae brown, with a brown band between 
their bases ; thorax brown, with three pairs of black lines ; collar 
with a pair of black spots ; abdomen brown, with paired square 




Fig. 15. — Brahmma wallichii, (S . ^. 

segmental black spots : underside of head and thorax black ; of abdo- 
men brown, with black lines. Fore wing pale olive-brown ; seven 
waved black lines before the middle ; two black medial lines 
enclosing an irregular space below the costa, then approaching 
each other at vein 2, and enclosing a round space above inner 
margin ; in these spaces the veins are marked with white and black ; 
eight black lunulate lines on the outer area between vein 5 and the 
inner margin, some of them in the form of " brackets," the outer 
series forming ring-marks ; apical area with veins 6, 7, 8 marked 
with white lunules ; a black subapical patch, with some fiue black 
luuules from it to vein 6 ; a yellow streak above vein 5. Hind 
wing : the basal area deep black, with some brown streaks towards 
inner margin ; outer area yellowish, shading to olive-brown; nine 
waved lines, expanding into blue-black marks on the veins, with 
white spots between them ; a submarginal broken line. Underside 



BOMBYOID^. ^1 

with the basal half of both wings black, more or less streaked wirh 
brown on costa of both wings and beyond cell and on inner margin 

of fore wing. , , , • i n- t.-- 

The form concUfera is slightly paler than typical wallichiu _ 
The form rufescens has the whole basal area of the fore wing 

below pale. . tt -d „ 

Hah. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Khdsi HiUs ; Assam ; Upper Burma. 

Exp. 150-170 miUim. 

33. Brahmsea hearseyi, White, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1861, p. 26. 

Brabnifea whitei, Butl. III. Bet. v, p. 62, pi. 95, figs. 1, 2 ; C. ^ S. 
n. ]580. 

c? . Differs from wcdlichii in the abdominal markings of the upper- 
side being narrow black and white bauds ; the ground-colour of 
both wings paler; the subapical white lunules are joined into 
waved white lines, one or two of those nearest the base having 
black lines inside them. Hind wing with pale streaks between the 
veins from inner margin to veiu 6. 

Hah. Mussooree ; Sikhim ; Burma. Exp. 116-170 millim. 

The foUoiuhig species formerly recorded as Indian is omitted. 
Brahmcea certhia, Fabr., C. & S. no. 1576, is from China. 



Family BOMBYCID^. 

Proboscis absent ; palpi rather small or absent ; antennae bipec- 
tinated in both sexes ; legs hairy, without spurs, Frenulum absent ; 
vein 5 of both wings from, or from above, the middle of the disco- 
cellulars ; veins 7, 8, 9 of fore wing generally more or less bent 
downwards ; vein 1 a forming or not forming a fork with 1 6 ; 1 c 




Fig. 16. — Larva of Ocinara nqnifera. \. (From Hutton, Trans. Ent. Soc. 

1804, pi. 19, fig. 6.) 

absent or present. Hind wing with two or three internal veins ; 
vein 8 arising from the base of 7, or free from the base with a bar 
between them ; the inner margin irregular and in part turned 
over. 

Larva elongate and not hairy ; dorsal humps on some of the 
somites, or a horn on the terminal somite, or paired dorsal spines. 

Cocoon formed of fine silk, of great commercial value in some 
species. 



32 



BOMBYCIDvE. 



Keif to the Genera. 

a. Hind wino- with vein 8 from the baao of 7, and 
^ no bar between them. 
«'. Palpi present. 

«-. Fore winp: with veins 7, 8, 9 but sli^htlv 
bent downwards. 
a\ Fore wing with veins 6 and 11 from 

the cell.... ... J BO.MBYX, p. 22. 

0 . J^ore wing with vems 6 and 11 stalked 

Avith 7, 8, 9 10 . . 2. EcTKOCTA, p. 33. 

0 . tore wing with vems 7, 8, 9 much bent 

downwards q nr.Tx-»T.. ^ oa 

b'. Palpi absent. O^inara, p. 34. 

«-. Fore wing with a veinlet in the cell ; veins 

7, 8, 9 much bent downwards 4. Gunda, p. 36 

b . lore wing with no veinlet in the cell; 
- , 7j 8, 9 not much bent downwards . 6. Thkophila p 37 

6. Hmd wmg with vein 8 free from the root, and ' ' 

a bar between it and vein 7 ; fore wing with 
veins 7, 8, 9 not bent downwards. 
a'. Fore wing with vein 6 stalked with 7, 8, 

9, 10 ..... .... . g Mustilta, p. 38. 

b . Fore wmg with vein 6 from the angle of ceU. 7. Ax\draca, p. 40. 



Genus BOMBYX. 
Bombyx, Hiibn. Verz. p. 190 (1818), 
Type, B. mori, Linn. 

Range. Japan; China ; and introduced into India, Europe, &c. 

Palpi slight. Fore wing with the outer margin excised below 
the apex and slightly angled; veins 6 and 11 from the cell; 7, 8, 
9,_ 10 stalked together ; 7, 8, 9 but slightly bent downwards. Hind 
wing with vein 5 from above the centre of the discocellulars ; 
veins 6 and 7 on a short stalk ; no bar between veins 7 and 6 
near base. 



34. Bombyx mori, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 817; C. S. no. 1098. 

Bombyx crossi, Mutt. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3j ii, 1864, p. 312 ; C. ^' S. 
no. 1095. 

Bombyx fortunatus, Hutt. Tram. Ent. Soc. (3) ii, 1864, p. 312 ; 

a S. no. 1096. ^ 
Bombyx sinensis, Hutt. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) ii, 1864, p. 313 ; C. ^- S. 

no. 1099. 

Bombyx textor, ITutt. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) ii, 1864, p. 309 ; C. ^- S. 
no. 1100. 

Bombj'x arracanensis, Jlutt. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) ii, 1864, p. 313 • 
a ^ S no. 1094. 

cS . Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish. Fore wing whitish ; 
two dark antemedial lines : a line across the end of cell ; a post- 



BOMBTX. — ECTROCTA. 



33 



medial line. Hind wing with a dark blotch at centre of inner 
marcrin ; curved medial and postmedial lines. 
2 with the wings often more or less aborted. 

In some specimens the outer line of the fore wing is curved and 
submarf^inal, or the markings may be entirely obsolete. 

Larva dark grey ; the head and first three somites with some 




Fig. 17. — Bombyx mori, 5 • t- 



transverse black lines ; the first somite with two dark red streaks ; 
the five first somites white below ; the 3rd to anal somite with 
reticulated black dorsal markings ; 11th somite with a long horn. 

Cultivated forms may be grey or almost white, with the markings 
almost obsolete. 

This species is indigenous to China, and from there introduced 
all over the world. The forms described by Hutton are simply 
domesticated races of the larva. 

Cocoon yellow or white, the silk closely woven or loose. 

Hah. China, and in a domesticated state throughout India and 
Europe. Exp. 42 milUm. 



Genus ECTROCTA, nov. 

Type, E. diaphana, Hmpsu. 
Range. Burma. 

Palpi minute. Tore wing much excised below the apex ; veins 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 stalked together ; veins 7, 8, 9 not much bent 
downwards. Hind wing with the outer margin much excised at 
anal angle ; vein 5 from the centre of the discocellulars ; veins 6 
and 7 stalked. 



35. Ectrocta diaphana, n. sp. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous brown, suffused 
with fuscous. Wings semidiaphanous white. Fore wing with a 
fuscous basal patch ; a subbasal curved fuscous band ; a streak on 
discocellulars ; a doubly curved submarginal line ; a large apical 
patch. Hind -wing with an antemedial fuscous spot on inner 

VOL. I. D 



34 



BOMBYCIDJ;, 



margin : a maculate postraeclial band ; outer margin very slightly 
suffused with fuscous. 




Fig. 18.— Ectrocia diaphana, 2 ■ \. 

Hah. Momeit, Burma {Doherty). Exp. 54 millim. Type in 
coll. Elvves. 

Genus OCINARA. 

Ocinara, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1768 (1856). 
Naprepa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1162 (1856), nom. prasocc. 
Trilocha, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. 1. C. p. 382 (1857). 
Ernolatia, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 131 (1862). 
Ohazena, Wlk. Char, undescr. Set. p. 21 (1869). 

Type, 0. dilectula, Wlk., from Java. 

Range. China; throughout India; Andamans; Borneo: Sumatra; 
Java. 

Palpi minute. Eore wing with vein 6 from or from below the 
angle of the cell ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked, 7, 8, 9 much bent downwards ; 
11 from the cell ; vein 1 c present ; a veinlet in the cell. Hind 
wing with vein 5 from the centre of the discocellulars ; veins 6 
and 7 stalked ; three internal veins. 



36. Ocinara signifera. Walk. Journ. Linn. Soo. vi, p. 130 (1862), 

Ooinaralactea, Hutt. Trans. Ent. Soc. (8) ii, 1864, p. 328, pi. 19, fig. 6 

(larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 1110. 
Ocinara diaphana, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 83 ; C. 8f 8. no. 1109. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white. 
Fore wing white, with an opalescent 
tinge ; some black specks on the 
costa ; two black spots in end of cell, 
either or both of which may be ab- 
sent, one beyond the end which may 
be reduced to a speck ; two indistinct 
curved postmedial lines, the outer 
with fine black streaks on the veins. 
Hind wing white, with a dai'k speck at end of cell and a faint post- 
medial line ; some black spots on inner margin ; cilia chequered 
fuscous and white. 




Fig. 19. 

Ocinara signifera, S . 



OOINARA. 



35 



The form diaphana has the black spots on fore and hind wings 
absent. 

Larva brown, with humps on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th somites, and 
a horn on 10th somite. 

Bab. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim : Khasi Hills ; Nilgiris ; Anda- 
mans; Sumatra; Borneo. Exp., S 34-38, $ 34-46 millim. 

37. Ocinara apicalis, Wlh. Joum. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 130 (1862). 
Ocinara signata, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 131. 

Ocinara moorei,m«. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) h, 1864, p. 326 ; C. Sf S. 
no. 1111. 

Ocinara lida, Moore, Cat E. I. C. p. 381. 
Bombyx plana, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 575. 

. Differs from signifera in having a slight ferruginous tiuge ; 
a ferruginous band inside a waved postmedial line on both wings ; 
the spots at end of cell of fore wing and those on the costa, except 
the spot at the postmedial line, absent ; the spots on inner margin 
of hind wing dark ferruginous. 

Larva rough and brown, covered with short hair ; a raised ridge 
on 2nd somite, with a black patch before it; a horn on 10th 
somite. 

Bab. Hongkong ; Mussooree .: Borneo ; Java. Exp. 38 millira. 

38. Ocinara varians, TT^/c. Cat. v, p. 1153; C. ^- S. no. 1093; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 133, figs. \,\a,lb (larva). 
Naprepa albicollis, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 171 ; C. 4" /S. 
no. 1091. 

Naprepa cervina, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 489 ; C. ^ S. no. 1092. 
Chazena velata, Wlk. Char, undescr. Bet. p. 21. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale or dark red-brown ; the 
vertex of head and collar sometimes whitish. Fore wing pale 
reddish brown or greyish ; two antemedial curved waved lines ; a 
pale streak on the discocellulars surrounded by a dark patch ; two 
postmedial curved and waved lines somewhat far apart ; a darker 
patch on the outer margin below the apex ; the costal edge pale ; 
ciha dark red-brown. Hind wing pale or dark red-brown, or 
greyish with the outer area red-brown ; a postmedial indistinct 
line ; inner area pale, with some dark red strigte crossing it. 

The grey form is albicollis; in the redder form varians the 
markings are often almost obsolete. 

Larva elongate and brown, with darker dots and a lateral row 
of black dots ; a slight dorsal protuberance on each of the thoracic, 
and on the 5th and 8th somites ; a long slender horn on anal somite. 

Cocoon silken, shght in texture ; oval and pale. 

Bab. Philippines; China; Formosa; throughout India and 
Ceylon ; Borneo. Exp., 26, § 32 millim. 



D 2 



36 



bombtcid;e. 



Genus GUNDA. 

Gundn, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 176 (1862) 
Norasuma, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 575. 
Aristhala, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 704. 

Type, G. ochracea, Wlk,, from Borneo. 

liange. Hainan ; Sikhim ; Cevlon ; Java. 
^ Palpi absent. Tore wing with veins 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 stalked ; 
/, 8, 9 much bent down; a veinlet in the cell. Hind wing with 
vein 5 from the centre of the discocellulars ; veins 6 and 7 stalked. 

39. Gunda javanica, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 67G, pi. 33, fig. 6. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown ; the collar fringed 
with dark brown. Eore wing darkish brown; three transverse 




rig. 20. — Gunda Javanica, \. 



indistinct lines ; a postraedial more distinct line, highly angulated 
below the costa ; a very dark brown streak from the base to the 
apex along the costa, leaving a large apical pale patch with an 
apical dark streak. Hind wing dark brown, with three indistinct 
lines ; inner margin dark with some pale strigse ; two pale sub- 
marginal specks near anal angle. Underside with the two outer 
lines of both wings more distinct and waved. 

5 . More uniform grey-brown ; the dark streak and apical pale 
patch of the fore wing obsolete, as are the markings of hind wing. 

Eab. Sikhim ; Java. Exp., c? 48, § 66 miUira. 

40. Gunda apicalis, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 17. 

2 . Differs from javanica in being much yellower brown ; an- 
tennje ochreous ; a pale streak on vertex of abdomen. Fore wing 
with the outer line less angled ; the apical dark patch much larger. 
Hind wing with the lines more distinct. 

Eab. Trincomali, Ceylon. ^.179. 62 millim. 

41. Gunda sikkima, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 406, pi. 33, fig. 3; 

Norastma variegata, Hmps7i. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 7. 
Aristhala thwaitesii, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. u, p. 1^16 ; 6. <!)- ^. no. iild. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown, grizzled with grey. 



GUNDA. — THEOPHILA. 



37 



Fore wing ochreous brown, much suffused with red-brown, espe- 
cially at fnner and outer areas ; two dark spots near base ; a highly 
cm-ved subbasal Hue ; two nearly straight medial lines, the outer 
line met by an oblique streak from the costa across the end of cell ; 
a waved submarginal line ; a dark mark at apex. Hind wing 
red-brown, ochreous towards anal angle and outer margin ; two 
indistinct waved lines ; inner area dark red-brown, suffused with 
grey ; two dark marks at anal angle. Underside of hind wing 
with two dark specks in the cell and the lines more distinct. 
Where thinly scaled the wing-membrane shows highly iridescent 
colours. 

2 . Yellow ; the thorax suffused with reddish brown ; the fore 
wing with reddish brown near inner and outer margins ; hind wing 
suffused with reddish brown at base and near anal angle; the 
transverse lines as in male, but less distinct. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Ceylon. Ex^., 6 42, $ 62 millim. 



Genus THEOPHILA. 
Theophila, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 683. 
Type, T. Tiuttoni, Westw. 

Bange. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Bengal and ? Madras. 

Palpi absent. Fore wing highly excised below the apex ; the 
outer margin slightly angled ; veins 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked together, 
7, 8, 9 not much bent downwards. Hind wing with vein 5 from 
above the middle of the discocellulars ; veins 6 and 7 stalked. 

42. Theophila huttoni, Wesiw. Cnh. Or. Ent. p. 26, pi. 12, fig. 4 ; HuU. 
Trans. Ent. Soe. 1864-66, pi. 19, fig. 4 (larva) ; C. 8f S. no. 1103. 
Bombyx sherwiHi, mitt. Trans. Ent. Sac. (3) ii, 1864, p. 324 ; 

C. ^ S. no. 1105. 
Bombyx affinis, Suit., GeoghegarHs Silk in India, App. A, p. 3 ; 
C. <^ S. no. 1101. 

Bombyx bengalensis, Hutt. Trans. Ent. Sac. (3) ii, 1864, p. 322, 

pi. 19, fig. 5 (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 1102. 
Bombyx religiosse, Heifer, J. A. S. B. vi, p. 41, pi. 6; C. ^ S. 

no. 1104. 




Fig. 21. — Theophila huttoni, , \. 



Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown. The outer margin of 
both wings more or less crenulate. Fore wing grey-brown, 
obliquely curved antemedial and medial indistinct dark lines : a 



38 



BOMBYCID^. 



tVn l ?r ^'^^d^^^ellulars ; an erect postmedial line ; one 
S-l ^ ^^'SO chocolate apical 

IhZ' „ r J/"^ "^^''g"! chequered brown and 

wh 'wiM, f^^'^y'T'"^, suba,arginal Hne. Underside of hind 
wing with postmedial and submarginal lines. 

Abdomen in some specimens with first and last segments dark. 

Larva mottled and streaked with yellow, brown, and black : the 
hrst three somites very much swollen ; paired dorsal spines on 5th 
to anal somite. i " 

The larva described by Hutton as bengalensis wm probably a pale 
variety of the common form, from which it differed in being 
whitish, marbled with yellowish red and black ; the moth men- 
tioned m connection with it was evidently Bombj/J! mori. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Assam. Exp., s 40, 2 50 
milhm. -t ' ' + 

*43. Theophila ? lugnbris, Drury, Exot. Ins. iii, p. 28, pi. 21, fi^. 5 ; 
C. 6f S. no. 1097. ° 

Head and thorax ash-coloured. Abdomen and wings rusty red ; 
fore vying with some faint bluish marks near outer margin. 

This species is certainly either a Bombijx or Theophila, and pro- 
bably the latter, having the outer margin of the fore wing angled 

Bab. Madras ? Exjj. 48 millim. 



Genus MUSTILIA. 
Mustilia, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 580 (1866). 

Type, M. fed cipennis, Wlk. 
Range. The Himalayas ; Assam. 

Palpi minute ; antennae of male bipectinated to two-thirds length. 
Fore wing very much produced at apex, which is acute ; vein 1 b 
forked at base, 1 c absent, 3 given off before end of cell, 6 stalked 
with 7, 8, 9, 10. Hind wing with two internal veins ; a bar 
between veins 7 and 8 near base. 

44. Mustilia falcipennis, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 581 ; C. ^ S. no. 1482. 
Mustilia castanea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 82 ; C. ^ S. no. 1481. 




Fig. 22. — Mustilia falcipennis, J. }. 



c? . Head and collar chestnut ; the shaft of antennae and a 



MUSTILIA. 



39 



band between their bases whitisb ; thorax and abdomen purplish 
red-brown, the latter yellowish towards extremity. Fore wing 
red-brown, suffused with grey ; a highly angled antemedial indis- 
tinct line ; a black spot at end of cell ; a waved medial line ; a 
postmedial line angled below the costa and wa^-ed towards inner 
margin, met by a black and grey oblique line from the apex. 
Hind wing with the costal half yellow, the inner half red-brow n ; 
two dark lines which approach each other on inner margin ; a grey 
patch near anal angle. Underside yellower, with a black spot at 
end of cell of hind wing. 

The form castanea is darker ; the hind wing more angled and 
wholly dark chestnat-red, instead of the costal half yellow ; the 
markings similar. 

Eab. Sikhim ; Bhutan. Bxp. 52 millim. 

45. Mustilia sphingiformis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 407, pi. 33, fig. 4; 

a ^ S. no. 1484. 

Differs from falcijpennis in the head and thorax being purplish 
grey-brown ; the abdomen dark brown. Tore wing pale red- 
brown, with the markings slight and obsolescent, a speck at end of 
cell ; a doubly curved postmedial line ; the whole outer area suf- 
fused with chestnut from apex to outer angle as far as the post- 
medial hne at middle. Hind wing ochreous, the inner area brown. 
Cilia of both wings ochreous. 

Eab. Mussooree. Exp., cS 58, $ 82 milHm. 

46. Mustilia hepatica, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 82, pi. 3, fig. 18 ; C. <§• -S". 

no. 1483. 

Mustilia columbaris, Buil. P. Z. 8. 1886, p. 387, pi. 35, fig. 7. 

c5" . Pale red -brown, suffused with grey ; shaft of antennae and 
a band between their bases white. Yoxq wing with an indistinct 
waved antemedial line ; a dark spot at end of ceU ; an oblique 
postmedial line, usually indistinct, angled below the costa and met 
by an oblique line from the apex. Hind wing with a curved post- 
medial indistinct line ; two dark strigse on inner margin. Outer 
area of both wings not suffused with grey ; three grey spots towards 
outer and anal angles. 

5 . More uniform chestnut-brown ; fore wing with the cell- 
spot smaller. 

The form columharis from Murree is paler and more uniformly 
suffused with grey. 

Larva greenish brown ; the hinder part paler ; sphingiform in 
shape, with a long tail on 11th somite ; the cuticle of the anterior 
part of the body is capable of expansion into large lateral wings, 
which are retracted when at rest. 

Eab. Murree; Sikhim. Exp., <S 64, 5 90 millim. 



40 



BOMBYCID^. 



Genus ANDRACA. 
Andraca, WlJc. Cat. xxxii, p. 681 (1865). 

Type, A. bipunctata, Wlk. 
liamje. Sikhim ; Assam. 

Palpi not very small; antennaD of male bipectiuated to tip. 
Fore wing with the apex produced and acute ; vein 1 h forked at 
base, 1 c absent, 3 and 4 from angle of cell, 6 from upper angle, 
7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing with the inner margin excised; 
two internal veins ; a bar between veins 7 and 8 near the base. 

47. Andraca bipunctata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 582 ; C. 8,- S. no. 1328. 
Andraca trilochoides, Moore, P. Z. 8. 18t55, p. 820 ; C. 8f S. no. 1329 : 
Waterh. Aid, ii, pi. 132, tigs. 1, 2. 




Fig. 23. — Andraca bipunctata, (J. |. 



(S . Antennae dark brown ; head, thorax, and abdomen dark red- 
brown. Tore wing dark red-brown, with some grey scales below 
the costa ; antemedial and medial dark waved lines, curved below 
the costa ; a postmedial double curved line sharply angled below 
the costa; a black speck at end of cell. Hind wing dark red- 
brown ; the inner margin black, suffused with grey scales ; a black 
dot at end of cell ; two waved medial lines which nearly meet on 
inner margin. Underside : hind wing with the lines more pro- 
minent and hardly waved ; the outer margin suffused with grey. 
2 . Much paler red-browoi ; the shaft of antennae white. 

The form trilochoides is rather brighter, with more grey suf- 
fusion on fore wing. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Assam. Exp., c? 48-56, $ 66 millim. 



T7ie following species formerly recorded as Indian is omitted. 
Hanisa subnotata, "Walk., C. & S. no. 1106, is from Singapore. 



ETJPTEEOTlDiE. 



41. 



Family EUPTEROTID^. 

A family of large-sized moths. The palpi hairy ; antennae pec- 
tinated in both sexes ; mid tibia with one pair of spurs hmd tibia 
with two pairs, frenulum present. Eore wmg with yem 1 6 
forked at the base, 1 c absent, 5 from or from above the middle ot 
the discocellulars, 10 almost always absent. Hmd wiug with two 
internal veins ; vein 5 from or from above the middle ot the disco- 
cellulars ; a bar between veins 7 and 8, the latter free from the base. 

Larva with five pairs of prolegs, and tufted with hair. 




Fig. 24. — LarTa of Eupterote Jabia. \. 
(From Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 136, fig. lb.) 



Key to the Genera. 

A. Frons -without a corneous ridge. 

a. Fore wingwith an areole: antennae Saturni- 

form 1. GANaARiDES, p. 42. 

b. Fore wing with no areole ; antennae 

plumose. 

«'. Palpi upturned and thickly fringed with 
hair in front, 
ffl^. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 given 

off before end of cell 2. Pandala, p. 43. 

6^. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 given 
otF from end of cell. 
a^. Fore wing with upper discocel- 

lular very oblique 3. Melanothrix, 

¥. Fore wing with upper discocel- [p. 44. 

lular nearly erect, 
a*. The discocellulars angled both 
above and below vein 5 in both 

wings 4. Deeata, p. 44. 

6*. The discocellulars angled above 
vein 5 in both wings, 
a'. Fore wing rounded at apex . . 5. Palirisa, p. 45. 
¥. Fore wing produced at apex. . 6. Tagora, p. 46. 
C-*. The discocellulars angled at or 
below vein 5 in both wings. 
a\ Hind wing with vein 7 given 

off before the end of the cell. 7. Pseudojana, p. 48. 



42 



EUPTEEOTIDJi!. 



6'. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 
stalked or from angle of cell, 
a®. Hind wing with the costa 
straight ; vein 8 not remote 

,e 8. Ganisa, p.49. 

o . llind wing with the costa 
arched ; vein 8 remote 

/' n 1 • 9. APHA,p. 61. 

o . Palpi porrect. 

a'-. Fore wing with vein 11 ariainff close 
to 7, 8, 9. 

a^. Palpi short and somewhat heavily 

fringed with hair ] i. Eupterote, p. 64. 

0*. Palpi longer and very heavily 
fringed with hair; branches of 
antennae very long in both sexes . 10. Apona, p. 52. 
b-. Fore wing with vein 11 arising lono- 
before 7, 8, 9. ° 
a^. The wings broad and rounded . . 12. Nisa&a, p. 62. 
b^. The wings long and narrow ; fore 

wing with outer margin oblique . 13. Sanoatissa, p. 63. 

B. Frons with a corneous ridge 14. Cnethocampa 

[p'. 64. 



Genus GANaARIDES. 

Gangarides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 821. 

Type, G. roseus, "Wlk. 

Range. E. Himalayas ; Burma ; Borneo. 

Palpi upturned and very thickly fringed with hair. The 
antennae with the branches stiff, decreasing rapidly to apex and 
Saturniform. Legs very thickly clothed with hairs. Fore wing 
with the apex produced, the outer margin excised and crenulate ; 
the discocellulars nearly straight ; vein 7 anastomosing shortly 
with 8 and 9 to form an areole. Hind wing with the disco- 
cellulars straight ; veins 6 and 7 stalked. 



48, Gangarides roseus, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 513 ; C. 8f S. no. 1340. 
Gangarides dharma, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1865, p. 821, pi. 43, fio-. 7 • 
e. 1^ *5. no. 1339. 

Lonomia vittipalpis, Wlk. Char, undescr. Lep. 1869, p. 90 : C. ^ S. 
no. 1251. 

. Palpi black, fringed with ochreous hairs ; antennae, head, 
and thorax ochreous, the latter with a crimson tinge ; abdomen 
crimson above. Fore wing pinkish ochreous, irrorated with brown 
scales ; a curved and waved subbasal dark line ; an antemedial 
slightly waved line ; a black dot ringed with white at end of cell ; 
three indistinct waved postmedial lines ; a grey and brown curved 
oblique line from apex ; a submarginal lunulate line. Hind wing 
crimson ; the cilia ochreous. 

2 . Duller in colour ; fore wing with the subbasal line some - 



GANGABIDES. — PANDALA. '*'> 

times absent and the speck at end of cell minute ; the three post- 
medial lines prominent. 




Fig. 25. — Gangarides rosea, . \. 



The form dharma is much paler ochreous, the hind wing but 
slightly tinged with crimson ; the white cell-spot large, without 

ffab. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Burma. Exp., d 76-96, $ 106 millim. 

Genus PANDALA. 
Pandala, Wlk. Cat. iv. p. 921 (1855). 

Type, P. dolosa, Wlk. 
Range. Ceylon. 

Palpi upturned and but slightly fringed with hair. Antennae 
with the branches long. Legs with the spurs long. Fore wing 
short, broad, and rounded ; the discocellulars oblique ; veins 7, 8, 




Fig. 26. — Pandala dolosa, . \. 



9 stalked and given off before the end of the cell. Hind wing 
with the discocellulars slightly angled below vein 5 ; 6 and 7 from 
angle of cell. 

49. Pandala dolosa, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 922 : Moore, Lep. Ceid. ii, pi. 134 
fig. 5; C. ^S. no. 1338. f ^ , 

(S . Dark purplish grey ; fore vi'ing crossed by three antemedial 



44 



EUPTBEOTIDJ;. 



indistinct waved lines, three postmedial and one straight 8ub- 
niarginal line ; hmd wing by four waved postmedial lines and a 
curved submarginal line. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp. 48 millim. 

Genus MELANOTHRIX. 

Melanothrix, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 94, fig. 2, Erkl. p. 6 (1874). 

Type, M. nymphaliaris, Wlk., from Java. 
Range. Burma; Java. 

Palpi upturned and thicidy fringed with hair; antennae with 
the branches moderately long. Legs hairy. Fore wing short and 
very broad, the apex much rounded, the upper discocellular very 
oblique; veins 6, 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with the upper 
discocellular short and oblique ; veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 much 
curved and remote from 7. 

50. Melanothrix leucotrigona, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, abdomen, and wings glossy brown ; fore 
wing with a large shining white triangular mark on the costa 




Fig. 27. — Melanothrix leucotrigona, . |. 



beyond the middle, its apex on vein 5 ; a large area below it and 
its outer edge dark brown; hind wing with a marginal dark 
brown band. 

Hah. Malewoon, Burma. Exp. 74 millim. Type in coll. 
Druce. 

Genus DREATA. 
Dreata, Wlk. Cat. iv. p. 902 (1855). 

Type, D. hades, Wlk. 
Range. Assam. 



DRBATA. — PALIRISA.. 45 

Palpi long and thickly fringed with hair. Fore wing" short, 
with apex rounded ; the discocellulars angled above and be ow 
vein 5 • veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with the discocellulars 
ancrled'above and below vein 5 ; 6 and 7 from angle of cell. 



51 Dreata hades, WUc. Cat. iv, p. 908 ; ButL III. Het. v, pi. 97, 
fi^. 7 ; C.^ S. no. 1367. 

A Head thorax, and abdomen mouse-brown. Eore wijig 
mouse-brown, the medial area pale ; five indistinct waved Imes ; a 




Fig. 28. — Dreata hades, . \. 

nearly straight and erect prominent postmedial line ; a waved 
submargir.al line. Hind wing pale at base, without the waved 
hues ; the postmedial line not so prominent ; a submarginal 
waved line. 

Eab. Assam. Exp. 72 millim. 



Genus PALIRISA. 
Palirisa, Moore, Trans. Ent. Sac. 1884, p. 860. 

Type, P. lineosa, "Wlk. 

Range. E. Himalayas and Assam ; Burma. 

Palpi upturned and thickly fringed with hair. Antennae with 
the branches short. Legs with the spurs short. Fore wing very 
broad, the apex rounded, the discocellulars oblique and angled above 
vein 5 ; veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with the discocellulars 
oblique and angled above vein 5. 

52. Palirisa lineosa, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 912 ; Butl. III. Het. v, pi. 98, 
fig. 4 ; C.^S. no. 1366. 

Pale reddish ochreous. Fore wing crossed by six nearly straight 



46 



EUPTBEOTID^. 



and erect lines, the fourth slightly waved and often obsolescent, 
the submarginal line curved and inwardly edged with grey. Hind 




Fig. 29. — Palirisa lineosa, J. |, 



wing with one anteniedial and two postmediai hues, the outer line 
curved. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Sylhet; Naga Hills. Exp., J 100-110, 
$ 120-128 millim. 

53. Palirisa cervina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 807 ; C. ^ S. no. 1365. 

c? . Differs from lineosa in being pale grey-brown ; the palpi 
black, fringed with ochreous hair; antennae black. Fore wing 
with only the medial and postmediai rufous lines present, the 
latter with a waved line beyond it, between which and the post- 
medial line the colour is darker. Hind wing with three obso- 
lescent lines and no outer line. 

In a specimen from Burma the palpi and antennae are pale. 

Hab. yikhim ; Bernardmyo, Burma. jEr^^. 104 millim. 

Genus TAGORA. 
Tagora, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1188 (1855). 

Sphingognatha, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 94, fig. 1, Erkl. p. 9 (1874). 
Type, T. patula, Wlk. 

jiange. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Sumatra ; Borneo. 

Palpi upturned and thickly fringed with hair. Tore wing 
produced at apex and very broad ; the discocellulars nearly erect 
and angled above vein 5 ; 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wiug wdth the 
discocellulars nearly erect and angled above vein 5 ; 6 and 7 from 
angle of cell. 

Sect. I. Fore wing with apex much produced in female. 

54. Tagora patula, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1189 ; Buil. III. Bet. v, pi. 98, 

fig. 1 : C.8f S. no. 1359. 
Tagora imdulosa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1196 ; C. ^' S.jw. 1360. 
Sphingognatha khasiana, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 77. 



TAGORA. 



47 



c? . Head black ; basal joint of antennae with a tuft of pale hair ; 
thorax, abdomen, and wings pale reddish ochreoua. Tore wmg 
usually with a hyaline spot at end of cell ; two rufous obhque lines 
from lower angle of cell to inner margin ; eight or nine indistinct 
dark waved Hues ; a double highly curved rufous postmedial hne 
from the costa near apex to outer angle ; a submarginal highly 



waved irregular indistinct dark line. Hind wing with a rufous 




Fig. 30.— Tagora patula, S • t- 

subbasal hue, obsolete except towards inner margin ; about four 
very indistinct waved lines ; the rufous postmedial line indistinct ; 
an irregularly placed series of submarginal spots. 

One specimen in Mus. Oxon, has vein 7 of the fore wing given 
off from 6 instead of 8. 

$ . Suffused with fuscous ; the apex of fore wing produced ; 
the outer area of both wuigs suffused with grey ; the oblique line 
of both wings single and prominent ; the waved hues more 
distinct ; two hyaline spots at end of cell of fore wing ; the rufous 
postmedial line more distinct ; a waved submarginal grey line to 
both wings. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Assam ; Momeit, Burma. Exjp., (S 100, $ 130 
millim. 



Sect. II. Fore wing with apex slightly produced in female. 

55. Tagora pallida, WUc Cat. iv, p. 912 : Butl. III. Set. v, pi. 98, 
lig. 3 ; C.&S. no. 1362. 
Sphingognatlia asclepiades, Feld. JReis. Nov. pi. 94, fig. 1. 

^ . Differs from patula in the head being dark red-brown ; the 
tuft on basal joint of antennae dark. Eore wing without the 
hyaline spot; the two medial waved lines are distant at costa and 
inner margin and nearly meet at middle ; the double postmedial 
lines of both wings are dark, narrow, nearer together and less 
curved. 



48 



eupteeotid;e. 



2 . Much suffused with brown ; one hyaline spot at end of cell 
of fore wing. 

Hab. Sylhet ; Sumatra ; Borneo. Exj)., S 120, $ 180 millim. 

56. Tagora nigriceps, Ilmpan. El. Het. ix, ined., pi. 161, fig, 19. 

d*. Head black, with a tuft of pale hair on basal joint of 
antennae ; thorax, abdomen, and wings brownish grey. Fore 
wing with traces of some waved antemedial lines ; a hyaline speck 
at end of cell ; five waved lines beyond the middle ; the post- 
medial line indistinct, the w^aved submarginal Hue sending dark 
streaks along the veins to the postmedial line, the undulation 
between veins 2 and 3 being filled in by a dark brown blotch. 
Hind wing with four waved lines before the postmedial straight 
line, which is just beyond the middle ; the waved submarginal line 
remote from the margin. 

Hah. Deltota, Ceylon. Exp. 96 millim. 



57. Tagora murina, Moore, A. M N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 347 ; Lep. 
Ceyl. ii, pi. 136, fig. 2 ; Hmpsn. III. Ret. ix, pi. 161, fig. 18 $ ; 
a 8f8.no. 1357. 

(S . G-reyish red-brown ; head dark brown, with a pale tuft on 
basal joint of antennae ; fore wing with four indistinct antemedial 
lines ; no hyaline speck at end of cell ; five waved postmedial 
lines, the innermost nearly meeting the outermost antemedial line 
on the disk ; the postmedial straight line double and distinct ; the 
area between it and the outer waved line suffused with grey. 
Hind wing with four or fi^ve waved lines before the straight double 
line, which is some way beyond the middle ; the waved outer line 
near the margin, the area beyond it suffused with grey. 

$ . Much redder brown ; "fore wing with two hyaline spots at 
end of cell. 

Hob. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exp., 6 84, $ 94 milbm. 



Genus PSEUDOJANA, nov. 

Type, P. incandescms, Wlk. 

Range. Sikhim. , . . -.i. 

Palpi upturned and thickly fringed with hair. Antennee with 
the branches rather short in both sexes. Legs with the spurs 
long Fore wing broad and rounded, the discocellulars nearly 
straight ; veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with the discocellulars 
angkd below vein 5 ; 7 given off just before the angle of cell. 

68 Pseudojana incandescens, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 910; But I. III. Het. 
V, pi. 98, fig. 5 ; C. ^- S. no. 1363. 
Head, collar, and prothorax dark chestnut -brown ; meso- and 



PSEUDOJANA . — GANISA. 



49 



metathorax dull brown ; abdomen bright reddish fulvous. Fore 
wing greyish brown ; traces o£ a subbasal curved grey line ; indis- 
tinct antemedial, medial, and postmedial erect straight dark lines, 
the last inwardly edged with grey ; an indistinct submarginal line 




Fig. 31. — Fseudojana incandescens, ^ . f , 



angled at vein 4. Hind wing duller brown ; an indistinct medial 
curved line. Underside with a fiery red tinge ; the wings crossed 
by a medial and oblique postmedial line. 
Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 130 millim. 



Genus GANISA. 
Ganisa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1190 (1855). 

Type, G. postica, Wlk. 

Range. Throughout India and Ceylon. 

Palpi upturned and thickly fringed with hair. Fore wing broad, 
the apex acute and produced ; the discocellulars angled below vein 
5; veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with the discocellulars 
obhque ; venis 6 and 7 stalked or from cell. Legs with the spurs 
long. ^ 



Sect. I. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 from angle of cell. 

59. Ganisa postica, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1190; C. i^- S. no 1347 

Gamsa plana, Wlk. Cat. y, p. 1191 ; Butl. Ill Set. v, pi. 96 fie-s 4 
5 I C.^- S. no. 1346. » F • '^"^ ^igs. 

Ganisa similis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 359 • C. &■ S 
no. 1348. ) • ^ ' 

6' Head very dark brown; thorax, abdomen, and wings pur- 
phsh grey-brown. Fore wing with an indistinct antemedial oblique 
line ; a black and grey speck at end of cell ; five indistinct waved 
dark lines ; a double obhque, nearly straight line from apex to 
inner margin beyond the middle. Hind wing sometimes with a black 
speck at end of ceil ; three waved indistinct hues ; the postmedial 

yoL. I. ^ 



50 



EDPTEEOTIU^. 



line oblique and slightly waved, generally with a series of dark 
specks beyond it ; cilia of both wings red-brown. Underside with 
the specks at end of cell and waved lines more distinct. 




5 with the apex of fore wing more produced. 
Hah. Kulu ; Kangra ; Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Nagas ; Ceylon. Exp. 68 
millim. 



Sect. II. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked. 

60. Ganisa pandya, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1865, p. 807 ; C. ^ S. no. 1358. 
Ganisa palUda, Butl. III. Ket. v, p. 65, pi. 96, fig. C. 8f S. 
no. 1345. 

cJ . Differs from postica in being fawn-colour ; the head black, 
rore wing with a pale speck at end of cell : hind wing without 
waved lines ; a dark spot on inner margin; a medial dark line with 
ochreous outer edge ; a submarginal series of black specks. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Sylhet. Exp. 90 millim. 



61. Ganisa glaucescens, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1188; Butl. III. Het. v, 
pi. 96, figs. 1, 2 ; C.^ S. no. 1356. 

^ Differs from pandva in being dark red-brown. Fore wing 
with'a yellow speck attend of cell; two dark indistinct waved 
lines ; the double postmedial line recurved below the costa, with ful- 
vous between the two lines ; the area between it and the outer 
waved line suffused with grey ; a marginal grey line. Hind wmg 
with the postmedial line curved ; the markings of the outer area as 

on fore wing. „ . 

$ . More ochreous in tone, with hardly any grey suffusion on 

outer area. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp., 6 80, $ 94 millim. 



APHA. 



51 



Genus APHA. 

Apha, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1180 (1855). 

Pnsmosticta, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, p. 67 (1880). 

Type, A. subdives, Wlk. 

Eange. Japan ; Sikhim ; Assam. 

Palpi upturned and slightly fringed with hair. Antennae with 
the branches short. Fore wing with the apex acute and produced; 
the discocellulars nearly straight ; veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing 
with the upper discocellular oblique ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 curved 
and remote from 7. 



Sect. I. (Ajpha). Tore wing with vein 8 given off far before 
the apex ; 10 absent. 

62. Apha subdives, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1180 ; Butl. III. Set. v, pi. 94, 
tigs. 7, 8 ; a <§• S. no. 1344. 

c? . Head vinous red-brovm ; thorax and abdomen purplish 
brown. "Wings brownish ochreous. Pore wing with a purplish 
patch on the costa near the base ; about four very indistinct ante- 
medial waved lines ; a speck at end of cell ; four or five much 
waved indistinct postmedial lines approaching the antemedial lines 
below the cell ; a very oblique dark and yellow line acutely angled 




Fig. 33. — Apha subdives, (S . |. 



below the apex and irregularly waved below the costa ; outer area 
yellow, with two waved submarginal lines. Hind wing with traces 
of antemedial waved lines ; an oblique medial line ; a doubly den- 
tate submarginal line formed like a series of the letter " W.'' 
Underside much more brilliantly coloured. 
$ . Paler and yellower. 

Mah. Khasis ; Sylhet ; Nagas. Bojjp., d 72, $ 86 millim. 



E 2 



52 



EUPTEBOTIDjE. 



63. Apha floralis, Butt. III. Het. v, p. 04, pi. 94, figs. 6, (S; C. 8f S. 
no. 1342. 

S . Differs from suhdives in the apex of the fore wing being 
much more produced and the costa straighter ; thorax and abdo- 
men ochreous, the former with the collar and tegulje purplish ; the 
latter with a rufous tinge. Wings bright yellow ; fore wing with 
the area before the postmedial Hue less irregular ; the inner sub- 
marginal line doubly dentate; the outer margin suffused with 
brown ; hind wing with the area before the medial line suffused 
with pink, and the line itself bright pink ; the submarginal line 
reduced to a series of dots on the nervules connected by a faint 
waved line. Underside bright chestnut-brown, the outer area 
yellow. 

5 . Without the purple suffusion on the fore wing, and much 
more pink suffusion. 

Hab. Sikhim. Ewp., c? 64, $ 74 millim. 

Sect. II. (Prismosticta). Pore wing with vein 8 given off near the 

apex ; 10 present. 

64. Apha fenestrata, Butl A. M. N. H. (5) vi, 1880, p. 68 ; id. III. 
Het. vi, pi. 106, fig. 5; C. ^ S. no. 1107. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown ; thorax with an olive 
tinge. Fore wing olive-brown ; the costal and outer areas pale ; 
two medial indistinct angled brown lines ; a brown line on disco- 
cellulars ; two oblique postmedial lines, angled below the costa and 
waved towards inner margin ; apex grey, with a triangular hyaline 
patch. Hind wing red-brown ; a line on discocellulars and two 
slightly waved postmedial brown lines. 

JTab. Sikhim. Exp. 50 millim. 



Genus APONA. 
Apona, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1762 (1856). 
Type, A. cashmirensis, Koll. 

i2an^?e. N.W. Himalayas, Nilgiris, Shevaroys ; Ceylon. 

Palpi slight, porrect, and very hairy. Antennae with the branches 
very long and slender in the male, shorter m the female. Legs 
with the spurs very long. Pore wing broad, with the outer margin 
rounded ; the discocellulars nearly straight ; veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. 
Hind wing with the discocellulars angled below vem 5, which is 
given off near upper angle of cell; veins 6 and 7 from the angle. 

Sect. I. Fore wing with the apex more or less produced. 
65. Apona cashmirensis, KoU. Hilg. Kasch. iv, p. 472, pi. 21, fig. 4; 
K^J.'.Z.]m. Cat. vii, p. 763 ; C. 8, S. no. 1360. 



APONA. 



53 



. Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown ; shaft of antennae 
white. Wings pale red-brown. Fore wing with an indistinct 
waved subbasal line ; a black spot at end of cell ; an oblique medial 
line, vnth three indistinct waved lines beyond it ; a double post- 
medial line with the interspace pale ; a waved submarginal line, 




Fig. 34. — Apona cashmirensis, . \. 



the space between it and the postmedial line darker ; the nervules 
dark from the medial to submarginal line. Hind wing with no 
subbasal line ; the other lines curved. Cilia of both wings dark. 

5 . Pale greyish white ; the markings as in male. 

Hub. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim. Kvj)., d 114, $ 96 millim. 



Sect. II. Fore wing with the apex not produced. 

66. Apona plumosa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 679 : JSmpsn. III. Set. 

viii, pi. 142, fig. 12 5 C. 8f S. no. 1351. 

c? . Differs from casJimirensis in being darker red-brown. Fore 
wing with the medial line curved below the costa ; but faint traces 
of the waved lines ; the postmedial line whitish inwardly, rufous 
outwardly; the outer area darker, without a waved line, the veins 
crossing it rufous. Hind wing with the waved and postmedial 
lines almost obsolete ; the outer area dark, without a waved line. 

$ . The waA^ed medial lines more distinct on both wings ; the 
postmedial line dark brown. 

Bob. Nilgiri plateau. Exp., s 94, $ 102 millim. 

67. Apona shevaroyensis, Moore, Tram. Bnt. Soc. 1884, p. 373 • 

a ^ S. no. 1352. > 1' ' » 

c? . Differs from plumosa in being duller brown ; fore wing with 
the antemedial line obsolete; the medial and postmedial lines more 
oblique ; the waved lines more distinct. 

Hab. Nilgiri plateau; Shevaroys ; Ceylon. 134 millim. 



54 euptehotid^e. 

Genus EUPTEROTE. 

Eupterote, Mn. Verz. p. 187 (1818). 
Miirlida, Moore, Lep. E. I. C. p. 422 (1857). 
Brachytera, Feld. Iteis. Nov. pi. 95, iig. 1 (1874). 
Horaiipt'lla, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. p. 143 (1883). 
Leptojana, Ihitl. III. Het. v, p. G8 (1881). 
Pacliyjaua, Butl. III. Het. v, p. 69 (1881). 
Spalyr'ia, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 370. 
Messata, IVlk. Cat. v, p. 1107 (1855). 

Type, E. faUa, Cram, 

lianc/e. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma; Sumatra, Java, 
Philippines. 

Palpi A'ery slight and porrect. Antenna3 with the branches 
moderately long. Legs somewhat hairy. Pore wing broad, the 
outer margin rounded ; the discocellulars angled below vein 5 ; 
vein 6 stalked with 7, 8, and 9, or from the cell. Hind wing \\ith 
the discocellulars angled below vein 5 ; veins 6 and 7 stalked or 
from angle of cell. 

Sect. I. Pemale without patches of raised scales. 

68. Eupterote undata, Blanch., Jacq. Voy. Inch, Zool. Ins. p. 23, pi. 1, 

fig. 8 ; C. S,- S. no. 1410. 
Dreataundifera, TFZ/c. Cai. iv,p. 904 

Eupterote nigricans, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 36o ; C. <^ S. 
no 1397 

Eupterote diabolica, Sivinh. P. Z. S 1885, p. 303; C. f S. no. 1381. 
Eupterote hirsuta, Stvinh. Trans. Ent. Soc 1891, p. 139. 
Eupterote variegata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 3o2; C. ^ S. 

Eupteiote^'sinuata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 363; C. 8r S. 

Eupterote^caliginosa, 3Ioore, Trans. Eiit. Soc. 1884, p. 367; C.^ S. 

Eupterote^ subdita, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 361 ; C. ^- S 

Euptelotlf vinosa, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 361 ; C. 8r S. 

Eupterote "affinls, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 369; C. Sr S. 

EupterotTcupreipennis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 361 ; 

Euptetfe in;aMa; Butl. Ill Het. v, p. 68, pi. 97, figs. 3, 4 ; C. ^- S. 

EupteLte^persimilis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 368 -,0.^8. 

Dreata^Loensis, Moore, P Z S. 1878, p. 848, pi. 63, fig. 7;C.^- S. 

Eupte^ot^imilis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 369; C. ^- S. 

Eup'tiote'castanoptera, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 365: 

Eu^t^te dnnal'^mea, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 368; 
C. 8f S. no. 1375. 



EUPTEROTB. 



55 



Euptevote cousimilis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 364 ; C. ^ S. 
110 1377 

Eupterote dissimilis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 368 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 1884. 

Eupterote assimilis, Moore (dissimilis misprint), Trans. Ent. Soc. 
1884, p. 363. 

Eupterote griseipennis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 362; C.SrS. 
no. 1386. 

Dreata imbecilis, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 905 ; Butl. III. Het. v, pi. 97, fig. 2 ; 
a &■ S. no. 1389. 

Eupterote ignavus, Siainh. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 440 ; C. ^ S. no. 1388. 
Eupterote suifusa, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 362 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 1406. 

Eupterote fraterna, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 406 ; Butl. III. Het. vii, 

pi. 123, fig. 1 ; C. 4- S. no. 1385 a. 
Eupterote decorata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 369 ; C. 8r S. 

no. 1380. 

Fore wing with eight indistinct waved lines, any or all of which 
may become obsolete, this occurring in similarly coloured specimens 
from the same locality ; two postmedial lines which are always 
present, with a highly waved line beyond them ; some forms have 
three dark spots below the costa between the postmedial and waved 
lines and two towards inner margin. Hind wing without lines on 
basal area ; five waved lines before the two postmedial lines ; some 
spots between the postmedial and waved lines, which may be obso- 
lete or become a complete series. 

The form nigrica7is=diaboliGa, from Jubbulpore, Saugor, Bel- 
gaum ( (S 110 millim.), is the darkest ; umber-brown, with all the 
lines and spots inside the waved line present. 

Sinuata, from the Himalayas ( cJ 116 millim.), has the ground- 
colour paler umber-brown, especially between the postmedial and 
waved lines ; the markings similar. 

Undata=undifera = vinosa = affinis, from Jubbulpore and Sikhim 
( c? 94-102, $ 106 millim.), has a slightly redder tinge, the collar 
in some specimens yellowish ; female with the ground-colour 
redder or yellowish. 

Oaliginosa, from Jubbulpore ( (5 82 millim.), is dusky brown, the 
submarginal spots well defined. 

Subdita, from Jubbulpore ( 82 millim.), is a small dark red- 
brown form, the collar yellowish. 

Birsuta, from Khandalla ( c5' 110 millim.), has the collar yellow, 
wings with the ground-colour yellow and much suffused with reddish 
umber so as to obscure the waved lines ; the spot near inner margin 
of fore wing black and conspicuous. 

Variegata, from Jubbulpore ( c? 92 millim.), is redder in tone, 
the spot indistinct. 

Cupreipennis, from Madras ( S and $ 110 millim.), is nearest 
undata, but has a reddish-coppery tinge ; the male has a large 
black patch on the middle of the costa of the fore wing ; the 
female paler, with the markings rather indistinct. 

Invalida = taooensis= imbecilis = cinnamomea = similis = consimilis 



56 



EUPTEEOTlDJi. 



=castanoptera—persimilis, from throughout India and Burma 
( (S 78, $ 90 millim.), is paler cinnamon-brown, with no spots in- 
side the waved hne ; the collar yellowish ; female redder. 

Dusimilis = suffusa = ifjncivus — assimilis = qriseipennis, fi'om 
N.W. India and Mhow ( S 81-94, $ 94 millim.). Las spots inside 
the waved line. 

Fraterna, from Dharmsala ( J 90 milhm.), is pale vinous brown, 
with the waved lines obsolescent, except one medial line on fore 
wing. 

Decoraia, from the Punjab ( d" 92 millim.), has the ground-colour 
yellow; the red-brown markings broad and prominent; apex of 
fore wing suffused with red-brown. 

Hub. Throughout N. India, and as far south as the Nilgiris ; 
Burma. Exp. 74-110 millim. 



69. Eupterote fabia, Crmn. Pap. Exot. iii, pi. 250 b ; a 8,- S. no. 1385. 

Eupterote gyra, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 303 ; C. ^- S. no. 3387. 
Eupterote alterata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 360 ; C. 4' S- 
no. 1369. 

Eupterote discordans, Butl. III. Ilet. v, p. 60, pi. 96, figs. C, 7 ; C.Sr S. 
no. 1383. 

Eupterote mutans, B^lJc. Cat. iv, p. 904 ; C. ^- S. no. 1396. 
Eupterote auritiua, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 364 ; C. ^- -S*. 
no. 1371. 

Eupterote immutata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 366 ; C. 8r S. 
no. 1390. 

Eupterote permutata, Moore, Ti-ans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 366 ; C. Sr S. 
no. 1400. 

Eupterote fasciata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii. p. 644, pi. 212, fig. 1. 
Eupterote ochripicta, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 410 ; Lep. Ceyl. ii. 

pi. 136, figs. 1, 1 a, h (larva) ; C. ^- S. no. 1399. 
Eupterote lucia, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) xvi, 1885, p. 346, pi. 8, fig. 4 ; 

C. ^ S. no. 1393. 

S. Differs from undata in having the ground-colour bright 
yellow. 

5 of some forms brown, as in undata, in others suffused with 
bright red-brown, in others yellow. 

The line drawn between the falia and undata sets of forms is 
purely artificial, and merely for convenience. 

The form discordans, from Calcutta ( c? 80-94, $ 88 millim.), has 
the male bright yellow, the waved lines, postmedial Hues, and 
outer waved line very prominent ; the yellow may have an olive 
tino-e, or the head, thorax, abdomen, and base and outer margin of 
fore wing may be yellow, whilst the whole medial area is suffused 
with umber-brown ; the female is brown, and similar to that sex 
of invalida. 

Mutans =immutata=permutata=aunjlua, from biktum, INepal, 
Malabar ( c? 94, $ 106 millim.), is yellow, the waved Imes almost 
obsolete, the postmedial lines and spots red-brown ; female much 
more suffused with red. 



BUPTEEOTB. 



57 



AUerata, irom Sikhim (d 112 milliin.), is brighter yellow; all 
the markings indistiact, except the spots within the waved line of 
the fore wing ; female brown. 




Fig. 35. — Eupterote fabia, J. r. 



Fahia, irom Madras 90 milliin.), is chrome-yellow, the waved 
lines of both w ings obsolescent ; the inner postmedial line very 
strongly marked, the spots below the costa of fore wing forming a 
blotch ; hind wing with the waved outer line obsolete. 

%ra, from Belgaum 102 milHm.), has the spots towards 
inner margin of fore wing and waved outer line of hind wing 
present. 

Oc?irvpicta=fasciata, from Ceylon ( 130, $ 116-130 millim.), 
has the spots below the costa of fore wing separate; in the female 
the colour is mustard-yellow, the waved lines coming out very 
strongly red-brown, or both wings may be almost whollv suffused 
with bright chestnut, so as to obscure the markings ; head, thorax, 
and abdomen yellowish brown. 

Larva of the form ocliripicta is dark purplish brown ; dorsal tufts 
of long and short hair ; lateral and sublateral short tufts ; three 
paired series of white dots on each somite ; a series of red sub- 
dorsal spots on 5th to 11th somites. 

Cocoon pale brown. 

Hah. Sikhim ; throughout N. and S. India ; Ceylon. Exp. 90- 
130 millim. 

70. Eupterote mollifera, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 376; C 8,- 8. no. 1394. 

Apha flava, Moore, Trans. Ent. Sac. 1884, p. 359: C. & S. no 1341. 
1 agora anthereata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 612. 



68 



EUPTEBOTIDiE. 



Bomochroa ornata, Feld. Reis. Nov, pi. 94, fig. 3. 
Tagora discre panSj MoorCf IVcins, JEnt, Soc, 1884, p. 300 j C. ^ S. 
uo. 1355. 

Eupterote coiitaminata, Moore, Trans. Ent. >Soc. 1884, p. 303 ; 

C. cS'- S. 110. 1378. 
Eupterote mollis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 307 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 1395. 

Eupterote todara, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 304 ; C. 8,- S. 
110. 1408. 

Eupterote rufodisca, Ilmpsn. III. Jlet. viii, p. 04, pi. 142, fig. 11. 
Eupterote flavia, Ilmpsn. III. Ilet. viii, p. 04, pi. 142, fig. 10. 
Eupterote rectifascia, IImj}sn. III. Ilet. viii, p. 05, pi. 142, fig. 4. 
Eupterote lativittata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 307 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 1392. 

Eupterote canaraica, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 410 ; C. ^ S. no. 1373. 
Eupterote nilgirica, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 77 ; C. §• S. no. 1398. 

Differs from fahia iu being smaller, with the ground-colour 
always yellow or drab in both sexes, often more or less suffused 
with rufous ; the foi*e wing has at most five waved lines within 
the double postmedial lines, one of which is often obsolete ; the 
hind wing three lines at most within the postmedial lines ; the 
outer waved line and spots within it variable. 

The form cUscrejpans=conta.minata, from Bombay and Canara 
(J 84 millim.), has the thorax suffused with rufous; fore wing 
with the rufous waA-ed lines obsolete on the disk and inner margin; 
neither wing with spots inside the outer waved line, but a rufous 
suffusion between it and the outer postmedial line ; a rufous spot 
on inner margin of hind wing near the base ; cilia dark rufous- 
brown. 

Mollifera=flava=anthereata=ornata, from the Nilgiris and Cey- 
lon ( J 64, $ 80 milhm.), has, in the male, the fore wing more 
uniformly suffused with brownish rufous; the spots inside the 
outer waved line of both wings present, those towards the costa 
of fore wing grey ; female yellower, with the grey spots larger and 
forming a more complete series. 

MoUis=todara, from Bombay and the Nilgiris ( c? 64, $ 72 
millim.), has the cilia yellow, the postmedial lines indistinct, the 
black spots near inner margin of fore wing prominent, the inner 
postmedial line of hind wing nearer the base ; its variety rufo- 
disca, from the Nilgiris ( S 68 millim.), has the costa and whole 
medial area of fore wing suffused with rufous. 

Flavia, from the Nilgiris ( d 72 millim.), is much paler yellow ; 
the spots within the outer waved line of both wings dark, not grey; 
cilia of fore wing brown below the apex. 

Rectifascia, from the Nilgiris ( d 70 millim.), is pale dull brown 
the markings indistinct, except the inner postmedial line ot both 
wings, which appears as a strong dark line. . . 

Canaraica=lativittata, from Bombay, Canara, and the JNUgms 
(84 mniim.), has the male yellow, much suffused with red-brown 
the outer margin of both wings red-brown ; female brownish 
ochreous, the fore wing with one subbasal, and both wings with one 



EUPTEEOTE. 



59 



medial waved line ; the postmedial line, the spots, and outer waved 
line prominent. 

Nilgirica is without the postmedial wa\'ed line. 

Larva of the form mollifera is whitish speckled with black; 
dorsal tufts of black hairs on each somite arising from a whitish 
hump ; a dorsal blue-black band ; a subdorsal pinkish band trar- 
versed' by a grey line ; a series of small lateral black spots ; sub- 
lateral area purplish grey with long hairs ; stigmata and legs pink ; 
head black. 

Hob. Throughout S. India and Ceylon. Exp. 64-84 milhm. 

71. Eupterote flavicoUis, Guir. Voy. Deless. Hist. Nat. p. 94, pi. 27, 

fig. 1 ; C. c5- S. no. 1415. 
Bombyx collaris, Guer. Voy. Deless. Hist. Nat. p. 95 ; C. <^ 
no. 1414. 

Bombyx adolph^i, Guer. Voy. Deless. Hist. Nat. p. 96 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 1413. 

S . Differs from typical mollifera in the thorax being red-brown. 
Fore wing with five or six waved lines before the postmedial line, 
which is curved ; the grey spots take the form of a complete waved 
band and are f urtbej- from the postmedial line ; between the line and 
grey band is a conjoined series of dark spots, those towards inner 
margin lai'gest. Hind wing with a siugle postmedial curved line, 
and sometimes medial and outer lines. Underside with medial, 
postmedial, and outer waved lines. 

$ . Eeddish brown ; the collar not yellow ; abdomen brown ; 
both wings with an indistinct postmedial line ; fore wing with the 
submargiual grey band nearly straight. 

The form adolpJicei is dark brown, the collar yellow, the fore 
wing sulf used with grey ; flavicoUis is yellowish grey-brown ; 
collaris paler and redder. 

Hab. Nilgiri plateau. Exp., c? 60-72, $ 75 millim. 

72. Eupterote diffusa, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 374 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, 

pi 135, fig. 2 ; C.^^S. no. 1382. 

S . Differs from mollifera in having the head brown ; the thorax, 
abdomen, and wings vary in colour from greyish white to dull 
ochreous brown ; the postmedial line single, curved on both wings, 
and much nearer the margin ; the waved lines fairly distinct or 
obsolescent, as are the spots and outer waved line ; cilia brown. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exjy. 66 millim. 

73. Eupterote primularis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 371 : 

a S. no. 1421. > ' 

c? • Differs from diffusa in being very pale primrose-yellow ; 
both wings without waved lines near the base; a well-marked 
medial line, which is curved and waved on the fore wing, waved 



60 



EUl'TEEOTIDJE. 



on the hind wing. Fore wing with the postmedial line yellow- 
brown, straight, oblique, and arising from the costa near the apex; 
the two spots towards inner raai'gin prominent ; the outer line 
more or less prominent ; the costa yellow-brown. Hind wing with 
the postmedial line curved, the spots and outer waved line some- 
what indistinct. 

Huh. Nilgiris, S. slopes, 3000 feet. Exp. 58 millim. 

74. Eupterote geminata, Wlk. Cut. iv, 907 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, 

pi. 137, fig8. 2, 2 ff ; a (.5- S. no. 1419. 
? rhalcBiia petoairis, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv, pi. 397 i) ; C. <Jr S. no. 1402. 
Dreata auada, Moore, Lep. JE. I. C. pi. 365 ; C. ^- S. uo. 1370. 
Brachytera phaljBuaria, Feld. Heis. Nov. pi. 96, fig. 1 ; C. S/- S. 

no. 1420. 

Horanpella placida, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 143, pi. 137, figs. 1,1a; 

C. ^' S. no. 1332. 
Dreata Hneata, Wlk. Cat iv, p. 907 ; C. ^ S. no. 1430. 

S . Fore wing with a single medial indistinct slightly curved 
line ; both wings with a prominent postmedial slightly curved line. 

2 . Duller, the medial line of fore wing absent. 

Typical geminata is bright ochreous yellow ; one or two pro- 
minent dark spots below the costa of fore wing and two towards 
inner margin. Hind wing with similar but less prominent spots. 
In anada and phalcBuaria these spots are absent ; placida is suf- 
fused with dull brown, the spots present, but not prominent ; one 
§ has the head and thorax fuscous ; lineata has the spots absent. 

Hah. N. India; Canara ; Ceylon. Exp., 6 58,' $ 66-80 
millim. 

75. Eupterote minor, Moore ; Cotes, Museum Notes, ined. 

c? . Differs from geminata in the two lines of the fore wing being 
more erect and curved below the costa ; the two lines of the hind 
wing more curved and less oblique. Head yellowish. 

The colour varies from pale dull ochreous to pale reddish, the 
latter with traces of the submarginal line to both wings. 

$ . Dark red-brown ; the lines of both wings further apart ; a 
dark spot on the inner line of fore Mdng at end of cell ; cilia grey 
at tips. 

Hah. Shwebo, Bui-ma. Ex2}., 6 46-55, $ 50 miUim. 

76. Eupterote lineosa, Wlk. Cat. V\, p. 1440 ; Butl. III. Bet. v, pi. 96, 

tig. 9 ; C.Sf S. no. 1418. q^i ^ c c 

Murlida fraterna, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 3/ i ; C. *J>. 

no. 1417. 

Fore wing with the postmedial line single, almost straight, and 
oblique, with at most five waved lines before it ; the two spots 
beyond it towards costa and two towards inner margni generally 
present ; the outer waved line indistinct. 



EUPTEEOTE. 



61 



The colour varies from pale primrose-yellow to bright ochreous 

Hah. Nepal; Sikhim ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exp., S 70-82, $ 
85-90 millim. 

77. Eupterote nndans, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 905 ; Butl III. Het. v, pi. 97, 

fig. 6 ; C. ^- S. no. 1409. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen reddish brown ; wings grey- 
brown irrorated with dark scales. Fore wing with_ six highly 
waved lines. Hind wing with three nearly straight indistinct lines 
and a highly waved submarginal line. 

ffab. Mahableshwar ; Bangalore ; Assam ; Nilgiris. Kvp. 
60 millim. 

78. Eupterote testacea, Wlk. Cat iv, p. 906 ; Butl. III. Het. v, pi. 97, 

fig. 1 ; C.^S. no. 1416. 

Head and thorax fulvous yellow; abdomen and wings pale 
ochreous yellow. Eore wing crossed by two antemedial and two 
medial, nearly straight indistinct dark lines ; a double postmedial 
similar line, the inner line well defined ; a waved submarginal 
line ; the basal and outer areas irrorated with dark scales. Hind 
wing with an antemedial Hne ; a double postmedial line ; a diffused 
submarginal curved line. 

Hah. Cachar ; Sylhet ; Khasis ; Bernardmyo, Burma. Exj^., 
S 68, $ 86 millim. 

79. Eupterote translata, Stoi7ih. P.Z. S. 1885, p. 304, pL 21, fl^. 5; 

C. 4- S. no. 1434. 

d . Differs from testacea in being pale ochreous brown. Fore 
wing with antemedial, medial, and postmedial indistinct lines ; the 
prominent postmedial line single ; the submarginal line nearer the 
margin. Hind wing without the antemedial line ; the postmedial 
line single and straighter ; the submarginal liae better defined. 

Hah. kSatara ; Poona ; Nilgiris. Exp. 54 millim. 

80. Eupterote flavida, Moore, Trans. Bnt. Sac. 1884, p. 372 ; C. & S. 

no. 1428. 

Messata acinea, Sivinh. Trans. Ent. Sac. 1891, p. 141. 

Colour yellow, in typical flavida with a slight ruddy tinge. 
Fore wing crossed by three slightly curved oblique bands of 
blackish scales from near the apex to inner margin, towards which 
they diverge ; the middle band often obsolete. 

Hah. N. Canara; Khandala; Nilgiris. Exp. 74 millim. 

81. Eupterote plumipes, wik. Cat. iv, p. 907 ; C. 8r S no 1431 • 

Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 133, fig. 5. 
Messata rubiginosa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1108. 

Messata quadrifasciata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 409 : C. & 8. no. 1432 
Messata similis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 139, pi. 133, fig. 4 ; C. 8c 8 
no. 1433. ^ ' o J • 



62 



euptbhotidjE. 



c? . Fore wing with three indistinct waved medial bands ; an 
oblique dai'k band from apex to centre of inner margin ; a sub- 
marginal indistinct band. Hind wing with traces of medial and 
subniarginal bands in some specimens. 

$ . Eore wing with the medial waved lines and submarginal line 
very indistinct. 

The colour in typical plumipes is reddish brown, in the female 
very dark vinous brown ; in the form rjuadrifasciata brownish 
ochreous, in similis and cenescens yellow. 

Hab. Ceylon. Kxjy., S 64, $ 70 millim. 

82. Eupterote vialis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 409 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. ii, 

pi. 134, fig. 4 ; a Sf S. no. 1436. 

S . Differs from plumipes in the hairs of the thorax being tipped 
with yellow. Fore wing without the medial and submarginal lines ; 
the oblique band inwardly dark brown, outwardly yellow. 

Ilab. Ceylon. Ewp. 71 miUim. 

Sect. II. Female with patches of raised scales at outer angle of 
fore wing on underside and at apex of hind wing on upper- 
side, 

83. Eupterote citrina, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 906 ; C. ^ S. no. 1376. 

S . Antennfe rufous ; head, collar, and prothorax fuscous ; meso- 
and metathorax pale yellowish white; abdomen pale reddish 
brown clothed with yellow hair; wings uniform pale yellowish 

white. „ 
$ . Antennee, head, and thorax yellowish white ; the patches ot 

raised scales ochreous. 

Hab. Deccan ; Bombay ; Central India, and ? Sikhim. Exj^., 
d 84, $ 50-86 millim. 

84. Eupterote unicolor, Hmpsn. III. Set. viii, p. 65, pi. 143, fig. 8. 

J Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown. Wings vinous red- 
brown ; an almost obsolete postmedial line, curved below the costa 
and with traces of some spots beyond it ; the abdomen and costa of 
hind wing sometimes yellowish. 

9 Paler ; fore wing with antemedial and medial hnes curved 
below the costa ; both wings with the postmedial line, but no spots 
beyond ; the patches of raised scales vinous. 

'Bab. Madras ; Nilgiris. Ea-jy., d 72, $ 68 milhm. 



Genus NISAGA. 
Nisaga, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 885 (1855). 

Type, JSf. simplex, 'Wlk. o t j- 

llancje. Assam and throughout S. India. 



NISAOA. — SANGATISSA. 

Palpi very thickly clothed with hair, slight and porrect. Antennae 
with the branches very long in male. Fore wing short and broad, 
the outer margin rounded ; the discocellulars angled below vein 5, 
which is given off near the angle of cell, 11 arising some way before 
veins 7, 8, 9, which are stalked. Hind wing with the discocellulars 
ano-led below vein 5 ; veins 6 and 7 stalked. 



85. Nisaga simplex, Wlk. Cat. W, p. 885 ; C. ^ S. no. 1438. 

Nisaga modesta, Moore, Trans. JEnt. Soc. 1884, p. 373 ; C. 8r S. 
no. 1437. 

S. Head, thorax, and abdomen reddish brown. Tore wing 
whitish, yellowish, or reddish brown ; the interspaces with very 




Fig. 36. — Nisaga simplex, \. 



broad dark red-brown streaks, which maybe partially or (in the 
form modesta) quite obsolete. 

Sab. Khasi Hills ; throughout S. India. Ex^y. 42-50 millim. 



Genus SANGATISSA. 

Sangatissa, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. ]43 (1883). 
Type, S. subcurvifera^ "Wlk. 

Range. N. W. Himalayas ; throughout S. India and Ceylon ; 
Yunnan. 

Palpi slight, porrect, and thickly clothed with hair. Antennae 
with the branches very long in the male, short in female. Eore 
wing produced at apex, the outer angle rounded ; the discocellulars 
angled below vein 5, which is given off just below the angle ; vein 6 
stalked with 7, 8, 9, or from the angle, vein 11 arising some way 
before the angle. Hind wing narrow ; the discocellulars angled 
below vein 5 ; veins 6 and 7 stalked. 

86. Sangatissa subcurvifera, wik. Cat. xxxii, p. 375 ; C. 8^ S. no. 

1424 ; Moore^ Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 134, fig. 6. 
Sangatissa albipars, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 372 ; C. & S. 
no. 1422. 



64 



EUPTEEOTIDiT!, 



Drenta triseriata, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 393 ; C. 8c S. no. 1420. 
Dreata citrinula, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 370 ; C. Sf S. no. 1423. 
Nisaga teta, Sivinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 140. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown. Wings whitish 
brown. Pore wing with tlu-ee blackish curved bands — one from the 




Fig. 37. — Sangatissa subcurvifera, • 



base to near apex, one from base of inner margin to apex, the other 
on outer margin. Hind wing with submarginal and marginal 
bands ; all these bands are interrupted at the veins. 
5 browner. 

The variety albipars has the bands obsolescent ; the form tri- 
seriata, from the Pulney Hills, is much yellower incolour ; whilst 
citrinula— teta is yellow, with the bands obsolete except a trace 
of the upper one. 

Hah. N.W.Himalayas; throughout S.India and Ceylon; Yunnan. 
Ex-p. 60 millim. 

Genus CNETHOCAMPA. 

Cnethocampa, Steph. III. Brit. Ent., Haust. ii, p. 46 (1829). 

Type, C. processionea, Linn., from Europe. 
Range. Europe ; N. India. 

Palpi minute, hairy, and porrect ; frons with a large corneous 
ridge hollowed out in front; antennae bipectinated in both sexes, 
the branches stitF and longer in the male than in the female ; legs 
hairy, mid and hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs ; 
abdomen of female with a large anal tuft. Eore wing with_ the 
apex rather produced upwards ; vein 5 from the centre of disco- 
cellulars ; 6 from angle of cell ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wdng 
with veins 3 and 4 stalked, 5 from the centre of discocellulars, 
6 and 7 stalked. 

87. Cnethocampa cheela, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 18, pi. v, figs. 3, 
3a; C. S^S. no. 1046. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale and dark brown ; antennae 



SPHINQ-IDiE. 



65 



ochreous. Fore wing grey, with a few dark hairs ; subbasal, medial, 
and postmedial slightly irregular black lines edged with orange, 




Fig. 38. — Cnethocampa cheela, $ . \. 

the medial line externally, the other two internally. BQnd wing 
pale grey. 

5 . Abdomen red-brown, the anal tuft dark brown. 
Hah. Simla. Exp., S 34, $ 38 millim. 



The following species formerly recorded as Indian are omitted. 

Apha lanuginosa, Wlk,, C. & S. no. 1343. Type lost, descrip- 
tion unrecognizable. 
Messata tristis, Feld., 0. & S. no. 1435, is from S. Africa. 



FamHy SPHINGIDiE. 

Diurnal or crepuscular Lepidoptera with powerful flight, which 
feed on the wing ; characterized by the antennae being gradually 
thickened into a club, which is pointed at the tip, and nearly 
always hooked, with a small tuft of hair at the extremity : in the 
males of nearly all the genera there are bands of cilia on the under 
surface. Palpi very thickly scaled, the third joint minute and 
buried m the scales. Legs strong, with well-developed spurs and 
spmed tarsi. Fore wing elongated and narrow ; the subcostals 
very close to the costa ; vein 1 forked at base. Hind wing small • 
costal nervure arising free, with a bar between it and subcostals • 
two internal veins. The subfamilies and genera are very closely 
alhed and difficult to define ; the shape and coloration are emi- 
nently variable. 

Larva smooth, nearly always with a horn on 11th somite. 
Pupa free in the earth. 

Keg to the Subfamilies. 

a. Larva : tapering to head, the thoracic 
somites retractile ; horn long, curved and 
tuberculate. 

Imago : the proboscis very short and thick. 1. Acherontiince. 



66 



SPHINGID^. 



b. Larva : rugose, tapering to head, which is 

produced upwards ; horu straight. 
Imai/o : the proboscis very short and slight. 2. Smerinthince. 

c. Imago : the proboscis of moderate length, 
a'. Larva : tapering to head, which is larger 

and rounded ; horn straight. 
Imago : the apex of fore wing much pro- 
duced ; S with small lateral expansions 

to abdomen 3. Amhulgeince. 

b'. Larva : the thoracic somites retractile, 
the 3rd more or less swollen ; horn 
variable. 

Imago : apex of fore wing but slightly- 
produced ; J with small lateral expan- 
sions to aladoinen 4. Chcerocampince. 

d. Larva : the thoracic somites non-retractile, 

curved downwards in repose. 
Imago : the proboscis very long ; abdomen 
conical in both sexes 5 SpliingincB. 

e. Larva : the thoracic somites tapering to 

head, which is small ; horn long, curved, 
and smooth. 
Imago : abdomen "with a medial pair of 
lateral tufts of hair on last segment more 
or less developed in both sexes 6. Macroglossin(B. 



Subfamily ACHERONTIINtE. 

Larva thick, tapering to head, the thoracic somites retractile ; 
the horn more or less recurved at the tip and tuberculate. 




Fig. 39.— Larva of Acherontia styx. (From Moore, Lep. Ceyl. pi. 76.) 

Pupa without external sheath for proboscis. 

Imago with the proboscis short and thick; the antenn* thick 



at base. 



ACHEBONTIA. 



67 



Genus ACHERONTIA. 

Acherontia, Ochsen. Schmett. Eur. iv, p. 44 (1816). 
Type, A. atropos, L., from Europe. 

Range. India ; Java ; China ; Japan ; Philippines ; Europe ; 
Africa. 

Palpi closely appressed to the face and but moderately thick ; 
legs sliort and thick. Hind wing with the subcostals stalked. 

88. Acherontia styx, Wesho. Cah. Or. Ent. p. 88, pi. 42, fig. 3 ; C. ^ /S. 
no. 164 ; Moore, Lep, Ceyl. ii, pi. 76, figs. 1, 1 a-c (pupa and larva). 
Acherontia medusa, Butl. Trans. Z. S. ix, p. 697 ; C. ^ S. no. 165. 

Head brown ; thorax dark blue-grey, with black lateral lines 
which meet behind ; the centre of the thorax occupied by a fulvous 
"skull-mark" with two black "eyes"; abdomen yellow, with 
blackish segmental bauds and a blue-grey stripe down the vertex. 
Eore wing mottled with various shades of brown, fulvous, and 
grey ; three indistinct antemedial lines ; a pale spot in the end of 
cell ; two lunulate curved postmedial lines. Hind wing yellow 




Fig. 40. — Acherontia styx, ^. \. 



with a postmedial black band not reaching the costa or anal angle ; 
a similar submarginal maculate band. 

Differs from A. atropos in having two medial bands on the 
underside of the fore wing instead of one, and no bands on the 
underside of abdomen. 

Larva green, with oblique lateral yellow streaks on somites 4-10. 

ITab. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Asia Minor ; China ; Siam ; 
Borneo ; Celebes ; Timor ; Philippines ; Japan. JEJwp. 106 millim. 

89. Acherontia lachesis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 434 

^^^^^^oriii^mon^ mibn. Verz. ^.UO; C. ^ S. no. 166; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. n, pi. 77, figs. 1, 1 a~c (larva and pupa). 
Acherontia satanaa, Boisd. Sp. Gdn.. pi 16 fig 1 
Acherontia lethe, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p.' 87,' pi. 42, fig. 2. 



68 



SPHINGIDJE. 



Larger and much darker than styx ■ the segmental bands and 
grey stripe occupying so much of the abdomen that only small 
patches oi yellow are left. Hind wing with a large black patch 
at the base ; the medial and postmodial bands so broad that only 
narrow bands of yellow remain. Underside of abdomen banded 
with black ; and the wings banded with black and with a spot in 
the cell of each. 

Larva differs from styx in having blue streaks above the yellow 
ones; before pupating it turns brown and the oblique streaks 
disappear. 

Hab. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Siam : Penang : Java : 
China. Exp. 92-134 millim. 



Subfamily SMERINTHINiE. 

Larva rugose, tapering to the head, which is more or less produced 
to a point above ; horn straight. 

Imago with the proboscis very short and thin ; head projecting 
but slightly forward. 




Fig. 41. — Larva of Polyptychus dyras. (From Moore, Lep. Ceyl. pi. 78.) 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Fore wing with outer margin cremilate or 

angled. 
a . The apex acute. 

a"^. Palpi rounded 1. Polyptychus, p. 68. 

5^. Palpi thin and flattened 2. Oypa, p. 71. 

b'. Fore wing with apex rounded, spatulate 
scales on thorax and abdomen ; (S with 
claspers highly developed 4. Langia, p. 73. 

b. Fore wing with outer margin evenly 

rounded. 

a'. Apex acute ; spurs long 5. Leucophlebia, p. 74. 

b' . Apex truncate; spurs short, one pair on 

hind tibia 3. Daphnusa, p. 72. 



Genus POLYPTYCHUS. 

Polyptvchus, Hilbn. Verz. p. 141 (1818). 
Marumba, Moo7-e, Lep, Ceyl. ii. p. 8 (1882). 

Type, P. clentatus. Cram. 



POLYFJYCHUS. 



69 



Bange. Japan; China; througliout India and Ceylon; Java; 
Madagascar ; S. Africa ; United States. 

Palpi rather slight; legs with the spurs short; wings with the 
outer margins crenulate, varying in amount individually ; veins 
6 and 7 of hind wing from end of cell or stalked. 

90. Polyptychus dentatus, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii, p. 42, pi. 125 g; 

C. ^- S. no. 132; Butl. Tr. Zool. Soc. ix, pi. 91, fig. 10 (larva). 
Sphinx timesius, Stall, Suppl. Cram. Fap. Exot. p. 172 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 133. 

Polyptychus trilineatus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 390 ; £utl. III. 

Het. vii, pi. 121, ti^. 4 ; C. 8f S. iio. 133 A. 
Sphinx modesta, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii, p. 356. 

Grey ; fore wing with a diffused medial band ; oblique ante- 
medial, postmedial, and submarginal lines, the last curved in some 
specimens ; between the postmedial and submarginal lines is an 
indistinct waved hue; apical area clouded. Hind wing with a 
waved postmedial line. Cilia chequered brown and white. Under- 
side : fore wing with submarginal, hind wing with medial and sub- 
marginal lines. 

The form timesius is darker, with the waved line on the fore 
wing obsolescent. In the form trilineatus the postmedial line of 
the fore wing is also obsolete, and on the underside only the sub- 
marginal line on each wing is present. 

Larva green, with yellow marks down the back outlined in 
pink ; oblique dark lateral stripes ; horn yellow. 

Hab. Bombay ; Bengal {dentatus) ; E. Himalayas (timesim) ; 
N.W. Himalayas {trilineatus). Ex^., cJ 90, 5 120 millim. 

91. Polyptychus dyras, Wik. Cai. viii, p. 250 ; C. ^ iS. no 140 ; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 78, figs. 1, 1 a-c (larva and pupa). 
Triptogon cristata, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 253 ; C. ^ S. no. 136. 
Triptogon gigas, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 253 ; C. ^ S. no. 137. 
Triptogon albicans, Butl. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 254 ; C. ^ S. no. 139. 
Triptogon ceylanica, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 255 ; C. ^ S. no. 141. 
Triptogon silhetensis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 256 ; C. ^ S. no. 142. 
Triptogon oriens, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 256 ; C. ^ S. no. 143. 
Triptogon massurensis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 256 ; C. ^ S. no. 144. 
Triptogon fuscescens, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 256 ; C. S. no. 145. 
Treptogon piceipennis, Butl. A. M. iV. H. (4) xx, p. 393. 
Smerinthus sperchius, Men. En. Corp. An. Mm. Acad. Sci. Petrop. 

ii, p. 137. 

Triptogon andamana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 595 ; C.^S. no. 148. 
Triptogon rectilinea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 388 ; C. ^ S. no. 149. 
Smerinthus mdicus, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 254 ; C. 8r S. no. 150. 
Triptogon sinensis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 254. 
Triptogon javanica, Butl. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 254. 

Pale brown ; a dark line, which is obsolete in some specimens, 
from head to end of abdomen. Eore wing with a subbasal line • 
three antemedial lines converging towards inner margin ; two 



70 



SPHINQID^. 



oblique slightly bent postmeclial lines, the outer one obsolescent ; 
another postmeclial line, curved from the costa to vein 2, then 
recurved upwards and inwards and enclosing a red-brown spot 
surrounded by an indistinct lino ; two curved submarginal lines. 




Fig. ^2.—Polyptychus dyran, S ■ t- 



Hind wing red-brown, the area at anal angle paler, with two red- 
brown spots on it. Underside of fore wing with only the lines 
on the outer half present ; hind wing with two postmedial straight 
lines and two submarginal curved lines. 

The darkest form is cristata from Sikhim, in which both wings 
are suffused with brown and the lines on the fore wing are 
straighter and more oblique, the uppermost of the anal spots on 
the hind wing is obsolete, as also is the outermost of the two 
postmedial lines on the underside of both wings ; in piceipennis, 
from Japan, the fore wings have an olive tinge and the lines are 
more bent, the hind wing is dark, but both anal spots are present 
as also traces of the outer postmedial hue ; rectilinea is a small 
dark form with the spots at anal angle conjoined; ceylanica = 
fuscescens = oriens = silhetensis is larger than the last and rather 
paler ; in spercUus, from Japan, the fore wing is clouded in parts ; 
gigas is a large form, the fore wing pale, the hind wmg dark ; 
dyras = sinensis = javanica is again rather paler and smaller ; 
i^icZicMS is a small pale starved specimen; the palest form aZ6tc«.HS, 
from the N.W. Himalayas, has the spots at the anal angle, and m 
some specimens the lines, almost obsolete. 

Exp 94-114 millim., (gigas) 150 millim., (mchcus) 60 miilim. 

Larva blue-green with short white granular spines ; lateral 
oblique streaks on 5th-10th somites ; 4th somite with a black- 
ringed white ocellus ; horn yellow. 



POLYPTTOHUS . — CTPA. 



71 



Hah. N.W. and E. Himalayas ; Assam ; Canara ; Ceylon ; 
Andamans; Japan; China; Siam ; Java. 

92 Polyptyclius spectabilis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 256 ; Trans. Zool 
jSoc. ix, pi. 93, tig. 1 ; C. S. no. 347. 

. DiiSers from dyras in the fore wing being variegated with 
different shades of brown and purplish grey ; the lines are similar 
except that there is a medial line present enclosing between it 
and the first postmedial line a bright coloured patch very variable 
in extent. Underside witb the area before the apex of the fore 
M'ino' suffused with pink and grey ; the apex and outer angle 
fulvous yellow instead of chocolate ; hind wing suffused with pink 
and gi-ev, the anal angle yellow. 

y^a6."Sikhim. Ecvjp. 94-120 millim. 

Genus CYPA. 
Cypa, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 41 (1864). 

Type, G . ferruginect, Wlk. 
Bange. Sikhim ; Tavoy ; Ceylon. 

The palpi flattened and thin; hind wing with the subcostals 
on a long stalk. 

93. Cypa decorata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 568 ; C.^S. no. 146. 

5 . Dark olive-brown. Fore wing with the outer margin highly 
excised between veins 4 and 7, and much angulated towards outer 
angle ; suffused with pale pink ; a large irregular medial brown 
patch bordered with pink on the costa and partly including a pale 
renif orra spot, beneath which is a dark brown " inverted- comma " 
shaped mark ; two curved postmedial pink lines, the inner one 
waved near the inner margin ; some diffused brown streaks near 
outer angle ; a triangular brown-edged patch on the costa before 
the apex, with a short white streak below it. Hind wing with a 
broad black and narrow pink streak near anal angle. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 72 millim. 

94. Cypa decolor, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 255; C. ^ S. no. 131. 

Cypa incongrueus, Butl. III. Het. v, p. 12, pi. 80, 

figs. 8, 9; C.^S.no.77. 

Fore wing highly angled and crenulate. 
Dark red-brown ; the fore wing suffused 
with darker patches, especially at the middle; 
a dark speck at end of cell, and two indis- 
tinct submarginal waved lines. Hind wing 
with the cilia white towards anal angle, 
which is less produced in the female than 
in the male. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Tavoy. Exjp. 62 millim. 




72 sPHrNaiD;E, 

95. Cypa ferruginea, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 42 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, 

pi. 71), lig. 3 ; C.SfS. no. 78. 

Pore wing witli the outer margin hardly angulated or crenulate 
and more uuiform in colour. 

C. decolor and ferruginea may prove to be varieties of the same 
species. 

Hah. Ceylon. Ex^. $ 60 millim. 

96. Cypa floralis, Butl. Trans. Z S. ix, p. 639 ; III. Bet. v, pi. 81, 

lig. 1 ; C. ^- S. uo. 138. 

AnteunsD pink ; head and thorax green ; abdomen olive. Fore 
wing outer margin evenly curved, green with a pink patch on 
base of inner margin ; an oblique postmedial dark Hne ; some 
brown on the nervules beyond the cell and at outer angle. Hind 
wing bright pink ; the outer margin broadly olive ; cilia whitish 
towards anal angle. Underside green ; fore wing with the whole 
basal half except the costa pink, an indistinct line beyond the cell 
from the costa to vein 5, an oblique white and green postmedial 
line, an indistinct submarginal lunulate line ; hind wing crossed 
by three oblique white and green lines. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. $ 114 millim. 



Genus DAPHNUSA. 
Daphnusa, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 237 (1866). 

Type, D. ocellaris, Wlk. 

Bange. Sikhim ; Burma ; Borneo. 

The apex of fore wing more rounded and truncate ; the outer 
margin straight and but slightly oblique ; hind wing with the apex 
rounded ; the anal angle with a rounded lobe ; the outer margin 
not crenulate; the tuft on vertex of head highly developed. 
Spurs very short, hind tibia? with only the terminal pair. 



Sect. I. Veins 6 and 7 of hind wing on a long footstalk. 

97. Daphnusa ocellaris, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 238. 

Daphnusa orbifera, Wlk. Journ. Lin7i. Soc. vi, p. 85. 

c5" . Pale reddish brown or dark olive-brown ; collar and vertex 
of thorax darker. Pore wing with two waved subbasal hues 
angled outwards at vein 1, where they join an obHque antemedial 
band ; a crenulated postmedial band with a large pale spot on it 
at inner margin, the inner side having some red dentate marks 
on it ; two crenulated submarginal lines ; a chestnut patch on 
the costa before apex. Hind wing red-brown, with some bright 
chestnut lines above anal angle. Underside : fore wmg with 



DAPHNUSA.. — LANGIA. 



73 



two crenulafced submarginal lines ; hind wing with curved medial 
and postmedial lines. 

$ . Darker brown ; a dark brown band on metathorax. 

Hah. Borneo; Bassein, Burma. Exp., S 80-92, $ 112 millim. 

Sect. II. Veins 6 and 7 of hind wing from end of cell. 

98. Daphnusa porphyria, Bail. Trans. Z. S. 
ix, p. 640 ; C. 8f S. no. 152. 

Brown ; fore wing variegated with ferru- 
ginous and olive-brown ; a dark patch below 
the end of the cell ; another at apex en- 
closed by a white lunule with a dark streak 
below it ; a spot near outer angle. Hind 
wing brown, with a dark spot above the lobe 
at anal angle. Underside with a submar- 
ginal pale line to both wings ; the apex of 
fore wing dark, with the apical lunule as 
Fig. 44. above. 
Daphnusa porphyria, d. h Hah. Sikhim. Exp. s 60 millim. 

Genus LANGIA. 
Langia, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 567. 

Type, L. zenzeroicles, Moore. 
Range. Himalayas and Khasi Hills. 

Palpi rounded. Fore wing with the apex more rounded ; the 
outer margin much more crenulate towards outer angle; the 
thorax, abdomen, and parts of fore wing covered with peculiar 
spatulate scales, giving a very rough appearance ; male with the 
claspers extremely developed; subcostals of hind wing from end 
of cell. 

99. Langia zenzeroides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 567 ; C.^S. no. 134. 

Langia khasiana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 568 ; C. ^ S. no. 135, 

Head pale ; thorax — the vertex leaden with some ochreous 
lines, the sides dark brown ; metathorax covered with light and 
dark brown spatulate scales, as is also the abdomen. Fore wing 
with the costal area leaden grey, whitish below the cell, dark grey 
towards inner and outer margins ; three very oblique dark lines 
from tlie apex to near centre of inner margin ; a whitish submar- 
ginal line; outer margin with light and dark lunules in the 
crenulatious. Hind wing brown, with some dark brown and 
whitish lines near anal angle ; a marginal dark line ; cilia whitish 
towards anal angle. 

The form Ichasiana is slightly darker. 

Larva. Green, covered with raised tubercles ; a subdorsal line of 
tubercles from the head to the horn. 




74 



SPIIINOIDJE. 



Hah. 
niillim. 



Simla; Dbarmsala; Sikhim ; Khdsis. Exj^. 126-160 




Fig. 45. — Langia zenzeroides, . 



Genus LEUCOPHLEBIA. 

Leucophlebia, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 46 (1848). 
Type, L. lineata, Westw. 

Eange. Throughout India and Ceylou ; Java ; China. 
Fore wing with the apex hardly produced ; the outer margin 
evenly rounded. Palpi rounded. 

100. LeucophleMalineata, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 46, pi. 22, fig. 2 
C. & S. no. 153; Moore, Lejy. Mus. E. I. C. pi. 8, fi^. 5 (larva). 
Leucophlebia rosacea, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 15, pi. 2, hg. ^; €.&>■ S. 
no. 154. 

Palpi and frons brown ; antennae 
ochreous ; vertex of head and sides of 
thorax and abdomen pale pink ; a 
brownish ochreous stripe on vertex 
of thorax and abdomen. Pore wing 
bright pink ; a yellow stripe from the 
base of cell to apex, widest beyond the 
cell ; a short narrow yellow streak 
in the interno-median interspace from 
the base; veins 2, 3, and 4 white, 
with some diffused fuscous below 
them. Hind wing tawny. Cilia yel- 
lowish white. 




Fig. 46. 

Leucophlebia lineata, S- 



LEUCOPHLEBIA. 



75 



The form rosacea, from S. India and Ceylon, is rather smaller 
and darker tlian typical lineata. 

Larva green covered with tubercles ; a broad white lateral 
stripe ; head white, with a pink streak on guise ; horn and legs 
piuk. 

Ilab. Chekiang; Nepal; Cachar; S. India; Ceylon; Java. 
E;vp., d 70, 2 80 millim. 

101. Leucophlebia emittens, Wlk Oat. xxxv,p. 1858; C. c^'-S'. no. 156. 
Leucoplilebia bicolor, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 16 ; id. III. Het. v, 

pi. 80, %. 6 ; C.Sf S. no. 155. 
Leucophlebia damasceua, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 392 ; id. III. Het. 

V, pi. 80, fig. 7 ; C.^' S. no. 157. 

Differs from lineata in the palpi and frons being pink; fore 
wing with the yellow streak broader and extending below the cell ; 
veins 2, 3, and 4 yellow, without fuscous below them ; outer 
margin of hind wing narrowly pink ; thorax with a narrow tawny 
screak on vertex. 

The type of emittens has all the pink parts dusky brown, but as 
the pink reappears below it is probably a discoloured specimen ; 
the N.W. Himalayan form bicolor is paler than the form damascena. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Bombay ; Central India ; 
Burma. Exp. 55-65 millim. 



Subfamily AMBULYCIN.E. 

Larva. Anterior segments tapering slightly towards the head, 
which is larger and rounded ; horn oblique, not curved. 

Imago. Proboscis moderately long ; antennae slender ; abdomen 
of male with lateral angular expansions. 




Fig. 47.— Larva of Ambulyx semifervens. (From Moore, Lep. Oeyl pL 80.) 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Fore wmg with apex rounded and obtuse . 

b. Fore wing with apex acute 



1. Calymnia, p. 76. 

2. Ambulyx, p. 77. 



76 



SPHINGID^. 



Genus CALYMNIA. 
CalymniR, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 123 (1856). 

Type, C. panopus, Cram. 
liange. India ; Ceylon ; Java. 

Anlennoe gradually diminishing to a long hook. Fore wing 
long, the costa curved, apex rounded and obtuse, the outer margin 
oblique and excised ; the subcostals of hind wing from the angle 
of cell; the discocellulars but slightly angled. 

102. Calymnia panopus, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii, p. 60 ; Moore, Lep. 
Ceyl. n, pi. 81, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 & (pupa aud larva) ; C. 8f S. no. 186. 
Calymnia pavonica, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 596 j C. ^ S. no. 187. 

Head, thorax, and terminal segments of abdomen golden brown ; 
the proximal segments pale, i'ore wing purplish flesh-colour ; 
some brown waved lines near the base ; then an oblique band ; 
some waved brown lines from the costa to lower angle of cell ; an 
oblique postmedial band; a highly waved and irregular whitish 
submarginal line ; a dark ocellus near outer angle. Hind wing 
flesh-colour, the outer area brown ; the disk suffused with pink ; 
antemedial, medial, and two postmedial lines, the last two angled 
below the costa. Underside much mottled with yellow. 




Fig. 48. — Calymnia panopus, J. }• 

The Andaman and Burmese form pavonica is much darker, 
especially the basal segments of the abdomen. 

Larva grey and grauulose, with a subdorsal yellow spotted hne 
from the head to the horn ; the 4th to 10th somites with oblique 
yellow lateral stripes ; horn tuberculate. 

Hah. Throughout India, Ceylon, Burma, and the Andamans. 
Eccp., d 132, $ 134 millim. 



AMBTILYX. 



77 



Genus AMBULYX. 

Ambulyx, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 61 (1848). 

Dahira, Moore, F. Z. 8. 1888, p. 390. 

Clanis, Hiibn. Verz. p. 138 (1818), gen. non descr. 

Type, A. siihstricpli^, "Westw. 

Range. India ; Japan ; Africa ; "W. Indies ; S. America. 
The apex of fore wing more acute, the outer margin evenly 
curved. 

103. Ambulyx substrigilis, WesUo. Cab. Or. Ent. -p. 61, pi. 30, fig. 2; 

C. ^- S. no. 1J8. 
Ambulyx schanfFelbergii, Brem. Schmett. Nord. Chin. p. 12. 
Ambulyx maculifera, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1851 ; Butl. 111. Het. v, 

pi. 80, fig. 3; C.8fS. no. 119. 
Ambulyx consanguis, Btitl. 111. Het. v, p. 11, pi. 80, fig. 4 ; C. 8f S. 

no. 120. 

Ambulyx liturata, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 260 ; id. Tr. Zool. Soc. ix, 

pi. 91, figs. 2 & 3 (larva and pupa). 
Ambulyx rbodoptera, Butl. F. Z. 8. 1875, p. 251 ; id. Tr. Zool. 8oc 

ix, pi. 93, fig. 8 ; a 4- 8. no. 121. 
Ambulyx auripennis, Moore, F. Z. 8. 1879, p. 388 ; Lep. Ceyl. ii. 

pi. 79, figs. 1, 1 «, 1 6 (larva and pupa) ; C. 8f 8. no. 128. 
Ambulyx placida, Moore, F. Z. 8. 1888, p. 390 : Butl. III. Het. vii 

pi. 121, tig. 1 ; C.^ 8. no. 127 A. ' 
Ambulyx sericeipennis, Butl. F. Z. 8. 1875, p. 251 ; C. 8r 8 

no. 122. , . y . 

The hind wing crenulate. Pale ochreous or greyish brown to 
purpHsh brown in colour ; an olive-green band between the 
antennae ; lateral olive-green bands on the thorax meeting on 
metathorax; abdomen with two olive blotches on the fifth seg- 
ment, and one on the seventh in some specimens ; sides of palpi 




Fig. 4:9.—Amkd^x substrigilis, § . |. 

and pectus ferruginous; some specimens with a ferruginous line 
down the vertex of abdomen. Fore wing with a basal olive speck ; 
a subbasal olive blotch on the costa, and another below the median 



78 



SPHINGIDJE, 



nervure, the former being obsolete in some of the forms ; two 
irregularly dentate, more or less obsolete antemedial lines, and two 
similar lunulate postmedial lines ; a curved band from apex to 
outer angle, the inner part of which is light, the outer dark. 
Hind wing ochreous, mottled with fuscous ; an erect medial, and 
curved more or less lunulate postmedial band; some specimens 
with the anal half of the margin dark. 

One Burmese specimen is greyish, the olive markings on thorax 
and at base of fore wing very prominent, the waved lines well 
defined. The next palest form placida is greyish, with the mark- 
ings of fore wing ill-defined ; cmripennis'^^ochrQOVLS,; rliocloptera has 
a reddish tinge ; in suhstrigilis = sericeipennis = scliavffelheryii the 
markings are more prominent ; liturata has a purplish tinge with 
streaks on the nervules ; in consanguis the costal olive blotch is 
present, and there is an olive blotch near outer angle; whilst 
maculifera is the darkest form, being purple-brown in colour. 

Larva pale green with darker granular spots; a white dorso- 
lateral line ; pale yellow oblique streaks on 5th to 10th somites ; 
horn purple, with white granular spots. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Silbet ; Ceylon. 
Exp., c? 100, 2 130 milHm. 

104. Ambulyx semifervens, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 38. 

Ambulyx turbata, Butl. Tr. Zool. Soc. ix, pi. 93, fig. 7 ; C. <§• S. 
no. 124. 

Ambulyx tbwaitesii, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 11, pi. 80, figs. 1, 1 a, 

1 h (larva and pupa) ; C. §■ S. no. 129. 
Ambulyx lahora, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 251 ; C. ^- S. no. 123. 
Ambulyx subocellata, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 76, fig. 3. 

The lateral olive bands on the thorax much narrower than in 
substriqilis. Pore wing with some small grey annular marks 
taking the place of the subbasal blotches ; the antemedial hues 

much less dentate. .... , , ^ j. . 

The form semifervens = ihivaitesii is pale ochreous; turbata= 
laliora dark ferruginous red, the intermediate gradations occurring. 

Larva olive-green above, bluish at sides with pale granulated 
snots • a white-spotted subdorsal line and lateral stripes ; sub- 
dorsal and lateral purplish patches on 5th to last somites ; a 
purplish streak on 2nd and 3rd somites ; horn green. 

Hal Throughout India and Ceylon; China; Java; ^ew 
Guinea ; Ternate. Exp., 6 90, $ 110 miUim. 

105 Ambulyxmbiginosa, ilfoore, P. Z. -5.1888 p. 391 

Ambulyx rubescens, Butl. III. Het. vn, p. 26, pi. 121, fig. 2; C. ^- S 
no. 61 A. 

The hind wing not crenulate; colour dark red-brown slightly 
suffused with grey. Tore wing with numerous indistinct waved 
lines hind wing brighter red ; thorax and abdomen yellow below. 

Hal. N.W. Himalayas. Exp. 6 80 mdlim. 



AMBULTX, 



79 



106. Ambulyx nibricosa, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 122 ; C. Sf S. no. 127. 

Hind wiug broader, the outer margin more rounded. Shafts of 
antennae and a baud between their bases white ; head and vertex 
of thorax ohve-brown ; sides of thorax purplish ; abdomen greenish, 
with a red-brown line down the vertex. Fore wing bright 
glaucous green, with olive-green markings and a patch of purplish 
grey on inner margin ; two indistinct waved antemedial lines ; an 
oblique band from centre of costa to outer angle ; a spot at lower 
end of cell ; two lunulate postmedial lines and one waved ; outer 
area olive with some white on it ; a white streak from apex and 
white spots on outer margin. Hind wing brilliant crimson, the 
base and a diffused postmedial band darlier ; traces of a medial 
line ; inner area brownish, mai'ked with grey. Underside bright 
orange suffused with red, and with the markings red. 

Mab. Sikhim, and ? Calcutta. Ex^. 132 millim. 

107. Ambulyx junonia, Btitl. III. Set. v, p. 9, pi. 80, fig. 2; C. ^ S. 

no. 125. 

Hind wing hardly angled at anal angle. Differs from rubricosa 
in having no white shaft to, or band between, the antennce ; fore 
wing with the ante- and postmedial lines obsolete; the whole 
inner area purplish grey; a large purplish-grey patch on outer 
margin, the outline between it and the green at apex irregular. 
Hind wing with a green line traversing the crimson beyond the 
cell : a large dark ocellus centred wdth grey below the lower angle 
of cell ; the outer and inner areas brown. Underside greenish 
yellow, with some crimson on the disk of fore wing ; the markings 
brown. 

Eab. Bhutan ; Naga Hills. Ex^. 104 millim. 

108. Ambulyx elwesi, Dmce, Ent. Mo. Mag. xix, p. 17 ; C. cS- S. 

no. 126 ; Waterh. Aid, \\, pi. 136, fig. 3. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen brown. Pore wing rich brown, the 
area from near the base of costa to outer angle ochreous, crossed 
by a purplish-grey longitudinal stripe ; apex olive-green ; a yellow 
spot at end of cell. Hind wing bright pink ; the outer half deep 
brown, with a line near anal angle. Underside paler. 

Eab. Sikhim. Exp. 100 millim. 

109. Ambulyx phalaris, Cram. Tap. Exot. W, p. 83, pi. 149 a (1777) • 

C. 8f S. no. 163 (part). v y ' 

Clanis nicobarien.sis, Schioarz, Kleem. Beit, ii, p. 1 (1796). 

Head, thorax, and fore wiiig dark red-brown ; abdomen and 
hind wing paler, the latter with a black patch at the base. Pore 
wing with two ante- and three postmedial waved lines ; a large 
pale patch on the costa from before the middle to outer margin 
leaving the apex dark, the pale patch widest beyond the cell' 



80 



SPHINGIDiE. 



Underside : fore wing with a pale triangular patch before the 
apex; hind wing with three faint transverse lines. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. $ 146 millim. 

110. Ambnlyx bilineata, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1857: C. 8f S. no, 159; 

Butl. III. Met. V, pi. 81, flg. 4. 

Differs from plidlaris in being much paler ; the pale patch on 
fore wing only indicated by a palo dash from the end of the cell 
towards the outer margin ; the black patch on hind wing larger ; 
but chiefly differing in having a streak of black hairs on the under- 
side of fore wing below the median nervure and vein 2. 

Hah. Shanghai ; Sikhim. Exp., S 128, $ 150 millim. 

111. Ambulyx deucalion, Wlk. Cat viii, p. 236 ; C. ^ S. no. 158. 

Differs from hiUneata in being without the pale dash beyond the 
cell of the fore wing. 

Hah. Shillong. Exjy. $ 144 millim. 

112. Ambulyx pagana, Fabr. Sp. Ins. ii, p. 146; C. ^ S. no. 163 

(part.). 

Basiaua cervina, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 237 ; C. ^ S. no. 160. 

Differs from deucalion in being much redder in tone, and in 
wanting the black patch at base of hind wing and black streak on 
underside below the median nervure of fore wing. 

The form cervina is smaller and paler. Phalaris, hilineata, deu- 
calion, and pagana may possibly be varieties of one species. 

Larva green, with 7 oblique lateral stripes and short aborted 
horn. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Bengal ; Madras. Exp., {-pagana) S 140, $ 160 
millim ; (cervina) 110 millim. 

113. Ambulyx exnsta, Btitl. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 252 ; id. Trans. Zool. 

Sac. ix, pi. 93, fig. 4 ; C. ^ S. no. 162. 

Differs from pagana in having the vertex of the thorax dark ; 
fore wing with a pale irregular indistinct band before the margin ; 
hind wing with two indistinct postmedial and prominent sub- 
marginal and marginal dark lines. Underside of fore wing with 
three postmedial lines, of hind wing with two. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas. Exp. 80 millim. 

114. Ambulyx ornea, Westio. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 13, pi. 6, fig. 3 ; C.8fS. 

110 183 

Smerinthus pudorinus, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 263; C. 8f S. no. 161. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing reddish ochreous ; the 
fore wing with broad greyish ante- and postmedial bauds; a 
greyish band along inner margin with some dark strigse on it ; a 
dark speck at the end of the cell. Hind wing pink ; a grey patch 
at anal angle with some dark streaks on it. 

Hah. Almorah; Central India. Exp., 6 54, ? 80 mdlim 



ACOSMEEYX. 



81 



Subfamily CH^ROCAMPIN^. 

Lai-va with the anterior somites retractile ; the third more or 
less swollen ; the third and sometimes some of the other somites 
latex'ally ocellated ; horn variable. 




Fig. 50.— Larva of Chosrocam'pa theylia (from Hmpsn. 111. Het. ix. pi. 175. fig. 1). 

Pupa withont external sheath for the proboscis. 
Imago. Proboscis large ; apex of fore wing but slightly pro- 
duced; male with small lateral expansions to abdomen. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Hind wing with apex acute. 

a'. Palpi with first joint not hollowed out. 
Antennae gradually fining to a long- 
hook. 

a^. Fore wing slightly excised below 

apex 1. AcosMEEYx, p. 81. 

b . Jjore wing very acute at apex. ... 2. Ampelophaga, p. 83. 
V. Antennae abruptly hooked. 

a\ Legs with spurs of moderate length. 3. Ch^bocampa, p 84 

h . Legs with spurs very long 4. Daphnis, p. 94 

^ c . Antennae very thick before the hook . 5. Dilephila p 97 

b'. Palpi with first joint hollowed out 6. Theretba 'p 99 ' 

b. Hind wing with apex rounded ; antenna ' 

gradually fining to a long hook. 

«'. Hind wing with outer margin straight . 7. Elibia, p 100 

b'. Hind wing with outer margin excurved. 8. Angon'yx, p. 101. 

Genus ACOSMEEYX. 
Acosmeryx, Boisd. Sphing. p. 214 (1875). 

Type, A. ancea. Cram. 

Bange. Japan; throughout India and Ceylon; Borneo- Java 
Antennae rather slight, the hook long; palpi broad at tip ; fore 
wing slightly excised below the apex. 

115. Acosmeryx ancea, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv, p. 124 pi 355 < • 
c!t' I no\t'^' ^"'* (iarva'and pupa) \ 

^n^t^^t ''''' ^-.''^ ^ ^- ^ ^- ' 

YOL. I. ° ^ 



82 



SPHINGIDJ;. 



Acosmeryx pseudouaga, Bull. III. Het.y, p. 2, pi. 88, fig. 8; C. Sf S. 
no. 47. 

Acosmevyx cinerea, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 245; C. ^ S. no. 44 ; 

Moore, Lep. Ceijl. ii, pi. 89, figs. 2, 2 « (larva and pupa). 
Acosmeryx shervillei, Bond. Sp. Gen. i, p. 217. 
Acosmeryx anceoides, Boisd. Sp. Gin. i, p. 216. 

Greyish brown ; the vertex of head dark ; pro-, raeso-, and nieta- 
thorux each with a dark transverse streak ; dorso-lateral oblique 
dark stripes on each segment of the abdomen. .¥ore wing with 
nine curved and waved antemedial dark lines, the interspaces 









I, 

V 







Fig. 51.— Acosmeryx ancetcs, g?. t- 



between three of the pairs of lines being filled in with dark brown, 
so as to form one subbasal and two antemedial bands ; a dark- 
ringed pale speck at end of cell, the pale centre being sometimes 
obsolete ; four post medial curved lines ; an obhque dark band from 
beyond the middle of the costa to outer angle, in some of the 
forms produced outwards along vein 5 so as to be more obhque ; 
a pale submarginal obsolescent line from below the apex to outer 
angle, sometimes carried out to the margin at vein 4. Hind wing 
brownish fuscous, with traces of a pale patch and dark lines near 
anal angle. Underside more or less suffused with ferruginous, 
ochreous, and grey ; the outer margin of both wings dark ; hind 
wing with five indistinct lines. 

The form ancea is brownish grey, a small dark specimen from 
Bhutan being nearest Cramer's figure ; in sericea the grey parts are 
suffused with purple or pinkish ; in pseudouaga the ground-colour 
is darker and more suff'used.; whilst the colour of cinerea is more 
uniform greyish fuscous ; the dark and Ught forms appear to occur 

irrespective of locality. i r i 4. i 

Larva green ; a series of brown dorsal spots and of lateral 
oblique stripes on fifth to tenth somites ; an ocellated spot on 
fourth somite; a black stripe from first to fourth somite, with a 
yellow line above it ; horn brown. 



ACOSMERYX. — AMPELOrilAGA. 



83 



Huh, Himalayas ; N.E. India ; S. India ; Ceylon ; Penang ; 
Borneo; Java; Amboiua ; Japan. E:cp. 80-110 milliin. 

116. Acosmeryx naga, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. i, p. 271; C. S,- S. no. 48. 

Differs from typical ancea in the antemedial lines of the fore 
wing being more angled outwards ; the postmedial streak more 
oblique and almost reaching the middle of outer margin ; the sub- 
margioal pale line reaching the outer angle and not bent out to 
tlie margin at vein 4. 

Hah. N.W. and E. Himalayas. Exp. 100 millim. . 

Genus AMPELOPHAGA. 

Anipelophaga, Bremer ^- Grey, Beitr. Schmett. ndrdl. Chma, p. 11 
(1853). 

Type, A. ruhiginosa, Br. & Gr., from Japan. 
Range. Japan ; Himalayas. 

Palpi reaching top of head and pointed at the tip ; apex of 
fore Avi]]g acute. 

117. Ampelophaga ruhiginosa, Bremer 8f Grey, Schmett. ndrdl. China, 

p. 11 ; Men. Cat. Lep. Petr. pi. 12, tig. 2. 
Ampelopliaga romanoyi, Stand. Bom. Mem. iii, p. 158, pi. ix, fig. 1 n. 
Ampelophaga fasciosa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 391 ; C. Sf S. no. 49: 

Butl. III. Ret. vii, pi. 121, fig. 3. 

Antennae whitish; head, thorax, and abdomen ruddy olive- 
brown ; a white line on vertex of thorax and abdomen, lore wing 
olive-brown, with the markings very indistinct ; traces of two 




Kg b'!.— Ampelophaga ruhiginosa, c?. j. 



antemedial, one postmedial, and one submarginal line; a dark 
mark on discocellulars : a triangular patch on costa at apex. Hind 



84 



spniNoiD.^:. 



wing fuscous, with the cilia pale. Underside pinkish, each wing 
with two faint transverse lines. 

Larva pale pinkish brown, with numerous short dark strigte ; 
narrow dorsal and subdorsal lines; a yellow dark-ringed ocellus 
on the fourth somite, with a black centre speckled with white; a 
yellow black-ringed ocellus on hfth somite; horn black. 

Bah. ? Japan ; Amur ; N.W. Himalayas : Sikhim : Nagas. Exp,, 
6 90, $ 100 miUim. 

118. Ampelophaga dolichoides, Feld. Heis. Nov. pi. 70, fig. 8; C. ^- S. 

no. 51. 

Differs from ruhiginosa in having the palpi pale and with no ruddy 
tinge. Fore wing with antemedial, medial, and postmedial nearly 
straight oblique lines, which are pale, outwai'dly edged by dark 
brown ; a waved and curved submarginal line ; no apical triangular 
patch. Underside less pink. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 100 millim. 

Genus CH^ROCAIIPA. 

Chasrocampa, Dup. Lep. France, Suppl. ii, p. 159 (1835). 
Isoplea, Huhn. Verz. p. 135 (gen. indescr.) (1818). 
Xylophanes, H'dbn. Verz. p. 136 (gen. indescr.) (1818). 
Hippotion, Hiihn. Verz. p. 135 (gen. iudescr.) (1818). 
Panacra, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 154 (1856). 

Gnathothlibus, Wallenyr. CEfv. Kongl. Vetens.-Akad. Fork. 1858, 
p. 137. 

Hathia, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 19 (1882). 

Type, C. elpenor, Linn. 
Range. Universally distributed. 

Antennae with the hook short and slight ; the palpi moderately 
broad and quadrate at tip ; apex of hind wing rather acute ; the 
discocellulars oblique. 

A. Hind wing crimson. 

119. Chaerocampa elpenor, imw. Syst. Nat. i, pt. 2, p. 801 (1867) ; 

Westw. Humphr. Brit. Moths, pi. 5, figs. 7, 8 ; C. ^ S. no. 79. 
Cba3vocampa macromera, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 7; id. III. Ilet. v, 

pi. 79, fig. 3 ; C.^ S. no. 80. 
Cha^rocanipa fraterua, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 247 ; id. III. Set. v, 

pi. 79, fig. 4 ; C.^S. no. 81. 
ChjBrocampa lewisii, Buil. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 247. 
Ohserocampa rivularis, Boisd. Sp. Gen. i, p. 280. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen olive-green; antennae, sides of 
palpi, and head pink ; thorax and abdomen with pink dorsal and 
lateral stripes. Fore wing oHve-green ; the costa pink ; an 
oblique pink band from beyond end of cell to inner margm ; 
another from apex to inner margin ; outer margin broadly pink ; 
inner margin with some white near base. Hind wnig with the 
basal half black, the out<.r half pink, with a little olive-green 



CHJEEOCAMPA. 



85 



towards apex. Uuderside with the whole of both wings, except 
the costa and part of disk, suffused with pink. 

Typical elpenor=lewisii from Europe, Japan, and N.W. India is 
smaller, with the pink on hind wing and underside rather less 
developed ; in the form fratema from the W. Himalayas the colour 
is rather duller and the pink on underside more evenly disposed 
over the disk of both wings than in the eastern form macromera. 

Larva brown or green, with numerous black strigae ; some indis- 
tinct black dorsal lines on tirst two somites ; a black blotch on 
third somite ; pale ocelli on black blotches on fourth and fifth 
somites. 

Hab. Europe; Japan; Sind ; Himalayas; Shillong ; Nagas; 
Manipur. Kvp. {elpenor) 64 millim., (rnacromera) 80 millim. 

120. Chaerocampa alecto, Linn. Si/st Nat. i, p. 802 (1767) ; C. ^- -S'. 

no. 83; Cram. Pap. Exot. ii, pi. 137 D; £utl. P. Z. S. 1880, 
pi. 39, fig. 8 (larva). 
Sphinx cretica, Boisd. Ann. 8oc. Linn. Paris, 1827, p. 118. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown ; antennae and sides of 
thorax whitish ; abdomen with a black lateral patch near base. 
Eore wing pale brown, with a dark speck at end of cell ; six faint 
oblique lines from near apex to inner margin. Hind wing pink, 
with a large black patch at base ; outer margin black ; anal angle 
flesh-colour, as is the underside. 

The form cretica, Boisd., from Turkey and Afghanistan, is paler. 

Larva green, speckled with yellow ; a dorsal green line ; a sub- 
dorsal yellow stripe and series of yellow ocelli with green centres 
on fourth to eleventh somites, decreasing in size posteriorlv. 

Hah. Turkey; China; Formosa; throughout India and Ceylon; 
Borneo, Java. Exp., ^ 90, $ 106 millim. 

121. Chaerocampa eson, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii, p. 57. 
Ch£erocampa elegans, Bwtl. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 8, pi. 2, fig. 1 ; C. ^- 8. 

no. 84. 

Chaerocampa gTacilis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 8, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

Differs from alecto in the abdomen having faint ochreous stripes 
and wanting the black patches ; the black patch at base of hind 
wing smaller. 

The form eson from 8. Africa is rather broader and larger than 
the N. African and Asiatic form. 

Hah. Throughout Africa ; China; India; Java ; Borneo. Exp. 
70-90 miUim. ^ 

122. Chaerocampa theylia. Linn. %st. Nat. i, p. 803 (1767) ; C. 4- S 

no. 85; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 84, fig. 5; Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, 
pi. 176, fig. 1 (larva). 
Chaerocampa rafflesii, Bull. Trans. Z. S. ix, p. 556 ; Moore, Lep 
Ceyl. 11, pi. 84, fig. 3 ; C. Sf S. no. 8G ; Hm^Jsn. III. Het. ix, pi. 175, 
fiig. 3 (larva). ' 



86 



SPHINGIDJE. 



Chffirocanum viuacea, Hmjmi. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 157, fig. 20, 

pi. 175, 2, 2a (larva and pupa). 
Sphinx boovhavife, Fahr. Syst. Ent. p. 542. 
Sphinx pinto, Fobr. Oen. Ins. p. 274, ii, 148. 40. 
Hphiux pina.strina, Martin, Pi/sche, pi. 30, Hg. 85. 
Pevgesa vampynia, Fahr. Matit. Ins. ii, p. 98 ; C. 8f S. no. 58. 
Sphinx octopunctata, Omel. Si/st. Nai. i, pt. 6, p. 2380. 

Differs from eson in being smaller and without the black patch 
at base of hind wing. 

Lm'va brown, witb numerous dark slriga) on dorsal area ; lateral 
area whitisli, ventral grey ; a large ochreous ocellus on fourth 

somite, outlined in black and centred with 
pink above, black below; a series of six 
decreasing ocelli on an ochreous line from 
5th to 10th somites, ochreous, outlined 
in black and centred with brown ; horn 
pale, short, and rapidly running to a point. 
Feeds on Iluhiacem. 

The form rqfflesi is rather darker and 
brighter coloured than theylia. The 
larva is dark chocolate-brown, some seven 
white subdorsal spots on thoracic somites; 
seven ocelli on 4th to 10th somites, the first 
largest, ochreous white, outlined in black 

Chmrocmnpa'theylia,^. \. ^^^^ ^^^^ ochreous-speckled black 

centre, the others centred with brown : 
horn dark brown, the tip ochreous, blunt, and of even diameter 
throughout, from its base crimson streaks extend forward and 
backward. Teeds on the same Rubiacece as theylia. 

The form vinacea, again, is rather darker and brighter coloui^ed, 
with the lay-va pale brown, a narrow dorsal black line from 1st to 
4th somite ; pale subdoreal streaks on the same somites ; oval ocelli 
on fourth and fifth somites, ochreous, outlined in black and 
centred with brown, on which in the first ocellus is an ochreous 
streak, which in the second is crimson ; horn long, straight, and 
pointed, brown with a white tip, with dark streaks extending 
forward and backward from its base. Feeds on Impatiens. 

The images of these three forms are almost indistinguishable, 
and whether we have here three good species breeding true, or 
the larvEe are in some way affected in form of horn, as well as 
colour and the number of ocelli, by some conditions of life, we 
have no evidence to show ; all were bred, preserved, and drawn 
in the same locality by that most careful observer, Mr. E. E. Green 
of Ceylon, who informs me that the larva of vinacea refuses to eat 
the food-plants of the others. 

Hah. China; Formosa; throughout India and Ceylon; Java; 
Borneo. Exp. 60 millim. 




Cir.EEO0AMP4. 



87 



123 ChJBrocampa celerio, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 800 ; C. 8f S. no. 88 ; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 84, fig. 4 ; Moore, Lep. E. 1. C. pi. xi, 
figs. 1, 1« (larva and pupa). 
Sphinx tisiphone, Li7in. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 803. 
Hippotion ocy.s, Iliibn. Verz. p. 135. 
Phal^na inquilinus, Harris, Ex. p. 93. 

Head and thorax as in eson ; abdomen with a white spot on 
each segment between the dorsal white lines ; a pair of silvery 
lateral strigiB on each segment. Fore wing paler ; some silvery 
streaks on the median nervure; the nervules beyond the cell 
streaked with silvery white and black ; a silvery-white line from 
apex to near base of inner margin, followed by some ochreous and 
pale brown lines ; a white submarginal line ; the markings are 
thus similar to oldenlandice, . except that the lines that come out 
white are different. Hind wing with the base and anal angle 
bright pink ; disk blackish ; the outer area ochreous brown, with a 
black submarginal line and the nervules between it and the cell 
black. 

Larva brown ; a series of whitish ocelli with darker centres 
from 4th to 10th somites ; horn and underside white. 

ffab. Europe ; Africa ; the whole of India and Ceylon ; Java ; 
Borneo; Timor; Australia; Eiji. ^.t^?. 66-74 millim. 

B. Hind wing fuscous, with a more or less defined jpale or 
crimson submarginal hand. 

124. Chserocampa lycetus. Cram. Pap. Exot. i, p. 96, pi. 61 n ; C. Sf S. 

no. 94. 

Chgerocampa rosina, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 248, pi. 37, tig. 6 ; C. ^ ^. 
no. 91. 

Chserocampa drancus, C'ra?n. Pap. Exot. ii, p. 56, pi. 132 F ; C. ^ S. 
no. 89. 

ChfBrocampa prunosa, Butl P. Z. S. 1875, p. 622 ; C. Sf S. no. 108 ; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. pi. 84, fig. 2. 

Differs from theylia in being brownish in colour, with but a 
slight pink tinge; sides of abdomen golden yellow ; the two dorsal 
lines paler. Fore wing with the oblique stripes from the apex 
silvery white. Hind wing blackish, with some flesh-coloured 
suffusion on the submarginal area. Underside more ochreous and 
less pink than in theylia. 

The form lycetus=rosinaivom. Mussooree and Sikhim is pinker in 
tone and has more flesh-colour on the hind wing than drancus = 
prunosa from Ceylon. 

Hab. Mussooree ; Sikhim ; Ceylon. Exp. 68 millim. 

125. Chserocampa oldenlandise, Fabr. Stjst. Ent. p. 542 ; Moore, Lep. 

Ceyl. ii, pi. 85, figs. 1, 1 a (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 90. 
Chaerocampa puellaris, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 623 ; C. ^ S. no, 92. 
Xylophanes gortys, Hiibn. Samml. exot, Schm. figs. 513, 514. 

Differs from lycetus in being greyish brown without pink suffu- 



88 



SPniNQID^. 



sion ; the two dorsal lines on abdomen silvery white, as also the 
oblique stripes on fore wing ; the sides of abdomen ochreous, not 
golden. Hind wing with the submarginal band ochreous and 
narrow. 

The form puellaris from the N.W. Himalayas is small and 
pale. 

Larva pale purplish brown; a subdorsal line of yellow and 
white spots with a pale lateral line below them on the thoracic 
somites ; black-ringed ocelli on 4th to 10th somites, the first two 
centred with blue, the posterior with purple. In the early stages 
these posterior ocelli are centred with crimson, and there are 
dorsal bands of yellow specks. 

Hah. Egypt ; throughout Asia ; Philippines ; Java ; Aru. 
Eocp. 80 millim., {'puellaris) 54 millim. 



126. Chaerocampa silhetensis, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 143 ; Buil. Trans. 

Zool. Soc. ix, pi. 92, iig. 8 (larva and pupa) ; C. ^ S. no. 93. 
Chisrocampa bisecta, Moore, Lep. E. I. C. p. 278. 
Xylophanes piuastiina, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 18, pi. 87, fig. 2. 

Diflfers from oldenlandice in being very much paler, with but one 
white line down centre of abdomen. Pore wing with only the line 
beyond the oblique brown band silvery ; the others ochreous. 

Larva green, with the dorsal area red-brown ; a subdorsal paler 
line with equal-sized ocelli from 4th to 10th somites with green 
centres ; horn red-brown. 

Hah. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Java ; Borneo ; Formosa ; 
Japan. Exp. 60-68 millim. 

127. Chaerocampa vigil, Gu^r. Deless. Voy. ii, p. 80, pi. 23, fig. l;C.^S. 

no. 71 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 87, figs. 3, 3 a, 6 (larva and 
pupa). 

Panacra lignaria, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 156. 

Sphinx phcenyx, Herr.-Schdfer, Eur. Schmett. pi. 83, fig. 478. 

Head and thorax brown, with pale lateral streaks ; abdomen 
brown, with numerous dark strigse and pairs of pale lateral strigse 
on each segment. Fore wing brown ; the lines much as in celerio, 
but without any silvery markings, those on the median nervure 
being absent and the oblique liue from the apex (which is much 
more curved) and those towards outer margin being pale ochreous 
brown. Hind wing smoky brown, with traces of a darker sub- 
marginal line. 

Larva pale green or brown, with black dorsal dots ; an ocellus 
on 4th somite, which is blue centred with yellow in the green 
form, ochreous with black ring and centre in the brown form; a 
subdorsal line from 5th to 11th somite; horn purplish in the 

green form. . . 

Hah. Throughout India and Ceylon; An damans ; Phihppmes; 
Australia ; New Hebrides. Exj>. 64-74 millim. 



CH^EOCAMPA. 



89 



128. Chaerocampa insignis, Butl. A. M. N. R. (5) x, p. 432 ; C. 8) S. 

no. 75. 

Differs from vi(/il in the pale lines on the vertex of abdomen 
coming out more strongl3\ Eore wing with black lines developed 
beyond the cell parallel to the oblique pale line, which is wider 
and more curved and broadly edged on the outer side with black ; 
the dark submarginal line waved; cilia black, not chequered. 
Hind wing suffused with pinkish beyond the middle ; a dark sub- 
marginal hne and marginal band. Underside pinkish. 

Bab. Andamans. Ea;^. $ 60 millim. 

129. Chaerocampa busiris, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 158 ; Butl. HI. Set. v, 

pi. 79, fig. 2 ; a 4- S. no. 62. 

Fore wing highly angled at vein 5 in both sexes. 

Head and thorax dark green ; palpi pinkish brown ; delicate 
pinkish lines above the eyes and outlining the collar and patagia ; 
abdomen brownish, with darker lateral patches on the first two 
segments. Pore wing with a brown patch at the base mai'bled 
with darker lines and extending further along the costa than the 
inner margin ; a white patch at base of inner margin ; a green 
medial band, wide at costa ; a black speck at end of cell ; marginal 
area pale brown with three dark curved lines, the submarginal line 
waved and white near the apex. Hind wing dark brown ; a pale 
brown marginal line, widest at anal angle, where there are some 
indistinct lines inside it. Underside green at base, marbled with 
reddish, purplish, and grey towards outer margin. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Sylhet. Exj>., 66, $ 82 millim. 

130. Chserocampa variolosa, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 156 ; C. ^ S. no. 69. 

Panacra vagans, Butl. III. Het. v, p. 4, pi. 78, fig. 7 ; C.^S. no. 74. 

Head and thorax olive-green and brown, with numerous brown 
lines ; abdomen with a golden tinge, mottled with purplish grey 
towards base. Eore wing olive-green, marbled with purplish grey 
at base ; three oblique lines from the apex to centre of inner 
margin ; a submarginal line. Hind wdug brown, with some pale 
marks towards anal angle. Underside of body and wings beau- 
tifully suffused with golden yellow ; postmedial lines developed on 
both wings. 

Hob. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Borneo. Exjp. 80 millim. 

131. Chaerocampa metallica, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 6; C.8f S. no. 68. 
Pauacra perfecta, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 391 ; id. III. Het. v, pi. 78, 

fig. 8 ; C.^S. no. 73. 

Differs from variolosa in the olive-green and brown tints of both 
upper and under side being replaced by ochreous aud red-brown 
tints. 



90 



SPIIINGIDJE. 



The female (metaUica) has the fore wing broader, with the outer 
margin more excised below the apex. 
Mab. Sikhim. Exp. 64-70 millim. 

132. Chserocampa aiitomedon, Wl7e, Cat. viii, p. 154 : Butl. III. Het. 

V, pi. 7!), tig. 1 ; C.Sf S. no. 05. 
Panacra tnuicata, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 160. 

The outer margin of fore wing angled at vein 5, more so in the 
male than in the female. 

Markings similar to those of meialUca ; the coloration much 
duller, being pale ochreous speckled VA'ith brown. Underside 
nearly uniform dull ochreous ; one postmedial line coming out as 
specks on the nervules, the others obsolescent on fore wing, 
obsolete on hind wing ; outer margin rather darker. 

Pemale with the fore wing broader. 

Bab. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Pegu ; Eangoou. Exp. 54 millim. 

133. Chserocampa mydon, Wlk. Cat. -viii, p. 155 ; Bictl. III. Het. v, 

pi. 78, fig. 9 ; e. S. no. 66. 
Panacra scapularis, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 157 ; Moore, Lep. E. I. C. pi. ix, 

figs. 5, 5 a (larva and pupa) ; C. 8^ 8. no. 70. 
Panacra frena, Sioinh. Cat. Lep. Mus. Oxon. p. 12, pi. i, fig. 5. 

Pore wing less produced at apex ; the outer margin more erect 
and excurved at median nervules. 

Differs from metallica in the postmedial lines of fore wing being 
much more erect and highly waved ; the white on vertex of 
thorax and proximal segments of abdomen comes out very stroiig 
in some specimens ; the markings of the upperside and mottlings 
of the underside vary from ochreous to red-brown. 

Larva greenish, with dark dorsal and lateral stripes and dorsal 
spots ; a purplish ocellus on 4th somite. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Calcutta ; Sylhet ; Assam ; Java. Exp., S 56, 
9 62 millim. 

134. ChsBrocampa assamensis, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 160 ; C. ^- S. no. 64. 

The fore wing highly angled at vein 5 in both sexes. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale greyish brown ; paired dark 
brown streaks with pale streaks below them from top of head to 
second segment of abdomen. Fore wdng greyish brown, with a 
black speck at base and streak on inner margin ; a large black 
patch on the discocellulars, with a triangular patch above and 
beyond it ; traces of a dark line from the end of the cell to the 
inner margin ; a faint waved postmedial line met by a reddish 
oblique streak from the apex, with some paler marks on it towards 
inner margin. Hind wing purplish fuscous, with an obsolescent 
paler submarginal line ; the inner margin pale ; a streak of dark 



cn/i;iiocAMPA. 



91 



hairs alono- vein 1 a. Underside clouded with oehreous and ferru- 
ginous, leaving an irregular dark outer margin to both wings. 

C. horneensis, Butl., from Borneo, is a race of this species. 

Hab. Sylhet. Exjp. S 55 raiUim. 

135. Ch^rocampa gloriosa, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 246 ; id. III. Het. v, 

pi. 78, tig. 6; C.^ S. no. 61. 

Head and vertex of thorax and abdomen oliye-green ; antennaa, 
palpi, and sides of thorax and abdomen crimson. _ Pore wing 
olive-green ; the costa, antemedial, medial, postraedial, and sab- 
marginal maculate irregular bands crimson ; outer margin darker 
olive ; a mai-ginal pale pink line ; cilia crimson ; a black speck at 
end of cell. Hind wing smoky black, suffused with blood-red 
towards outer margin. Almost the whole of underside crimson, 
except a black blotch towards base of fore wing ; each wing with 
three transverse waved lines. 

Eab. ISikhim. Exj). c? 86 millim. 

136. Chaerocampa olivacea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872; p. 567 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 55. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing olive-brown. Fore wing 
with three reddish curved antemedial lines ; a black spot at end of 
cell ; three slightly waved postmedial lines ; a short oblique grey 
stripe from the apex continued as an indistinct lunulate line to the 
outer angle. Hind wing smoky black ; a diffused ferruginous sub- 
marginal band. Underside suffused with oehreous and ferru- 
ginous ; outer margin of both wings darker. 

Hab. Simla; Sikhim ; Sylhet; Khasis ; Sbillong. Ecop. 74- 
80 millim. 

137. Chaerocampa velata, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1853 ; Butl. III. Het. 

V, pi. 78, fig. 5; C. 4- ^. no. 64. 
Pergesa aurifera, Bictl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 7 ; id. III. Het. v, pi. 78, 

tig. 4 ; a^S. no. 60. 
Zonilia acuta, WlJc. Cat. viii, p. 195 ; C. ^ S. no. 52. 
Pergesa fegrota, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 246 ; id. Tr. Zool. Soc. 1876, 

pi. 92, tig. 2 ; C. S. no. 59. 

Olive-brown ; the head and thorax with a greyish lateral band ; 
abdomen with paired dark dorsal specks on each segment ; the 
sides yellow, with a black speck on each segment ; white below, 
Fore wing with three waved antemedial black lines ; a dark annulus 
at end of cell ; three dark postmedial waved lines. Hind wing 
smoky brown, with a paler patch towards anal angle. Underside 
clouded with oehreous and reddish. 

In the variety aurifera the waved Unes of the fore wing are 
reduced to a series of black specks. 

The form acuta is yellowish brown, with the dark markings of 



92 



SPHINQIDJE. 



the fore wing obsolescent ; the yellow submarginal band of the hind 
wing narrow but continued to the costa. Tlie form m/rota is 
similarly coloured, but has a dark brown blotch on the anteniedial 
baud of the fore wing below the costa and blotches on the postmedial 
lines ; the hind wing has the submarginal band broader, its outer 
edge being defined by a black line. 

iJab. iSikhim ; Sylhet. A\vp. 68-88 millim. 

138. Chserocampa castanea, jTfoore, P.Z.S. 1872, p. 507; C. ^ S 

no. 57. 

Head and thorax dark red-brown, with lateral grey stripes ; 
abdomen paler. Tore wing dark red-brown ; two faint antemedial 
curved lines ; two nearly straight postmedial oblique lines ; an 
irregular grey marginal band. Hind wing uniform dark brown. 
Underside red-brown ; each wing with two postmedial waved lines 
and irregular dark border. 

Ilab. Bombay; Satara. E,rp. 66 millim. 

139. Chaerocampa helops, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 380. 

Philampelus orienlalis, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 77, fig. 1 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 130. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen olive-brown ; thorax with a pale 
lateral streak ; abdomen M'ith a pale patch on vertex of 1st segment 
and black lateral patches on 1st two segments. Fore wing grey- 
brown ; a large olive-brown basal patch with a pale edge ; a black 
speck at end of cell, beyond which the area is suffused with brown ; 
a subapical olive-brown patch, with a waved black line on its outer 
edge continued as an obsolescent line to outer angle. Hind wing 
smoky black, with a pale patch at anal angle. Underside ochreous, 
suif used and speckled with black. 

Ilab. Sikhim ; Penang ; Borneo. Exp. 116 millim. 

140. Chserocampa lucasi, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 141 ; Moore, Lep. E. I. C. 

pi. xi, figs. 3, 3 rt (larva and pupa) ; C. 8f S. no. 95. 
Chserocampa tenebrosa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 595 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. 

ii, pi. 86, figs. 2, 2 a (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 96. 
Chaerocampa rhesus, Boisd. Sphing. p. 254. 

Ochreous brown ; the antennae, front of head, and sides of thorax 
paler. Tore wing with a black speck at end of cell ; two oblique 
indistinct lines from near the apex to near base of inner margin ; 
three similar lines from the apex nearly parallel to outer margin. 
Hind wing smoky black, paler towards anal angle. Underside 
with a slight rosy tinge. 

The form tenebrosa is darker on both upper and under sides than 
lueasii, which again is darker than rhesus, but these differences are 
varietal, not local. 

Larva brown with darker specks ; a pale lateral line on thoracic 
somites ; an ocellus on 4th somite, which is white, centred with 



On^EOCAMPA. 



93 



crimson, with a black ring on an ochreous ground ; a fine subdorsal 
line on the posterior somites, vvirh leaden oblique streaks below it. 

Hab, Throughout India and Ceylon; Andamans ; Borneo ; Javn ; 
China ; Australia. Exp. 80 millim. 



141. Chserocampa butus, Cram. Pap. Erot. n, p. 88, pi. 152. 
Sphinx velox, Fabr. Ent. Syst. ill, p. 378; 6'. ^ S. no. 97. 
Sphinx clotho, Dmnj, E.vot. Ins. n, p. 48 ; Moore, Zep. Ceyl. u, 

pi. 87, hg. 1 ; S. no. 98. 
Chffii-ocampa gono^rapta, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 249 ; IImps?i. III. 

Ret. ix, pi. 175, tig. 10 (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 101. 
Chserocampa aspersata, Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soe. 1877, p. 241 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 99 ; Waterh. Aid, i, pi. 97. 
Ohferocampa punctivenata, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 248 ; C. 8f S. 

no. 100. 

Differs from lucasi in having the fore wing longer, with the 
apex more pointed ; head and thorax greenish ; abdomen with 
black lateral patches on the first segment. Underside more 
ochreous. 

In the form hutus=velox=dotho = asjpersata one of the oblique 
lines from the apex of the fore wing is prominent ; in the forms 
gonocjrapta and punctivenata this line is obsolescent, in the last- 
named coming out as specks on the nervules. 

Larva pale green or brown, speckled with dark striae ; 4th somite 
with a green ocellus, edged with yellow above, pink below, with a 
Hneal white centre ; a pale lateral line from 5th somite to horn, 
which is purplish ; legs pink, claspers green. 

Eah. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma; Andamans; 
Borneo ; Java. Exp. 88-106 millim. 



142. Chserocampa mirabilis, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 248; id. Ti 'ans, Zool, 
Soc. ix, pi. 92, fig. 1 ; C. S. no. 82. 

Head, thorax, and first two segments of abdomen olive-green ; 
sides of head and thorax white ; distal segments of abdomen ruddy 
brown. Eore wing olive-green, the base darker; a dark green 
antemedial waved line and postmedial curved line ; a dark speck at 
end of cell. Hind wing ruddy brown with traces of a submargiual 
line. Underside : fore wing brown at base and outer margin ; 
the postmedial area pink ; an oblique postmedial brown line : 
hind wing pink, the outer margin brown ; a medial curved brown 
line. 

Hah. N-W. Himalayas. Exp. 86 millim. 



143. ChsBrocampa lineosa, Wlk. Cai. viii, p. 144; Butl III. Set. v 
pi. 79, fig. 7 ; C.SfS. no. 104. 
Choerocampa major, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 249 ; C. ^ S. no. 103. 
Chperocampa minor, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 249 ; C. ^ S. no. 102. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen green; head and thorax with a pale 



94 



SPHINGID^. 



lateral baud ; thorax with a pale band on vertex ; abdomen with 
four pale dorsal lines. Pore wing green, with a black patch at base 
of inner margin ; a black dot at end of cell ; about seven indistinct 
oblique lines from the apex. Hind wing black, with a diffused pale 
submarginal band. Underside ochreous, suffused with red and 
speckled with black ; some black in cell of fore wing and post- 
medial dark lines. 

In the variety major prominent pale stripes appear between the 
oblique lines of the fore wing. 

In some specimens the second or third line from the outer 
margin of the fore wing becomes double towards inner margin. 

Ilab. Mussooree ; Sikhim ; Assam ; fSylhet. Ex'2J. 86-108 millira. 

C. Ilind iving dull red or orange. 

144. Chaerocampa pallicosta, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 146 ; Moore, Lep. Ccyl. 

ii, pi. 84, %. 6; C.i^- S. no. 106. 

Head and thorax red-brown, with a lateral white streak. Pore 
wing red-brown, with the costa paler ; a pale speck at end of cell ; 
a white line along inner margin ; a postraedial lunulate diffused 
dark line and traces of a submarginal line. Abdomen, hind wing, 
and underside pinkish ferruginous ; cilia of hind wdng white. 

Hah. Assam; Sylhet; E.Pegu; Ceylon; Hongkong. Exp. 82 
millim. 

145. Chserocampa erotus, Cram. Pap. Kvot. ii, p. 12 ; C. 8,- S. no. 107. 

Chserocampa erotus, var. andamanensis, Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1877, 

p. 242 ; Waterh. Aid, ii, pi. 141, fig. 1. 
Gnathothlibus erotoides, Wallengr. Wien. ent. Mo7i. iv, p. 43. 

Brighter in colour than j^fdUcosta. Pore wing with a slight 
purplish suffusion and clouded in parts beyond the middle ; two 
indistinct antemedial curved lines, and tAvo similar postmedial 
lines. Hind wing bright orange- yellow, with a diffused red-brown 
band along outer margin except at apex and anal angle ; cilia red- 
brown. Throat and first joint of palpus pure white. 

Hah. Andamans ; Australia ; Solomon Isl. E.iy. 96-114 miUim. 

Genus DAPHNIS. 
Daphnis, Hubn. Vers. p. 134 (1818). 
Type, B. nerii, Linn. 

liaiHje. Europe ; Africa, Mauritius ; throughout India ; Ceylon ; 
Borneo ; Java ; Amboina ; New Hebrides. 

The tibial spurs considerably longer than in Cheer ocampa ; the 
palpi slightly more rounded at apex ; outer margin of fore wing 
as in the typical species. 

146. Daphnis nerii, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 798 ; C. ^ S. no. 112 ; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 82, tigs. 1, 1 a (larva and pupa). 



DAPHNIS. 



95 



Head green, rufous in front ; a grey band on vertex. Thorax 
green, the colhir outhned in grey ; a triangular grey patch on the 
vertex. Abdomen paler green, with oblique lines at the side ; 




Fig. 64. — Laphiiis nerii, 5 . \. 

paired dark green lateral blotches on penultimate, and a single 
dorsal blotch on ultimate segment. Tore vt^ing dark green \ ' a 
white patch with a black spot on it at base ; some medial whitish 
conjoined bands, rosy towards hind margin ; an outwardly oblique 
band from costa to vein 4 ; an oblique streak from apex to A^ein 6 ; 
a triangular purplish patch from below the cell to near outer- 
margin. Hind wing fuscous, with a pale curved submarginal line, 
beyond which the area is olivaceous. Underside suffused with 
chestnut ; a white submarginal Une to both wings ; a white speck 
at end of cell of hind wing. 

Larva green, with a bluish lateral band from 4th somite to horn, 
with white oval spots on it, and others above and below it ; 3rd 
somite with a blue ocellus ; horn yellow. 

Hah. Europe: S.Africa; Mauritius; Aden; throughout India 
and Ceylon. Exp. 70-120 millim. 

147. Daphnis liypothous Cram. Pap. Exot. in, p. 165; Moore, Lep. 
LeijL 11, pi. as, hgs. 1, 1 a (larva and pupa) ; C. ^' S. no. 113. 

Differs from nerii in having the head and collar uniformly dark 
purple-brown ; thoraxandfirst two segments of abdomen dark green 
with a white fringe to the first ; the other segments dark olive- 
brown with the streaks and spots as in nern. AVings similarly 
marked, but very much darker on both upper and uncler side • a 
white spot at apex of fore wing and at end of ceU of fore wing on 
the underside. ^ 



96 



SPIIINGID.E, 



Larva green, with yellow dots at sides ; a darker dorsal line ; 
a subdorsal purple-red band, edged with yellow on thoracic somites 
and with white from 4th somite ; a blue ocellus on 3rd somite ; a 
series of blue white-centred ocelli from 5th to 10th somites ; horn 
])urple-brown, with white tubercles. Before changing the larva 
becomes blotched with dark red ; in the early stages the ground- 
colour is pale red or green. 

Hab. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Java ; Borneo. Exi). 98- 

124 millim. 



148. Daphnis andamanus, Druce, Ent. Mo. Mat/, xix, p. 16 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 11(3. 

Differs from liypothous in the head, thorax, and abdomen being 
uniform red-brown without markings. Eore wing red-brown, the 
subbasal and postmedial bands narrower, the latter with the angles 
at veins 1 and 5, but not produced outwards along vein 4. Hmd 
wing red-brown. • u *. 

AUied to Jiorsfieldi, But!., from Java and New Guinea, but 
redder and without the body-markings. 

Eab. Audamans. Exjj. 68 millim. 

149. Daphnis layardi, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 16, pi. 84, fig. 1 ; C.8i S. 

no. 117. 

Differs from hypothous in being ruddy brown, not olive in hue ; 
abdomen with a pale fringe to each segment. U^^^f '^/^ "^^^ ^^'^ 
white spots at apex of fore wing and at end of cell of each wmg 

minute. 

Eab. Ceylon. Exp. 86 millim. 

150. Daphnis ernestinus, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 534, pi. 211, fig. 1. 
Differs from layardi in being pale greyish brown ; sides of 

thorax but shghtly darker ; no dark patches at end of abdomen 
Eore wing with the basal black spot on a grey patch; the pale 
antemedial area wider; the dark postmedial area with a diffused 
and not angulate outer margin; the markings tow^ards outer 
margin very faint. Hind win| uniform dark brown, with a pale 

submarginal line. 

ira6. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exj^. 64 millim. 

151. Daphnis bhaga, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 794 ; C. 4' S. no. 115. 

Differs from layardi in the head, thorax, and abdomen being 
.nSorm brow., ex'cept that the last two -^-^^^^^^^^^^ 

t^^:^ ^^^^^^^^ - 



DAPHNIS. — DILBPHILA . 



97 



across the apex as well as the oblique line ; no triangular marginal 
patch below the apex. Hind wing more excised before anal angle ; 
unif()rm dark brown, the pale submarginal line only appearing near 
anal angle. Underside without the red suffusion. 

Hab. Sikhim ; N.E. Bengal ; Singapore. Exp. 84 millim. 

152. Daphnis minimus, Butl. Trans. Zool. Soc. x, p. 573 ul 02 fio- 5 • 
a S. 110. 114. ^ ■ ' °- ' 

Head and collar grey-brown ; tegulae olivaceous ; abdomen grey- 
brown, with some olivaceous marks towards the extremity. Fore 
wing grey-brown, with an olivaceous curved subbasal band ; a 
medial band widest and angled below the costa ; two postmec'lial 
curved lines ; a series of marginal dark marks. Hind wing and 
underside uniform grey-brown. 

Eab. S. India. Exjy. 44 millim. 



Genus DILEPHILA. 

Deilephila, Ochs. Eur. Schmett. iv, p. 42 (1816). 

Type, D. livornica, Esp. 
_ Mange. Europe; Canaries; N. Africa; Madagascar; Afghan- 
istan ; Himalayas ; China ; Hawaii ; N. and S. America. 
^ Differs from Chcerocampa in the end of each antenna being much 
tnicker, with the hook very short ; outer margin of fore wing as in 
typical Chcerocampa. 

153. Dilephila livornica, Esp. Schmett. ii, pp. 87, ]96, pi. 8, fio-. 4; 
C. cy o. no. iUy. ' c J 

Sphinx koechlini, Fuessly, Arch. Ins. Gesch. pi. 33, figs. 1-5 flarva 
and pupa). i.ituvci 




Kg. 55.— Dilephila livornica, j . 



Head and thorax ohve, white lines above the eyes and alone 
s,des of thorax met on metathorax by white lines fW Xe vertex 
of thorax ; abdomen ohve, with white lateral segmental nltohp^ 
and^black segmental lines with three white dorsaf Specks ofeae" 



98 SPniNGIDiE. 

Fore wing olivo-green, with a black and white patch at base ; a 
white patch at lower end of cell ; an oblique whitish band tro.n 
apex to near base of inner margin ; a grey marginal band ; nervules 
beyond the cell M^hite. Hind wing pink, with the basal area black ; 
a submarginal black band ; anal area white. , , „ . , . , 
La^^a black with numerous yellow dots ; head dull pink ; a pink 
semicircular mark on 1st somite ; dorsal line yellow ; each somite 
blotched with red and bordered with black, which expands n o a 
subquadrate patch on 4th to 10th somites; a series 
yellow ocelU on a subdorsal yellow line with pink centres , horn 

^att^.^^^^ Aden; N.W. Himalayas; China. 
Fjx^. 74-94 millim. 

154 Dilephila euphorhise, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, pt. 2, p. 802 ; Kirby, Eur. 
Butt, Moths, pi. 18, fij?. 1 « (larva). . ^ ^ 

Deilephila lathyrus, Wlk. Cat. yiu, p. 172 ; C. 8>- S. no. 110 , mti. 
III. Het. V, pi. 80, tig. 1. 

Differs from Iwornica in wanting the white ^l^f « 
thorax abdomen without dorsal marks and mth the black and 
^vhTe lateral marks only on the first two segments. Fore M.ng 
wil^ a whTtfsV^and narro^dng to the inner margin and extending 
mf the costa from before the^ middle to the apex ; speckled mth 
Wn and soinetimes with a rosy tinge, and enclosing an oval ohve 

^tLXl^ttmZa%..s averages rather larger than the 

°"f^ Europe; N.W.Himalaya, to N^iniTal. R.p. (mplm-U.) 
60-80 millim., (!a<%™,) 76-92 milhm. 

155, DilepUla galii, M, Naiur. J% p 107 (1775); KMy,E.r. 
Butt. 4- Moth,, pi. 18, 4g. 2 « (ta™)- 

T.lff.rs from eupUMo! in the thorax having a black line a^"™ 
the'^at^ifXt: ftreak ; the ahdomen .^th ^^^^^^^^^ 

on the vertex, more or less jomed by ^ - ™| ' 3,4 
sixth segments »ith pron,ment ^e- «h.te ba" ^^^^^ 

^ trK>^V- Ue pale band not ..hin. 

broader. , i i- . ^^rge black-ringed yellow 

HtX'ro';:^ :eS:t"and Lai segment .ddi^^ 

Eur:;erGuTais Valley, Kashmir, 6000 teet. <J 64- 

72 miliim., ? 84 milhm. 



DILBPHILA. THEKETBA. 



99 



156, Dilephila dahlii, Oeyer, Samml SpMng. fig-s. 161-164, 

Deilephila robertsi, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1880, p, 412, pi, 39* fio-3 9 in 
(larva & pupa) ; C. (S- S. no. 111. ^ ; g • ^; -^^ 

Differs from galii in the thorax having two white stripes, the 
tegulaa being fringed with white on the inner side also ; abdomen 
as in ei(.p7iorbice. Yove wing as in galii, hind wing with the band 
pinker. 

Some specimens have the segments of abdomen fringed with blue 
scales and the veins on outer area of fore wing streaked with white. 

Larva dark grey, spotted with white ; alternate red and yellow 
dorsal stripes; a yellow lateral stripe; each segment with two 
large black-ringed or irregular white spots and three small ones. 
Horns, legs, and spiracles red. 

Mab. Europe ; Kandahar ; Simla. £Jxj>, 82 millim. 



Genus THERETRA. 
Theretra, Subn. Verz. p. 135 (1818). 
Type, T. nessus, Drury. 
Range. China; India; Borneo; Java. 

Differs from Ghcerocampa in having the basal joints of the palpi 
hollowed out, with an orifice towards the exterior beset with 
(?) sensory sette. 

157. Theretra nessiis, Drury, E^ot. Ins. ii, p, 46, pi. xxvii, fi.. i . 
C. |- 8. no. 105; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. pi. 86, fio- 1- id'^Cnf 
E. 1. a pi. xi. figs. 2, 2 a (larva and pupa) ' " ' 




Fig. 5Q.~ Theretra nessus, 



Snhinx equestris, Fabr.Ent. 8yst. ill, p. 365 
Ch.rocampanessus,.«..rubicundus,^l.^,,^,„^.0,^^^^^^^ p ig 

H 2 



IQQ BPHINGIDJE. 



Head, thorax, and a stripe down centre of abdomen green 
suffused with ferruginous ; thorax with a lateral grey stripe ; 
abdomen golden yellow at sides. Pore wing olive-brown, the base 
green with a patch of black and white on the inner margni ; a black 
dot at end of cell ; a postmedial waved oblique Ime met by th.ee 
straight oblique lines from the apex at inner margin ; two sub- 
marginal linis. Hind wing black-brown ; the ana angle ochreous. 
which colour extends towards the apex as a submargmal band. 
Underside suffused with reddish ochreous. , . ^ 

blue-green, a subdorsal line with oblique B^eak^^^^^^^^^ 
on 4th-10th somites ; 4th somite with a black-ringed green ocellus 
centred with black ; horn yellow. i -r. „ -Ro^ 

Hah. Hongkong, throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Bor- 
neo; Java. Exp. 92-122 millim. 

158. Theretra actea, Cram. Pap. Bxot '^^■^^^fl^l'l^JJ'^^i 
no. 53 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. n, pi. ^gs- h ^ « ^'^^^"^ 
pupa). 

Differs from nessus in the head, thorax-, and abdomen being 
T^nrnlish ereT' vertex of head and a dorso-lateral stripe to 

y"s!rit Hiid^ing ^ith anal patch and submargmal 

iDand pointed. subdorsal pale line on tho- 

Larva green ; a ^ ^^^f ocellus, white ringed with 

racic somites ; f |en : 5th-10th somites with 

80 millim. 

Genus ELIBIA. 
Elibia, Wlh. Cat. viii, p. 1^8 (1856). 
Type, E. doUchus, Westw. 

Bange. N.E.India; Sumatra. antennae 
I and 7 o£ hind wing &om end of cell. 

159. EliMa aolictas, Westw. Cab. Or. Enl. p. 61, pi. 30, %. 1 , C. * S. 

stripes ; abdomen with a broad d -al k « nP«;^/^^„^^,«jl.„„ 
brown, with dark b™wn very obhque 1,^^^^^ ^^.^^ 

^b;:t^s:™^ffi2hrew^^ 



BLIBIA . — ANGONTX. 



101 



Underside pale ; a waved submarginal line to fore wing ; hind wing 
with two waved lines. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Sylhet; Assam; Sumatra. Exp. 120 millim. 





Fig. bl.—Elibia dolichus, c?. \. 

Genus ANGONYX. 

Angonyx, Boisd. Sphing. p. 317 (1875). 

Microlophia, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 75 (1874), gen. indescr. 
Type, A. testacea, Wlk. 
Range. Sylhet; S.India; Ceylon; Siam. 

Antennae gradually tapering to a long hook. Palpi very broad 
at apex, lore wmg with the outer margin excurved at middle • 
hind wmg with the apex rounded. 

160. Angonyx testacea, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 102; Moore, Lep. Ceyl 

ii. pi. 89, fig. 1 ; a S. no. 63. 
Angonyx emilia, Boisd. Sp. Gen. 
p. 318. 

Panacra ella, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875. 
p. 246. ' 

Head, thorax, and abdomen uniform 
dark green. Pore wing dark green, 
with a grey band beyond the middle 
not reaching the costa, beyond which 
the wing is clouded with black; a 
waved submarginal line; cilia black. 
Hmd wing dark red-brown, dark 
brown at base ; oiitei- margin with a 




Fig. 58. 

Angonyx testacea, ^ . 



102 



SPHINQID^. 



broad irregular brown band ; some grey towards anal angle. Under- 
side reddish ochreous, greenish towards outer margin. 
Huh. Sylhet ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exjp. 58 millim. 

161. Angonyx sculpta, Feld. Iteis. Nov. pi. 75, fig. Q; C.8fS. no. 76. 

Outer margin oi' fore wing excurved at median nervule. Head 
and thorax green, with lateral white bands ; thorax dark grey on 
vertex ; abdomen with the proximal segments orange at sides, 
black above, with a green spot on third segment ; the fourth seg- 
ment grey, the distal segments black. Fore wing green, a grey 
streak at base ; a pale lino along inner margin ; a postmedial pale 
band not reaching the costa ; a submarginal dentate Ime, beyond 
which the area is grey. Hind wing orange at base, diffused out- 
wards along the costa and to anal angle ; a large black patch on 
outer margin, with two grey spots near the margin. 

Hab. Siam ; S. India. Ex^. 60 millim. 



Subfamily SPHlNGINiE. 
Larva with the anterior segments but slightly smaller than the 




Fie 59.— Larva and pupa of Pseudosphinx ci/rtolophia. (From Butler, 
^ Tr. Z. S. ix, pi. 91.) 

posterior; the head curved downwards in repose; horn (when 
present) long and curved. , ^ i, 

P««a generally with an external sheath for the proboscis. 

Infago with the proboscis very long. Male without lateral ex- 
nansions to abdomen. 

Key to the Genera. 

a Palpi quadrately scaled at apex. 

a'. Fore wing hut slightly acute at apex. p^otoparce, p. 102. 

a-. Hind wing with discocellulars curved . . 1. moxoPAKCi--, j). 
Bind wing with discocellulars straight ^^^^^J^ * 

and oblique " " V 

b'. Fore Aving more produced and acute at ^ ^p^^^^^,pgjs,p. 107. 

apex 4 Nephele, p. 108. 

b. Palpi rounded at apex 'i-iy^'^^ > i 



PROTOPARCE. 



103 



Genus PROTOPARCE. 

Protoparce, Bunnci'ster, Ahh. nut. Genell. Halle, iii, pt. 2, p. 63 (1855), 
HyloicLis, Hiibn. Verz. p. 138 (1810), gen. indescr. 

Type, P. rustica, Wlk., from Brazil. 
Range. Universally distributed. 

Palpi quadrately scaled at apex. Veins 6 and 7 of hind wing 
arising from the angle of the cell ; the upper discocellular bent out 
to the origin of vein 5. 

162. Protoparce convolvuli, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 798 ; C. ^ S 

no. 168. 

Protoparce orientalis, Btttl. Tr. Z. S. ix, p. 609 ; C. 8f S. no. 167 ; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl. \\, pi. 75, figs. 1, 1 a-e (larva and pupa). 




Fig. 60. — I'rotopaTce convolvuli, . \. 

Head, thorax, and a streak down the vertex of abdomen grey • 
abdomen with lateral transverse bands of pink and black to each 
segment; grey below. Eore wing grey, with black streaks below 
yems 2 and 3 ; a highly dentate dark postmedial line met by an 
irregular black streak from the apex. Some specimens are much 
clouded with fuscous, which sometimes takes the form of a broad 
medial band leaving two small pale spots in the end of the cell 
Hind wing grey; antemedial, medial, and postmedial piceous bands* 
the two former meeting at anal angle, the two latter lunulate. ' 

Larva green, the horn yellow ; a series of oblique lateral pink 
and white stripes on the fourth to tenth somites ; stigmata ringed 
with yellow and black. The European form has a black spot abSve 
each lateral stripe, the absence of which is the only character 
rehed on tor separating orientalis. 



104 



sriiiNGiD;E. 



Hah. Europe ; Africa ; Asia ; Borneo ; Java ; Celebes ; Lombock ; 
Teruate. Exp., (S ? 80-120 millim. 

163. Protoparce uniformis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 2G1 ; C. Sr S. 
no. 182. 

c?. Grey; palpi black; thorax with the vertex surrounded with 
black ; abdomen brownish grey. Fore wing with an obsolescent 
curved diffused medial band ; two similar postmedial bands bent 
inwards at vein 2. Hind wing and underside uniform brownish 
grey. 

ilab. N.W. Himalayas. Ex2J. 54 miUim. 



Genus PSEUDOSPHINX. 

Pseudosphinx, Burmeister, Ahli. nat. Gesell. Halle, iii,pt. 2, p. 65 (1855). 
Diludia, Grote ^ Bohinson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. \, p. 188 (18G5). 

Type, P. tetrio, Linn., from Brazil. 
liange. India; W. Indies; S.America. 

The discocellulars of the hind wing straight and oblique ; vems 
6 and 7 of hind wing stalked or from angle of cell ; palpi with the 
third joint more pointed and less broad. 

164. Psendospliinx inexacta, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 208 ; C.Sf S. no. 170; 
Butl. III. Het. V, pi. 81, fig. 8. 
. Head and thorax dark brown grizzled with white ; thorax 
with 'some white marks at sides and round the vertex ; abdomen 
with a black streak on the vertex of each segment, golden brown 
above brown at sides, and white and black below. Fore wmg 
variegated with grey, dark brown, and golden brown ; somewhat 
indistinct dark waved antemedial, medial, postmedial, and sub- 
marginal hnes, of which the medial is the most strongly marked ; 
a conspicuous white spot at end of cell. Hind wmg brown; the 
cilia chequered brown and white. 

Hah. Mussooree; Khasis; Bombay. Exp. miWim. 

165. PseudospMnx grisea, n. sp. 

Differs from inexacta in the ground-colour of the head, thorax, 
and abdomen being grey ; the black lines similar, but with no white 
on thorax. Fore wing similarly marked, but with the ground- 
colour grey. Hind wing pale fuscous ; cilia grey, with black points 
at the nervules, not chequered black and white. _ 

Hah. Kulu {GraUm-Young). Exp. 52 miUim. Type m coll. 

Leech. 

166 PseudospMnx fo, Wlh. Cat. viii, p. 195 ; Butl. III. Set. v, 
pi. 81, fig. 9 ; C^S. no. 172. 
Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing greyish brown or ohve- 
brown ; abdomen with yellow lateral segmental Patches. Fore ^vin^ 
crossed by subbasal, antemedial, medial, and postmedial double 



PSEFDOSPHINX. 



105 



waved black lines ; a conspicuous white spot in end of cell. Hind 
wing dark brown. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 64-68 mi llim. 



167. PseudospMnx nyctiphanes, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 209; Butl. III. 

Het. V, pi. 81, fig. 7 ; C. ^ S. no. 169. 

Dark brown ; thorax with black streaks at sides nearly meeting 
behind, where there are a few blue scales ; head, thorax, and 
abdomen white below ; abdomen with white segmental streaks at 
sides. Fore wing A^ariegated with various shades of brown and 
grey scales and crossed by numerous waved dark lines, of which 
about six are medial and one submarginal ; a pale speck in end of 
cell. Hind wing dark brown, with an obsolescent pale medial 
band ; cilia brown and whitish. 

Ilab. Sylhet ; Andamans ; Perak ; Singapore. Exp., S 120, 
2 140 millim. 

168. Psendosphinx cyrtolophia, Butl. P.Z.S. 1875, p. 259 ; id. Trans. 

Zool. Soc. ix, pi. 92, tig. 6, pi. 91, figs. 11, 12, 13 (larva and 
pupa) ; C. ^ S. no. 171. 

Differs from nyctiphanes in the palpi being black at sides. 
Fore wing with no postmedial w^aved line below. Hind wing 
with the pale band on underside medial, straight, and oblique, not 
postmedial, curved, and waved. 

The type and only known specimen is in very bad condition. 

Larva grass-green ; a white dorsal stripe from 2nd somite to 
horn ; a pink clorsal oval ring-mark on 1st and 2ud somites ; a 
larger one from 2nd to 4th somites ; lateral oblique pink stripes 
from 5th to 10th somites. 

Hah. Madras. Exp. 83 millim. 



] 69. PseTidosphmx discistriga, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 209 ; Moore, Lep. 
Ceyl. 11, pi. 73, tigs. 1, 1 a, 1 6 (pupa and larva) ; C.^8. no. 176. 
Diludia melanomera, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 13 ; C. ^ S. no. 177. 
Diludia macromera, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) x, p. 435. 
Diludia grandis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 260 ; C. Sf 8. no. 175. 
Diludia rubescens, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1875, pp. 260, 623; C. 8. no 178 
Macrosila obliqua, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 208 ; C. &■ 8. no. 174. 
Anceryx increta. Walk. Cat. xxxi, p. 36 ; C. Sf 8 no 179 ' 
Diludia vates, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 13 ; C. | 8. no. 180.' 
Anceryx piuastri, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 223. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing grey ; dark brown bands 
along sides of palpi and thorax meeting on metathorax, where 
there are a few blue and yellow scales ; a dark line down vertex 
of abdomen and paired more diffused subdorsal lines. Fore 
wmg with some dark strigae from the costa; two dark streaks 
in the interspaces below veins 2 and 3 ; a dark streak from the 
cost^ before the apex, curved down to vein 6, then upwards and 
bent back before reaching the apex; a series of submarginal 
lunules ; cilia chequered brown and white. Hind wing brown with 



106 



SraiNGIDvE. 



a pale patch with two dark lines p,cross it near anul angle. Under- 
side paler, with indistinct transverse lines. 

There are four well-marked varieties which are not locally 
constant : — 

(1) ruhescens, a dark red-hrown form with a prominent oblique 

black streak from costa of fore wiug to lower end of cell ; 
hind wiug very dark. 

(2) cliscistriga==melanome7'a=macromera = grandis, a grey form, 

much powdered and suffused with dark brown. 

(3) obliqua, a whitish-grey form with a prominent black streak 

on fore wing as in ruhescens, but continued to the outer 




Fig. 61. — Paeudosphinx discistriga, S • \- 
margin; hind wmg very dark; the patch at anal angle 

remaining pale. i i -^u 

(4) increta=vates, a pale form but slightly powdered with 

brown. , c i o 

Larva green, with white specks on the vertex of somites 1, 2, 

and 3 ; oblique white lateral stripes on somites 4-11, with brown 

streaks above them on somites 4 and 10. 

Hah. China and throughout India and Ceylon. Exp. 90-i4U 

millim. 

170. Pseudosphinx concolor, n. sp. 

^ Head, thorax, and abdomen grey ; sides of head black ; collar 
frinsed with black, and tegute streaked with black. Fore wing 
erey ; traces of a medial ferruginous band most prominent on 
inner area ; two black streaks in the interspaces between veins 2 
and 4; dark points on the cilia at veins. Hmd wing reddish 
brown, the cilia uniform grey . 

Differs from the European pinastri and aUies xn the unitorm 



PSEUDOSPHINX. — APOCALTPSIS. 



107 



colour of abdoinen; fore wing in having no black streak from 
apex ; cilia not chequered black and white. 

Hab. Subathu; Simla (//ar/orcZ). j&.tp. 50 millim. TypeinB. M. 



Genus APOCA.LYPSIS. 

Apocalypsis, Butl. Trans. Zool. Sue. ix, p. 641 (1876). 

Type, A. velox, Butl, 

Range. Sikhim; Khasi Hills. 

Differs from PseudospJdnx in the fore wing being more produced 
and pointed at apex, the outer margin more oblitiue and straight, 
not crenulate. 

171. Apocalypsis velox, Butl. Tr. Z. S. ix, p. 641; C. ^ S. no. 173. 

Head dark brown ; thorax dark brown, with pale paired lines on 
each side of vertex ; abdomen dark brown, with a series of black 
dorsal streaks and black segmental lines with white specks on them. 
Pore wiug dark brown ; white spots at extremities of the veins, 




Fig. 62. — Apocalypsis velox, c? . \. 

which are pale ; pale obliquely waved antemedial double lines ; a 
curved postmedial pale band formed of three conjoined lines • a 
yellow streak from the apex continued as a very dentate line 'to 
outer angle. Hand wing dark brown, with traces "of lines near anal 
angle ; mner margm ochreous ; cilia chequered ochreous and brown 
Underside of both wings brown with medial and postmedial in- 
distmct hnes. 

Hah. Sikhim; Khasis. ii'^^. 136 millim. 



108 



SPHINGID^. 



Genus NEPHELE. 
Nephele, Hiibn. Verz. p. 133 (1818). 
Type, N. hespera, Fabr. 

liaiuje. Throughout ludia and Ceylon ; Australia ; Madagascar ; 
Africa. 

Antennae with the terminal hook rather short and slight ; palpi 
with the second joint very broad and rounded. Wings rather short 
and broad : apex of fore wing but slightly acute. 

Pupa with the anterior somites narrow ; no external sheath for 
proboscis. 



172. Nephele hespera, Fabr. Si/st. Ent. p. 546 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, 
pi. 72, figs. 1, 1 a, i (pupa and larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 185. 
Sphinx chiron, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii. p. 62. 
Sphinx didyma, Fabr. Sp. Ins. ii, p. 148. 

Sphinx quaterna, Charpentier, Ed. Esper's Exot. Schnett., Sph. pi. 1, 
fig. 2. 

Sphinx morpheus, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii, p. 84. 
Perigonia obliterans, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 28. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen olive-brown or green; abdomen 
with lateral black segmental bands. Pore wing olive-brown or 
green, with six faint waved lines and an angled submarginal line, 





Fig. 63. — Nephele hespera, S ■ \- 

the space between it and outer margin paler ; at the end of the cell 
are two conspicuous silvery white spots, which may be reduced to 
a small speck or be altogether obsolete. Hind wing red-brown ; 
the cilia ochreous. Underside paler, each wing with two transverse 

Larva green, with a pale stripe from 7th to 11th somites. 
Hah. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Australia. 



GUEELOA. 



109 



Subfamily MACROGLOSSIN^. 

Larva witb the thoracic somites retractile and tapering to head ; 
horn long and curved. 

Imago. One medial and two lateral tufts of hair at end of 
abdomen. 



imp 



Fig. 64.— Larva of Macroglos&a gilia (from Hmpsn. 111. Het. ix, pi. 175, fig. 6). 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Fore wing more than twice length of an- 

tennae. 

a'. Antennfe gradually fining to a long hook ; 

anal tufts small 7. Rhodosoma, p. 122. 

b'. Antennae abruptly hooked ; anal tufts 

large 6, Sataspes, p. 121. 

b. Fore wing less than twice length of an- 

tennae. 

a'. Antennae gradually fining to a long hook ; 
outer margin of fore wing angulate, 

inner margin excised 1. Gukelca, p. 109. 

b'. Antennae abruptly hooked ; margins evenly 
rounded. 

a^. Fore wing with vein 6 from end of cell ; 
hind wing with veins 3, 4, and 6, 7, 
from end of cell. 
a^. Cell of hind wing of normal length. 

rt*. Antennae abruptly thickening to [p. 111. 

the club 2, Ehopalopsyche, 

5*. Antennae gradually thickening to [p. 112. 

club 3. Machoglossa, 

Cell of hind wing short 4. Hemams, p. 119. 

b'\ Fore wing with vein 6 given off" after 
end of cell ; hind wing with veins 3, 4, 
and 6, 7 stalked : the cell extremely 

short 5. CEPHONODES,p.l20. 



Geuus GURELCA. 
Gurelca, Kirby, Proc. Hoy. Dubl. Soc. ii, p. 330 (1880). 
Type, G. hyas, "Wlk. 

Range. N. India ; Mhow ; Java ; China ; Japan. 

Antennee gradually fining to a long hook. Palpi with the second 
joint rather broad ; crest on head well developed. Pore wing with 
outer margin angled. 



110 



SPHINGID.!). 



Sect. I. Ilind wing with the costa much excised. 

173. Gurelcahyas, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 107; Butl. Trans. Zool. Soc. ix, 
pi. 00, figs. 1-3 (larva and pupa) ; C. ^ <S'. no. 40. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown ; the collar and tegulse 
outlined with red-brown ; abdomen with some red-brown lateral 
segmental marks. I'ore wing grey-brown, a black speck at base ; 

two indistinct pale curved ante- 
medial lines ; a grey streak on 
discocellulars, with a dark red- 
brown patch on each side of it ; 
two highly angulate postmedial 
lines, with a pale line between 
them from vein 3 to inner mar- 
gin ; a red-brown streak below 
vein 4 ; a red-brown mark on 
inner margin before the out«r 
angle; a curved submarginal 
line ; a subtriaugular dark mar- 




Fig. 65. 



-Gurelcahyas, ^. \, 



giual patch below the apex. Hind wing yellow, with an annular 
spot on discocellulars ; a broad evenly curved marginal brown band 
Underside of both wings ochreous, much marbled and suftused 
with red-brown and brown, with a broad, irregular, marginal, 
grey-brown band ; inner area of hind wing yellow. 

Larva green variegated with red-brown ; or else red-brown with 
the thoracic somites green; lateral oblique streaks from 5th to Jth 

^"""^^ft!" Hongkong; Sikhim; Sylhet; Mhow; Java. ExpA<dm\\\\m. 



174. Gurelca masuriensis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 244, pi. 36, fig. 3 ; 

Lophif himachala, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p 621 ; C. | S. no^42. 
Lophura evebina, Butl. P Z. S. 1875, p. 621 ; C. 8> S. no. 43. 

Differs from hyas in the thorax and abdomen being more 
marbled with red-brown. Tore wing with the markings confused 
bv being more marbled; the dark mark on inner margin near 
outer angle absent. Hind wing much more produced at apex ; 
the marginal band broader at the costa, narrower towards anal 
angle, with its inner edge straight. 

Mab. Mussooree; N.E. Himalayas. Exy. 50 milhm. 

*175. Gurelca macroglossoides, JVlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1851 ; C. <§- S. 
no. 56. 

From the description this species would appear to differ from 
j^rom uiB ucov. I r beino- "powdered with 

Jn/as and masuriensis m the tore -nmg ueui^ i 
cinereous bloom," with some oblique irregular hues ; a black sub- 



GUEELCA. — EHOPALOPSTOHE. 



Ill 



costal streak intersected by a forked, slightly gilded line ; an 
undulated gilded subinarginal liue. Hiud wing with part of the 
base dark, the yellow baud with curved margin. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 48 miUim. 

Sect. 11. The costa of hind wing very slightly excised 
before the apex. 

176. Gurelca pusilla, Btdl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 244 ; C. ^ S. no. 38. 
Lophura pumilio, Boisd. Spec. Gen, i. p. 311 ; C. ^ 8. no. 39. 

(S . Differs from 7ii/as in there being a black spot at end of cell of 
fore wiug; a broad, oblique dark band from costa beyond the cell 
to centre of inner margin. Hind wing with the marginal baud 
red-brown. Underside ; fore wing with the marginal band narrow 
at outer angle ; hind wing with medial and postmedial curved 
lines ; no marginal band. 

Mab. Cachar ; Sylhet. Exp. 30 millim. 



Genus RHOPALOPSYCHE. 

Rhopalopsyche, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 239. 

Type, B. nycteris, Koll. 

Range. Himalayas and Peninsular India. 

AntennsB clubbed, the basal half thin, the hook short andsho-ht ; 
with no bands of ciHse in male. Palpi with the apex porrect'^and 
acutely scaled; fore wing not more than twice the length of 
antennae, the outer margin excurved. Flight diurnal. 



1 



7. Rhopalopsyche nycteris, Koll. Hiig. Kaschm. iv, p. 458 ni 19 
fig. 5 ; C. /S. no. 8. ' if • > 

Macroglossa volucris, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 94. 

Head thorax, and abdomen grev-brown ; abdomen with lateral 
yellow bands on the first three segments ; the penultimate segment 

fnnged with white; four lateral tufts in- 
creasmg in size posteriorly, the first two 
white, the others black tipped with orange 
anal tufts black. Pore wing grey-brown- 
some subbasal indistinct lines ; an antemedial 
band, recurved towards the base at inner 
margin; three postmedial curved lines; a 
square brown spot on the costa before the 
apex, with a black spot below it, from which 
a waved oblique line runs to the apex. Hind 
wing black-brown with a broad medial yellow 
Fig.GB. — Bhopalopsyche D^nd. 

nyctens.s. \. Himalayas ; Khasis ; Burma. Evp 

41 milhm. ^ ' 




212 bphinoidjE. 

178, Rhopalopsyche tifasciata, BiM. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 239, pi. 30, 
tig. 4 5 C. S. no. 7. 
Differs from nycteru in having the antemedial band darker ; the 
interspace betwiu the first two postmedial mes filled in j^^ 
dark so as to form a band. Hind wing wi h the band e^tendrng 
nearly to the base and bright orange in colour, as are the lateral 

bands on abdomen. . 
Eah, Nilgiris, 3000-8000 feet. Exp. 42 miUim. 

Genus MACROGLOSSA. 

(1858). 

T-trnp M stellatarum, Linn. . 
minate. 

Group L Male with the costa of hind wing evenly arched. 
A. Bind wing dark red. 
179 Macroglossa fervens, Br^tl. R Z. S. 1875, p. 4, pi. 1, fig- 3; 
Ma^rt^or ligulus, Boisa, Spec. G^n. i. p. 335 C. ^ ^ no. 14. 

Head and thorax olive-green I J^^^^^^^^ 
green above, reddish yellow at ^^^^^ f ^^^i.^.'^.S tufts black, 
L penultimate segment fringed with J ^^.^^ ^ 

tipped with fulvous Fore wmg ^^^^ ^^^iTnes, one fine, the 
nent antemedial dark band ; two P^^tme^^^^ ^J.^a before the 
other diffused; an obscure dark mart on ^.^^ 
apex, with a black streak below it. H nd jm^^ ^^^^ 
SLk' border. Underside : palpi -h^te thorax^ocli 
^en -d-biwn and brown^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
ment ; wmgs red, with base yeuo ^^^^^^^ 
ifaS. Kanara ; Nilgiris, 3000-4UUU reet. 

ISO. Macroglossa vialis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 240, pi. 36, fig. 5 ; 
C >S'. no. 12. » 1 

Biffers from f««.« in the head and thon,x tejng ^^l^^^, 
dom n red-brown the J^S"™"!' Fore .in, 

,ellow bands less tod°Pf ■ *| 'j^rom inent and nearer the 
;te . te ?„l"St:i ir ^n^L. " H.nd .ing with tbe dar. 

"Stanara. 44 millim. 



MACBOGLOSSA. 

181. „ ^^c. rm, p. 91 Moore, Ze,. Ceyl. ii, 

in the head aud thorax being grey-brown • 
the basal segments of abdomen red-brown above, each se^rent 
fringed by a few metalhc blue scales, the penul imate efment 
with longer white fringe, the distal segments less black ^Eore 
wmg grey-brown, with three antemedial fine lines and three post- 
vltlTi ™S ^^'^ dark border dfffused 

^o^^^ --Pt at inner 

ffab. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Siam. Rvj>. 48 miUim. 
182. ^acrog W ^ p. ^. ^ ,g,,^ p 2^^^ ^ ^ 

Macroglossa zena, Boisd. Sphing. p. 337; C. ^ S. no. 18 (part.). 
Dlfters from ^r^/m^^ in the terminal segments of the abdom^^n 
bemg brown above, with lateral black patchS ; no wh te We to 

Swi?" ^''^ ^i^h the ;ntemed a fines re- 

placed by a band as in fervens. Hind wing with the base brown 

SirnrXi^eZer with tt^LrT^^ 

Ifab. Simla; S.India; Ceylon. JEa:j>. 52 millim. 

B. ffind wing with a yelloiv hand. 

383. Macroglossa stellatarum, Linn. Syst. Mt i 9 «n^. r 
ScAmet u. pi. 13, figs. 1_3 (larva an^pupa) ; d 9' 

pai?;eVwt^^^^^^^^ abdcnnen with 

distal segments black and whit aXMSo^^^^^^^ Eotf ^ 

medial lines obsolescent t J\t ^''^ two\nte- 

med,al area reddis^ yell„r!\t£'taV^r '"'^ '^^^^ 

spiracular line; head ochreous^ * " y'""" 

Ckf:!: ^^r^%rSl ^""^ I'-i^b; Cochin 

no. 18 (part.). ^ ' (^'^^'^^ and pupa) ; C. ^ ^ 

^ Mers from aJtaiUa in the head, thora., abdomen, and fore 



114 



sPHrNQiDj:. 



wings being redder brown; the two lines forming the anteraedial 
band of the fore wing not filled in with black ; the postmedial 
lines not so parallel, the second being nearer the first at the costa, 
the third at inner margin ; the patch near apex reddish brown, 
with no dark streak below it. Hind wing with band reddish 
yellow. 




pjg (37, — Macroglossa belis, (S. 



1 



The form troglodytus is rather narrower winged. 
Larva black; the head red; a white subdorsal line; the sides 
spotted and streaked with red and yellow. ir Aa an 

Hah. China and throughout India and Ceylon. Exp.Ab-W 

millim. 

185. Macroglossa belia, Hmpsn, Bl. Het. ix, ined., pi. 157, fig. 15. 

0 Differs from helis in the antemedial band of the fore wing 
being much broader; the postmedial band broader and more 
aWate below the costa; the third postmedial line absent. 
Hind wing with the marginal dark border broader and more 
even Underside: abdomen paler; wings with the transverse 

lines absent. -r, -n- 

Hah. Trincomali, Ceylon. Exp. 58 milbm. 

1 8fi Macrofflossa proxima, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 4, pi. i, fig. 1 ; ^ -S-. 
186. Macroglo^s . ^^Y^o.^lT^' 

Macroglossa luteata, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. , u <y o. 

Macroglossa obscura (Up. Teuassenm), Swinh. Tians. Ent. *oc. 
1890, p. 162 (nec Butl). 

TTpad thorax, and abdomen rufous (in Malaccan and Tenas- 
Head, tpo™^' . , , . abdomen without the lateral black 

''T.'rnTri segmtt^ tufts ruddy at tips. Fore 

marks on ^ f ^^/^^^^g'^i^^iescent, the postmedial lines less bent ; 
vvmg with all f e iidefined. Hind wing with the 

"ure ^^^^ 

" 'rtark^'vfol't^^^^^^ dorsal specks; a subdorsal 

if 'TinrL Id to 4th somites and 10th and 1 1th somites ; 
^^t^ub piracS- pots on 7th to 11th somites; horn long and 



MACBOGLOSSA. 115 

tuberculate. In a later stage there are yellow and olive-brown 
transverse dorsal lines and yellow lateral spots, or the lateral 
spots may be pinkish dashed with yellow ; the horn short. 

Hah. Sylhet ; Cachar ; Kanara / Ceylon ; Tenasserim : Malacca. 
Exp. 50-60 millira. 

187. Macroglossa semifasciata, n. sp. 

d . Differs from proxima in having prominent black lateral 
patches to the abdomen; underside with paired ventral dark 
patches. Tore wing with the lower part of the interspace be- 
tween the antemedial lines filled in with black; the postmedial 
lines excurved. 

Hah. E. Pegu ; Labuan. Exp. 62 millim. Type in B. M. 

188. Macroglossa bengalensis, Boisd. Sphing. p. 341 ; c. 8f S. no 28 

Macroglossa taxicolor ilfoore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 387; id. Lep. Ceyl. 

n. pi. 90, fig. 3 ; C. 8f S. no. 22. r , i' 

Macroglossa coryfchus (N. India), Boisd. Sphing. p. 339 (nee Wlk.). 
Differs from proxima in the lines of the fore wing being much 
better defined, two of them forming an antemedial and two others 
a postmedial band filled in with reddish brown; the dark sub- 
apical streak weU developed. Hind wing with the yellow band 
varying rather in width. Abdomen with a dark dorsal spot on 
the terminal segment. ^ 

Larva green with a yellow streak from the 9th segment to the 
norn; or pale brown with black streaks above the yellow streak 
and stigmata, and others forming a broken subdorsal line 

Hob. Nilgiris, 6000 feet ; Pondicherry ; Ceylon. Exp. 56 millim. 

189. Macroglossa sitiene, Wlk. Cat. viii, p. 92 ; G * S. no 24 

"gj"^^'"^*^' -^"^^^ ^- ^- ^- 1875, p. 241, pl.37, %. 3 ; 
^Ij^^^l^lossa orientaHs, Butl. Trans. Z. 8. ix, p. 528; C. <§• S. 

pikers horn hengalensis in the thorax being olive-brown. Fore 
wing without the reddish tinge; the antemedial banlfilledTn 
with black, and recurved along inner margin ; the first two post- 
Tnlnf ^^"''^f ^ore angled below thfcosta ; the birkCb- 
apical streak and spot on terminal segment ^f the abdomen 

hinT^'ng''"'^^''- ^"'^^^^^^ -^^^ ^— se 1~ 

The form sitiene has the yellow band on the hind wing rather' 
narrower than m mgrifasciata= orientaUs. ^ 

54-to mShm"' ^"^^^"^^ ^-P- 

1 90. ^l^'Ogloss^g^^^^^ sutl. P. Z S. 1875, p. 241, pi. 36, fig. 9 ; 

c? . Differs from hencjalensis in the whole base of the fore win^ 

i2 ^ 



116 



SPniNGID^. 



being black-brown, with no grey baud between the hnes; the 
whole exterior area also very dark, so that the medial and post- 
medial grey bands are obscured, and the lines and subapical 
markings obliterated. Hind wing with the yellow band very 
narrow. Head dark grey ; thorax and abdomen bright rufous, 
the latter with yellow and black lateral markings on the anterior 
segments ; the anal tuft black, with the tip rufous. 

2 . Thorax and abdomen olivaceous ; the fore wing not quite 
so dark as in the male ; hind wing with the band broader. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp. 52 millim. 



191. Macroglossa walkeri, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 4. 
Macroglossa bombylans, Boisd. Sphing. p. 334 ; C. 8f 8. no. 16. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen olive-green, the last with yellow 
lateral bands on anterior segments, the 4th also with a rufous 
band • the terminal segments black wdth some rufous scales ; the 
penultimate segment fringed with white ; palpi and pectus white 
below; abdomen rufous, with white lateral tufts to 3rd and 4th 
segments. Eore wing red-brown, with a black antemedial band 
recurved along inner margin; the first two postmedial hnes pro- 
minent : the third and subapical markings obsolescent, liincl 
wine with a narrow yellow band, which is broken at the middle 
in the male. Underside dark red-brown, with the lines very 
faint ; the base of both wings white. ^ a- t ;i- 

Hah. Japan; China; Himalayas, and throughout ^. India. 

E(cp., 6 44, $ 52 millim. 

192. Macroglossa avicula, Boisd. Sphing. P- 334. 
Macroglossa obscuripennis, Butl. Trans. Z. 8. ix, p. b66. 

Only differs from walkeri in the fringe to penultimate segment 
of the abdomen and the lateral tufts on 3rd and 4th segments being 
yellow : the hind wing with the yellow band quite obsolete. _ 

In imlheH and avicida the club of the antennae m the males is 

Java and ? Central India (op. Boisd.). Exp. 44 millim. 

*193. Macroglossa lepcha, Butl. Trans. Z. 8 ix, p. 635 ; C. <^ no. 17. 

Differs from walUn in the terminal segments of the abdomen 
beinf olTve-green, not black. Fore wing with the two postmedial 
fines more ^distinct, with a dark mark on the outer one at inner 
margi^rtbe subapical marks more prominent, continued as a waved 
submarginal line to outer angle. 

Hah. Calcutta. Exf. 56 millim. 



MAOEOGLOSSA. 



117 



194. Macroglossa msipida, Butl P. z. S. 1875, p. 2J2 : C <§• ^. no 10 • 

Aloore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 92, figs. 3 a, 6 (larva and pupa). ' 
Macroglossa catapyrrha, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 243, pL 36 fio-. 6 • 
C. 8f S, no. 26. ' o* > 

Head and thorax grey, with a rufous line on vertex ; teo-uls 
rutous, fringed with grey ; abdomen grey, the 2nd, 3rd, and''4th 
segments with yellow lateral bands and paired dark spots on the 
vertex ; some darker marks on terminal segments ; anal tuft grey 
at base, black at tip ; palpi white below; thorax pale brown : abdo- 
men rufous, with white lateral tufts. Fore wing grey ; two in- 
distinct subbasal lines ; an antemedial curved dark band • three 
postmedial double curved lines ; the subapical markings prominent 
and continued towards outer angle as a submarginal line. Hind 
wing with a yeUow band constricted at middle. Underside rufous 
yellow; bothwmgs with an irregular dark margin; hind winff 
with three transverse lines, of which there are traces on the fore 

In typical insipida there is a pinkish suffusion to the bodv 
in K IndT"' '"^ <^^<'i<^Pyrrha only 

d«r^T "^"^^ purplish dots ; a pale subdorsal line with 

dark margins; dark lateral oblique stripes from 3rd to 10th 
somites,- horn black. Early stage dull brown. ^^^'^ 
mimm * 5 Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Ceylon. Eccp. 40-48 



195. ^ll'lff^^J^^^^^^ Samml aussereur. Solunett. 



Differs from insipida in the head, thorax, abdomen and fn.. 

miS: ^''■•°"8''™""<'»"<1 Ceylon; Java; China. 44-54 

Head, thorax, and first two sep-mprifo ^-ki r 
fringed with grev • 3rd nnT 11^ ? abdomen rufous ; tegulce 
yellow bandsfnd iaired bik °^ ^^^h lateral 

terminal segment r ndersfde /^^^^^^^^^^^ ' ^ '^•^^^^ '''''''' 
theantemeLn b;nd ^i^t^^te^^^^Z^^X^ 



118 



sphingid;e. 



curved postmedial diffused bands, which are daik with red-brown 
on their inner sides ; the subapical markings indistinct. Hind wing 
and underside as in sitiene. 

Hub. Ceylon. Exp. o4 millim. 

197. Macroglossa imperator, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 243, pi. 37, fig. 4 ; 

a i iS. no. 31. 

Differs from divergens in the dark stripe on vertex of head and 
thorax being much broader and more prominent; tegulse rufous, 
but without the pale friuge. Pore wing with the antemedial band 
much broader, especially at inner margin ; the postmedial band 
black, much broader, and angled at vein 6, where it as jomed to 
the subapical markings ; the submarginal line obsolescent. Hind 
wing with the yellow band broader and hardly constricted at 
middle. Underside with the lines on hind wing rather more pro- 
minent. 

Mab. Sikhim ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Ewj:). 74 milhm. 

198. Macroglossa rectifascia, FcM. Reis. Nov. pi. 75, fig. 7 ; C. S. 

no. 32 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 90, fig. 2. 

Differs from imperator in the head and thorax being greyish 
black, the latter with a rufous patch posteriorly. Fore wmg wuth 
the basal third blue-black ; the two postmedial Imes nearer together 
and not filled in with black, but angled so as to join the subapical 
markings ; the outer area much clouded with black. Hind wmg 
with the ground-colour almost black. 

Hab. Formosa ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exp. 48-64 milhm. 

199. Macroglossa faro, Cram. Pap. E.xot. in, p. 165, pi. 285 c. 

Differs from rectifascia in the thorax and abdomen being pale 
red-brown; a rufous stripe on head and thorax. Fore wing 
lighter in colour, with the area beyond the postmedial hues less 

clouded with black. w^r. j le. milUm 

Hab. Java and ? Coromandel {ap. Cram.). Exp. d 7b miliim. 

200 Macroglossa hemichroma, Buil. P.Z.S. 1875, p. 243, pi. 37, 
fig. 1; a ^S. no. 29. 

Differs from faro in having the whole basal half of the fore wing 
grey with a sharp outwardly obUque margin defining tbe olive- 
brown outer area; the lines indistinct. 

Hab. Sylhet. Exp. 70 millim. 



MACKOGLOSSA. — HEMABIS. 



119 



Group II. Male with the costa of the hind wing produced into 
a triangular lobe covered with black scales, which is folded 
over on the upper surface of the wing. 

201. Macroglossa interrupta, Butl P. Z. S. 1875, p. 242, pi. 37. fio- 2 • 
C. ^ jS. no. 23. > f > ) o- y 

Macroglossa aqiiila, Boisd. Sphing. p. 340; C. ^ S. no. 21. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown ; abdomen with 
broad yellow and black lateral bands on the 3rd and 4th segments • 
underside bright red. with some white on the first three segments • 
small white lateral tufts ; a white spot on the penultimate seo-- 
ment ; palpi and pectus white. Fore wing brown, with a purpHsli 
gloss ; the basal area suffused with black, obscuring the lines ; the 
three postmedial lines present ; a dark mark on the outer maro-in 
below the apex above the usual subapical streak. Hind wing with. 
the yellow band much indented. Underside red ; hind wing with 
three transverse lines. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Sylhet. Ex^x 54 millim. 



Genus HEMARIS. 

Hemaris, Balm. Vet. Akad. Handl. p. 207 (1816). 

Type, H. scabioscB, ZelL, from Europe. 
Range. Nearctic and Palsearctic regions. 

Disk of wings usuaUy hyaline; the palpi much shorter than in 
Mcicroglossa the shape and antennae similar. Fore wing with vein 
]0 absent, 9 sending some veinlets to the costa and anastomosing 
with 8 just before the apex ; cell of hind wing short. 

202. Hemaris fuciformis, Linn. Sgst. Nat. i, (2) p 803 
Hemaris simillima, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. SQl ;' C. 8f S. no. 4 a. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen clothed with long, fine, oHve-green 
pile ; the 3rd and 4th segments of abdomen da?k red ; anal Uifts 
black. Fore wing hyahne, with costa and inner margin ol ve- 
green; tlie outer margin with a broad dark-red bandt a dislo- 
cellular black band. Hind wing hyaline, the inner margin o ve- 
green the outer margin dark red ; the cilia brown. 

Bab. Jjiurope ; Kangra. Eccp. 46 millim. 

203. Hemaris sanndersi, mk. Cat. viii, p. 83 ; C. ^ S. no. 4. 

Differs horn fuciformis in the head, thorax, and abdomen beinff 
normally scaled. Fore wing without the dis^ocellular band • Jho 



120 sphinqidjE. 

marginal band naiTow at outer angle. Hind wing without the 
red border. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas ; Punjab. Exp. 56 millim. 




Pig. 68. — Hemaris saundersi, S • t- 



204. Hemaris rubra, n. sp. 

Antennae black; palpi black at sides, white below; head and 
thorax dull greenish olive ; abdomen black, clothed with olive down 
above, the second segment with a broad white band, the 3rd, 4th, 
and 5th, segments each with a shght white dorsal dash, lateral 
white tufts on 5th and 6th segments, anal tuft black. Fore wing 
red-brown, the base olive ; traces of a pale medial oblique band ; a 
dark marginal line. Hind wing bright red-brown, with a dark 
marginal line ; cilia grey. Underside of head, thorax, and base of 
wings whitieh. One male has the down on abdomen black. 

Bab. Sind and Gurais Valleys, Kashmir {Leech) ; Balta {M6- 
ArtJiur). Exp., 6 48-52, $ 68 millim. Type in coll. Leech. 



Genus CEPHONODES. 

Cephonodes, Kuhn. Verz. p. 131 (1816). 
Type, C. hylas, Fabr. 

Range. S. and W. Africa, Madagascar ; Japanese, Indian, Ma- 
layan, and Australian regions. 

Fore wing with vein 6 given off after the end of the cell, 10 
absent, 9 sending veinlets to the costa and anastomosing with 8. 
Hind wing with the cell extremely short, veins 3 and 4 and 6 and 7 
stalked. 

205. Cephonodes hylas, Linn. Mant. p. 539 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 93, 
figs. 4 a, 6 (larva and pupa) ; C. 8f 8. no. 6. 
Sphinx picus, Cram. Pap. E.xot.u, p. 83. ^ ^ . 
Macroglossum kingii, McLeay,Ktmfs Surv. Austr. App. p. 4b5. 
Macroglossa cunninghami, Schaufuss, Nunq. Ottosus, i, p. 2,^. 
Macroglossa apus, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag. pi. 79. 



CEPHOIirODES.— SATASPES. 121 

Differs from Hemaris saundersi in the marginal borders beins 
very narrow and black ; the abdomen varies in colour from yellow to 
green ; in typical hylas the 3rd and 4th segments are bright red 
m the variety cunnincjTiami only the 4th is red, but there is more 
red on the terminal segments below. 




F'^g. Q^.—Cephonodes hylas, ^ . \. 
Larva green ; a wMte-bordered blue dorsal line and whitish sub 

and^^lbltTrds^tj. tei '"l™"^'™' ^■'^'^ '° 

Genus SATASPES. 
Sataspes, Moore, Lep. B. I. C. i, p. 261. 
Type, S. infernalis, Westw. 
Range. China ; Himalayas ; Assam ; S. India. 

jomt of moderate size and roundl/ Sed pll 
produced at apez; the discoeelluWl veTy oblint J^tT^"""^ 
given off below the centre; vein 10 a,b,Pnt Q . ■ ^ 

th^costaand anastomosing wUh \' ^^M^t^^'^^^tZ 

200. Sata^spesinfernaUs, Or. p. ei, p,, so, fl,.8; 

Sataspes uniformis, Sutl. P. z. 8. 187S, p. 3; C .J- « no 2 

mi?g^:^ slh?fe"rbd^:ii'=r ,™'\f "^r^'"- ■'-^ 

yellow hairs, the last^wi or th^e s^^ ' 

tuft black. Wings bCk - fJt ■ "^S"?"'' above ; anal 

base grey, an antem d aVg^^f banT'c'^^t " FT'!,* ■ 
Underside uniform blaci! ^ ^ ' ™S « I'ife. 



122 8Phingid;e. 

In the form uniformis the last two segments of the abdomen are 
entirely or ahnost black. 

ffab. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma ; Coimbatore. 
Kvp. 66 millim. 




Fig. 10.— Sataspeainfernalis, \. 

207 Sataspes ventralis, Btdl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 3; C. 8,- S no. 3. 

Sataspes tagalica, Boisd. Sphing. p. 278, pi. 10, figs. 3, 4. 

Differs from infernalis in the last four or five segments of the 
abdomen being yellow below. Yore wing with a steely green gloss. 
Bah. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Burma ; Hongkong. Exp. 66 milhm. 



Genus RHODOSOMA. 
Ehodosoma, Butl. Trans. Z. S. ix, p. 634 (1876). 
Type, B. triopus, Westw. 

Bange. Sikhim ; Assam. , • i „ T»oir^; 

Antenna gradually decreasing to the hook, which is long. Palpi 
with the apex quadrately scaled. Abdomen truncate at apex ; the 
Tal and lateral tufts very short. Fore wmg much produced and 
broad. Hind wing also broad. 

208. Ehodosoma triopus, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 14, pi. 6, fig. 4 ; 
a ^ S. no. 36. 

Head and thorax olive-green or fulvous with two yellow stripes ; 
-vbdomen black, with lateral crimson bands on segments 2 to 5 
?hatd the 4th being the most extensive; fulvous dorsal and 
lateraT spoL on segments 5 to 8 ; anal tuft black, the lateral 
tuits u vous. Fore wing brownish black, crossed by three ante- 
medll outwardly obliqne black bands; a arge white quadrate 
Tot beyond the discocellulars ; postmedial submarginal, and 



EHODOSOMA. 123 

spots. Tore wing suffused with red-brown. Hind wing red, with 
medial and postmedial black lines. 

Hah. Sikhim ', Assam. Exp. 68-78 miilim. 




Species formerly recorded as Indian, which are omitted. 

Cephonodes cyani^is^Kivhj, C. & S. no. 6. This was a lapsus calami 
for cynmms, Guer. Icon. Ins. p. 495, from Mauritius. 
lhe l)ubhn specimen recorded from Sylhet was without 
locahtj and IS either that species or janus, Miskin, 

Mn. n 7 ^' ^' ^^^^ Australia. 

Macroglossa frmgtlla, Boisd., 0. & S. no. 30. This species is 
allied to the Australian errans, and is probably not Indian 
forXSoo"' ™« are too vaguely described 

0 8'- r '''' ' 

reffister oF t^f f- u If l.=P*^«s«n, Lmn. The 

SobabLv ZIP"' 7""' ^""''^^^ ^ dealer, is 

probably bcmde, and is almost certainly wronff 

ophma; sanc/umosa.MartvJi 0 <feS nn 1«/L ;a / ^' 7- ■, 

. Fabr.,'a Zyginid f/om tht W InS " 

^ ?orXti/.1'-' dJscription is too vague 

.tor Identification, and the habitat may not be India 
>S^;.m^ as^l^form^s Fahr., C. & S. nos. 41, 205, is f;om the 
W. Indies, and is probably a Zvgcenid 



124 



NOTODONTID^. 



Family NOTODONTID^. 

A family of moths superficially resembling the Noctuidce. 

Mid tibia with one pair of spurs ; hind tibia with two pairs ; 
tarsi shoi't and hairy. Eore wing with vein 1 a forming a fork 
with 1 6 at the base ; 1 c absent ; vein 5 from the middle of disco- 
cellulars, or rarely from just below upper angle of cell*. Hind 
wing with two internal veins ; vein 5 from the centre of the 
discocellulars or rarely absent ; 8 free from the base, curved, and 
running close along the subcostal nervure or joined to it by a bar. 

Larva without the anal prolegs, and carrying the anal somites 
more or less erect; these often bear paired processes, and are 
sometimes swollen ; the other somites often prominently humped. 

Pupa naked. 




Fie 72.— Larva of Cenira liturata. \. (From Moore, Lep. 
Ceyl. ii, pi. 120, fig. 1 a.) 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Fore wing with vein 6 from middle of disco- 
cellulars. 

a. Fore wing with no tuft of scales on inner 
margin. 

a'. End of abdomen with a tuft of long 
spatulate scales. 
«2 Fore wing with vein 10 anastomosing 

with 8 10 form the areole 1. Tabsolepis, p. 126. 

6^ Fore wing with vein 9 anastomosing 

with 8 to form the areole 2. Dudusa, p. 128. 

b'. End of abdomen without a tuft of spatu- 
late scales. 
d\ Hind wing with vein 6 present. 
a^. Fore wing produced and narrow.^ 
'«*. Fore wing with the inner margin 

produced into a triangular lobe. 10. Nobbaca, p. 1^3/ . 
5*. Fore wing -with the inner margin 

produced into a rounded lobe . . 9. Turnaca, p. idO. 
c*. Fore wing with the inner margin 
evenly curved. 
a^ Fore wing with the apex acute. 
'a\ Fore wing very long. 

a''. Fore wing with no areole. 5. Babadesa, p. Jcii. 
W. Fore wing with an areole. 6. Rachia, p. 131. 
i>8. Fore wing shorter. 

a'. Palpi upturned 12. Pydna, p. Ic58. 

b\ Palpi porrect 13. Ramksa, p. 14J. 

-'V^^^^^hTq^^yph^^^^^ ^''y be the connecting link with the 
^octuidcB. 



NOTODONTIDjE. 



125 



¥. Fore wing with the apex 
rounded. 
a^ Fore wing with vein 9 anaa- 
tomosing with 8 to form 
the areole. 

Fore wing with vein 5 from 
centre of discocelliilars. 
a**. Palpi slight and fringed 

with hair 11. Niganda, p. 138. 

b . Palpi broad and rounded 8. Gargetta, p. 135. 
b''. Fore wing with vein 5 
from near upper angle 

7« -n 23. Damata, p. 156. 

b^. -t ore wing with vein 10 anas- 
tomosing with 8 to form 

. areole 7. Phalera, p, 133. 

b ore wing not produced and broad. 
^. Fore wing with no areole. 
a\ Fore wing with the outer mar- 

gin very irregular 17. Zaranga, p. 146. 

b\ b ore wing with the outer mar- 
gin evenly curved, 
fl". Hind wing with veins 2 and 
3 from cell. 
a'. Fore wing with vein 7 
given off nearer the apex 

than 10 ... . 18. Fentonia, p. 147. 

b'. ioxQ wing with vein 7 ' r 

given off further from 
the apex than 10. 
a^ Fore wing broad, the 
outer margin not cre- 
nulate. 
«^ Hind wing with veins 
7 and 8 not bent up- 

7.0 r/^'J^'.*^ the costa . 19. Staubopus, p. 149. 
b . Hind wing with veins ^ 
7 and 8 bent upwards 

vJ"" '""'^^ 21. LiPAROPsis, p. 154. 
6 . ±1 ore wmg narrower, the 
TT- /^.*^''™^:P^?-enulate. 27. Pheosia, p. 160. 
b . Hmd wing with veins 2 and ^ Pn l 

3 stalked . . o^t ■\,r^^ „ LP- ^^o. 

Fore wing with an are'ole." 
I . Fore wing with vein 9 anas- 
tomosing with 8 to form the 
areole. 

a". Fore wing with vein 6 from 

angle of cell 14. Zana, p. 144. 

^ • wing with vein 6 from 
^ b^ond angle of cell. 
a . Fore wing with the areole 

' J'^"^ 6 f'j'om before 
the e^ of it. 

a\ For# wing with the 

apex acute . 15. Anticyra, p. I44 

6.1^ ore wing with the , i-- -l*-*. 

apex rounded 26. Chadisra, p. 159. 



KOTODONTID^. 



V . Fore wing with the areole 

short, vein 6 from the 

end of it 22. Ceruea, p. 155. 

Fore wing with vein 10 anas- 
tomosing with 8 to form the 
areole. 

Fore wing with vein 6 from 
beyond the angle of cell. 
a'. J'ore wing with vein 5 
from near upper angle of 

cell 24. DiCRANtJBA, p. 167. 

v. Fore wing with vein 5 
from centre of discocel- 
Ixil fill's 

flS. Palpi short and porrect. 16. Antheua, p. 145. 
Palpi upturned, reach- 
ing vertex of head . . 20. Someba, p. iod. 
b^. Fore wing with vein 6 from 
angle of celL 
a'. Fore wing with the areole 

short, vein 7 froni its end. 34. Besaia, p. 171. 
v. Fore wing with the areole 
Ions-, vein 7 from before 

its end 35. Cleapa, p. 171. 

fc2 Hind wing; with vein 5 absent. , ^no 
a^ Yox^ whig with the apex rounded. 36. Ichthyuea, p. 172. 
h\ Fore wing with the apex acute and ,09 

produced •••••• 3. Hapigia, p. i/J. 

b. Fore wing with a prominent tuft of scales 
on middle of inner margin. 
«'. Hind wing with veins 2 and 3 from cell. ^Qa. 

a\ Fore wing with no areole INotodonta, p. xo^. 

Fore wing with an areole. 
«=' Fore wing with the outer margm 

■ 1T"J h " 4. Nabata, p. 130. 

tuft of hair •. • Tti 166 

Fore wine with the outer margin LP- 
b . J^orewiug wxi, c Lophoptebyx, 

crenulate : • 163 

C.3. Fore Wing With the outer margin ^^^^^^^Ji'^'^ 

b'. Hindwinr;itv:ins2and3s\^^^^ 31.' Me.aceba.is, 
0 Fore wing with prominent tufts of scales LP- 
at middle of inner margin and at outer 

a' .Tor'; wing with vein 10 anastomosing 168. 

with 8 to form the areole ; • • »patai.ia, 

b'. Fore wing with vein 9 anastomosing igg. 

with 8 to form the areole V ' ' f ^ 

B. Fore wing with vein 5 from lower angle ot ^^^^^^^^^ p. 174. 

cell 

Genus TARSOLEPIS. 
Tarsolepis, Sutl A. M. N. H. (4) x, p. 126 (1872). 
Type T. remicauda, Butl. 

SpTpo*eorfi«"?wo joint, hairy, third short and naied. 



TARSOLEPTS. 



127 



Hind femur with a tuft of long hair from near the extremity. 
Abdomen long, with a large tuft of spatulate scales at extremity-. 
Fore wing long, with the apex acute, the outer margin crenulate ; 
vein 6 from angle of cell, the areole short ; veins 9 and 10 given 
off near the apex. Hind wing with the cell short ; vein 8 con- 
nected with 7 by a bar ; traces of forked veinlets in the cell of 
both wings. 

Sect. I. Antennae of male simple. 

209. Tarsolepis fulgurifera, Wlk. Cat xiv, p. 1347 ; Butl. III. mt. vi 
pl. 106, fig. 9; C. ^ S. no. 1201. ' 

c? . Palpi and head pale and dark brown ; a black band behind 
the antenna ; thorax and abdomen fawn-colour ; dark transverse 
hues across the pro-, meso-, and metathorax ; abdomen with 
lateral segmental fuscous bauds. Tore wing fawn-colour, the 
inner area dark brown from the lower angle of cell to inner margin 
near the base and to outer margin below the apex ; two obhque 
dark subbasal hues from median nervure to vein 1 6 ; a black longi- 
tudmal mark above inner margin on the dark area, outlined with 
pale and black Imes ; a whitish streak below vein 2, with a rufous 
line through It; a silvery streak below vein 4; black streaks in 
the interspaces, growing short towards the apex ; outer margin 
whitish, with ochreous and brown lines ; the cilia fulvous. 
Hmd wmg fuscous ; the basal area whitish, with a large fuscous 
spot at end of ceU. Hmd leg wanting. 
ITab. Naga Hills. JEwj). 120 millim. 

Sect. II. Antenna of male with the proximal two thirds bipectinate. 
210. Tarsolepis remicauda, Butl. A. M. N. S. (4) x, p. 125, pl. yiii. 
d . Differs from fulgurifera in the head being without the black 




'^^■—Tarsolepia remicauda, ^. ^. 
band; the abdomen more fimnmio "P^v.^ 

suffused with brown - the bkl -^^^ ^ ^ ™^ uniformly 
uxuwn, me black mark above inner margin reduced 



128 



NOTOBONTIDiE. 



to a slight streak ; a large triangular silvery mark in the interno- 
mediau interspace, outlined with rufous brown ; a similar mark 
between veins 3 and 4 ; outer area dull brown, with a waved sub- 
marginal line. Hind wing more suffused with fuscous over the 
basal area. Hind leg with the femoral tuft brilliant scarlet. 
Mob. Sikhim ; Borneo. Exp. 80 raillim. 

Genus DUDUSA. 
Dudusa, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 446 (1864). 

Type, D. nohilis, Wlk., from China, Malacca, Sumatra. 

Range. China ; Sikhim ; Naga Hills ; Malacca ; Sumatra. 

Palpi porrect, the first two joints hairy, the third short and 
naked ; antennae with the branches short and stiff, and only ex- 
tending to just beyond the middle ; abdomen with a large terminal 
tuft of spatulate scales. Hind femur with no tuft. Fore wing 
long, the apex acute, outer margin crenulate ; vein 6 from angle 
of cell ; the areole long, with vein 10 given off from it. Hind 
wing with a bar between veins 7 and 8 ; traces of forked veinlets 
in the cell of both wings. 

211. Dudusa sphingiformis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 577, pi. 34, 
fig. 1 ; C.^ S. no. 1188. 

S . Antennae and front of head black ; thorax pale ochreous ; 
collar and tegulse with slight dark lines ; abdomen black ; the 




DTTDUSA. — HAPIGIA. 



129 



brown and with black towards outer margin ; some black stiiffffi 
on costa, and blackish streaks and lunulas towards outer margin • 
a doubly curved pale postmedial line ; pale lunulate submarginai 
and marginal lines. Hind wing smoky black, with a darker spot 
at end ot cell ; indistinct waved submargiual and marginal pale 
mes. Underside pale, with a prominent black lunulate band to 
both wings. 
Mab. Sikhim, Naga Hills. Exp. 96 millim. 



Genus HAPIGIA. 
Hapigia, Guen. Met. ii. p. 376 (1852). 

Type, B. nodicomis, Gruen., from S. America. 
Range. S. America ; Madras. 

_Palpi_ upturned, the second joint fringed with very long hairs 
third joint naked. Antennae ciliate. Fore wing long, the apex 
acute, the outer margin very obliquely rounded; veins 7, 8 9 10 
s a ked ; no areole. Hind mng with vein 5 absent ; 6 and 7 
sialked ; 8 connected by a bar with 7. , uu / 

The typical section has the third joint of palpi free and vein 6 
ot fore wmg from angle of cell. 

Sect II. Palpi with the hair on 2nd joint extending to apex of 
drd]omt. -Fore wmg with vein 6 from above angle of cell. 
212. Hapigia obliqua, Wlk. Cat. xxxiil, p. 766 ; C. 8^ S. no. 2335. 
$ . Head and thorax pale chestnut- brown ; apex of palpi black. 




Fore wing pale chest„„t-br„™, with lo.r ver, oblique iodistinot 



130 



NOTODONTIDj;. 



lines the orbicular and reniform spots elongate ; a dark lunulate 
submarginal line incurved below the costa. Abdomen and hind 
Aving fuscous brown. 

Eab. Madras. Exp. 104 millim. 



Genus NADATA. 

Nadata, Wlh. Cat. v, p. 1062 (1855). 

Type, N. gihhosa, Abb., from N. America. 
Range. N. America ; Japan ; Himalayas. 

Palpi with the first two joints thickly fringed with scales, the 
third naked and very short. Antennae with the branches short, 
stiff, and reaching two thirds of length. Thorax with a long 
upright tuft of hair on the vertex. Fore wing with the outer 
margin crenulate or irregular ; vein 6 given off beyond the cell ; 
9 and 10 anastomosing with 8 to near apex ; a tuft of scales on 
inner margin. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked, 8 runnmg 
close along 7 before end of cell. _ . -r a- 

Eore wing with outer margin more irregular m the Indian 
species than in the typical American and Japanese forms. 

213. Nadata niveiceps, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 554 ; C. ^ S. no. 1189. 

5 . Head, thorax, and fore wing very pale grey-brown ; abdomen 
orange-yellow above. Tore wing with an indistmct brown mark 



< 




Fig. 76. — Nadata niveiceps, 5 . h 



at end of cell and faint traces of a postmedial Ime; cilia in the 
emarginations white. Hind wing pale yellow. 
Bah. N.W. Himalayas. Exjp. 100 millim. 



BAEADESA. — BACHIA. 



131 



Genus BARADESA. 

Baradesa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 16. 

Type, B. liihosioicles, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim ; Sylhet. 

Palpi upturned, reaching above vertex of head, the first two 
joints clothed with hair, the third very short and naked. Fore 
wing long and narrow, the apex acute ; vein 6 given off after the 
angle of cell; 9 and 10 anastomosing with 8 to near apex. Hind 
\^-ing with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 running close along 7 to near 
end of cell. 



214. Baradesa lithosioides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 17, pi. 5, fio-. 2 ; 
C. 8f 8. no. 1216. 

6- Head and thorax brown; abdomen yellow, the extremity 
greyish brown. Pore wing brown, suffused with darker brown. 




Kg. 77. — Baradesa lithosicides. r^. 

with numerous black lunulate marks, forming ill-defined lines • a 
series of marginal black loops. Hind wing^bright yellow the 
outer area fuscous ; the cilia yellow ^ ^ ' ^ 

iTaJ. Sikhim; Sylhet. Rvp. 8S millim. 



Genus RACHIA. 
Rachia, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 70 (1879). 

Type, ^.jpZwrnosa, Moore. 
Range. Sikbim. 

8 9'l0rtr]irr^Ti°^^' ^P«^ ^^^t^; ^eins 6, 7 

K 2 



132 



NOXODOXTIDvE. 



Sect. I. Tiilpi short and porrecfc : antenna? of male vtdth tlie 
branches very long, slender, and extending to apex. 

215. Rachia plumosa, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 70; P. Z. 8. 1879, p. 405, 
pi. 34, tig. 1 ; C.8f S. no. 1209. >i ' 

d . Head and collar dark brown ; thorax and abdomen paler 
brown. Eore wing pale red-brown, the whole wing suiJused with 
dark brown except the inner area, a submarginal band, and some 
postraedial streaks below the costa and in and beyond end of cell, 




Fig. 78. — Eachia plumosa, \. 



these last with chestnut streaks on them ; indistinct waved post- 
medial and submarginal lines ; vein 1 sti-eaked with black : outer 
margin dark, irrorated with grey and spotted with black. Hind 
wing brown, with an indistinct curved postmedial line. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exjp. 79 millim. 



Sect. II. Palpi longer and upturned ; antennae of male with the 
branches stiff, the terminal one-fourth filiform. 

216. RacMa striata, n. sp. 

S . Palpi black at sides. Head, thorax, and abdomen pale 
brown. Fore wing pale brown, slightly clouded with fuscous, 
especially tow^ards apex ; black streaks above veins 6 and 4 ; an 
indistinct: fuscous postmedial band recurved at vein 3 to base of 
inner margin ; a black streak on centre of inner margin ; a black 
band from centre of outer margin to inner margin before outer 
angle : some dark grey on outer margin, widest at outer angle. 
Hind wing pale, with an indistinct postmedial line and a short 
submarginal band at anal angle. 

Hah. Sikhim (Moller). Exp. 80 millim. Type in coll. Ehves. 



PHALEHA. 



133 



Genus PHALERA. 
Phalera, Hiibn. Vevz. p. 146 (1816). 
Type, P. hucephala, Linn,, from Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Japan ; China ; throughout India and Burma • 
Java. ' 

Palpi upturned, the first two joints clothed with hair, the third 
short and naked ; antennae fasciculate in male, ciliate in female ; 
abdomen long. Fore wing long and narrow; vein 5 given off 
from near upper angle of ceU ; 6 from bevond the angle ; 9 and 
10 anastomosing strongly with 8. Hind Wing with vein 5 from 
below angle of cell ; 6 and 7 on a long stalk ; 8 running close alono- 
7 before the end of cell. 



217. Phalera parivala, Moore, Lep. JE. 1. Co. p. 434; Butl. Ill Bet. 
VI, pi. 103, fig. 2 ; C.^ 8. no. 1518. 

c?. Palpi dark brown; frons chestnut; vertex of head buff- 
coloured; thorax bu£E, fringed with dark brown ; the tegul* ffrey 
mixed with brown; abdomen brown, some specimens with indistinct 
tuscouB segmental bauds. Pore wing dark brown, with traces of 
waved dark lines ; the basal and outer areas suffused with grey • 




Fig. 1^.~I>halera parivala, S. \. 

basal area defined by an indistinct waved rufous line ; orbicular and 
remform spots somewhat indistinct ; a large apic'd brownth-buff 
patch extending as a series of lunulate submfrginal markslo vein 3 
an indistinct waved submarginal black line ; cilia bright chlstnut' 

sll • r Nil white and fuscous 

nab. bikhira ; ^ilgiris. ^^p. 80-90 miUim. 



134 



NOTODONTIDjE. 



218. Phalera sangana, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 433 : Butl. III. Het. vi, 

pi. lOy, %. 4 ; C.^ 8. no. 1521. 
Phalera areiiosa, Jiutl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, p. 66 ; C. 8f no, 1514, 
Phalera stigmigera, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, p. 66 ; C. S. no. 1523. 

S differs from parivala in the frons being black, the vertex of 
head white, the vertex of thorax dark brown ; the abdomen with 
prominent dark segmental bands. Fore wing suffused over the 
whole area with grey or ochreous grey ; the subbasal line black ; 
the submarginal lunulate band darker, with its lower part at- 
tenuated ; a purplish mark near outer angle. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Bhutan. Usep. 82-93 milUm. 

219. Phalera torpida, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 431. 

c5' ditFers from sangana in the vertex of the head being buff ; the 
abdomen uniform fuscous ; fore wing slightly suffused with grey ; 
the apical patch pale and small, and only extending to vein 5, 
no mark near outer angle ; hind wing darker fuscous. 

ffab. Sikhim. ^.rp., S 62-67, $ 78 miUim. 

220. Phalera procera, Feld. Bets. Nov. pi. 96, fig. 1 ; C. ^ S. no. 1519. 
Phalera bobi, Stvinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 302, pi. 21, fig. 6 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 1515. 

Differs from sangana in the fore wing having a large dark patch 
on the inner margin near base ; the apical patch large, rounded on 
its inner side and terminating at vein 4. 

In the form bobi, from Bombay and Burma, the hind wing is 
fuscous, with traces of a pale medial line; ia procera, horn Sikhim, 
it is much paler. 

Bab. Sikhim; Sylhet; Nagas ; Bombay; Burma. Ex]y., S 81, 
2 84 millim. 

221. Phalera raya, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 433 ; Butl. III. Het. vi, 

pi. 103, fig. 1 ; C.8f 8. no. 1520. 
Phalera grotei, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 434 ; C. 8f 8. no. 1517, 
Phalera cossoides, Wlk. Tram. Eni. 8oc. ser. 3, i, p. 80; C. i^- 8. 

no. 1516. 

Acrosema amboinse, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 96, fig, 2 ; C.Sf 8. no. 1513, 

Differs from procera in the frons being buff ; the fore wing 
heavily suffused with silvery grey on basal and inner areas ; the 
apical patch paler. 

Larva bluish white, with a paired subdorsal series of setiferous 
warts ; lateral area yellow, with a red band ; prolegs black, red at 
extremities; head reddish ; stigmata black ; pairs of anterior and 
posterior setiferous processes, which disappear in the final stage, 
when the ground-colour becomes white instead of blue and yellow . 

Rab. Sikhim; Nagas; Calcutta; Simla; Bombay; Nilgiris. 
Exp., (S 76, $ 82 millim. 



GAEGETTA. 



135 



Genus GARGETTA. 

Gargetta, Wlk Cat. xxxii, p. 455 (1864). 
Thacona, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vii, p. 169 (1864). 
Porsica, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1823 (1866). 

Type, G. costigera, "Wlk. 

Range. Himalayas ; Sylhet ; Burma. 

Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head, the first two joints 
hairy, the third short and naked. Fore wing long and narrow, 
with a tuft of long hair in the male from below A^ein 1, near the 
base; vein 5 from the middle of discocellulars ; vein 9 anasto- 
mosing with 8 to near apex ; the areole short, with vein 10 given 
off from it. Hind wing with the costa arched at centre ; vein 5 
from centre of discocellulars ; 6 and 7 stalked, 8 nearly touching 
7 at middle of cell. 

Sect. I. {Gargetta). Male Math branches of antennae of 
moderate length and reaching apex. 

222. Gargetta costigera, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 455: Butl. III. Het 
vi, pi. 103, fig. 6 ; C.^S. no. 4821. 

^ Dull brown ; the head darker. Eore wing with the apex and 
inner areas slightly suffused with grey ; some short dark waved 




Fig. 80. — Gargetta costigera, \. 

Hnes from the costa ; a black longitudinal streak at end of cell • 
an mdistmct waved submarginal line with grey points on it • a 
series of marginal white specks. ' 

.^A^'c^i'^^J^-^' Himalayas; Sikhim; Moulmein. Exp 
6 4b, 5 54 millim. 

223. Gargetta nagaensis, n. sp. 

6 differs from costigera in the head, thorax, and fore win- 
being more unilorm darker brown ; fore wing with the outer margiS 
more erect; the streak m cell less prominent; a straight white 
marginal line to both wmgs instead of the grey points ^ 
in^otE^wel™''^^^^*"'''^''''"'^^^^ 62 miilim. Type 



136 



NOTODONTIDjE. 



224. Gargetta curvaria, n. sp. 

c? differs from costic/era in the head being pale. Fore wing 
with a greyish subbasal patch ou inner margin, generally with a 
dark patch beyond it ; no black streak at end of cell ; the orbicular 
and reniform marks well defined and ochreous ; the waved line with 
grey points postmedial ; the marginal points dark. Hind wing 
with traces of a medial pale band. 

Bab. Sikhim ; Momeit. Exp. 42 milHm. Type in B. M. 

Sect. II. (Thacona). Male with branches of antennae very 
short ; the terminal half filiform. 

225. Gargetta ingens, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1823 : Btdl. III. Het. vi, 

pi. 104, fig. 9; C. <5- no. 4816. 

S . Head and collar black-brown ; thorax and abdomen pale 
grey-brown; the extremity of the latter ochreous. Tore wing 
grey-brown, with large dark patches at middle of costa and apex 
with strigse between them ; dark patches suffused wdth grey below 
end of cell and at outer angle ; reniform indistinctly outlined wdth 
grey; an indistinct pale waved submarginal line. Hind wing 
slightly suffused with fuscous. 

Bab. Sikhim ; Sylhet. Exj>. 56 millim. 

Sect. III. Tore wing with vein 11 bent and touching areole ; 
branches of antennae short, the terminal half filiform. 

228. Gargetta albimacnla, n. sp. 

c? . Dull brown. Fore wing with very indistinct waved sub- 
basal and antemedial lines ; a blackish streak between the orbicular 
and reniform ; a waved postmedial hue with white points, and a 
large white spot on inner margin ; a pale irregular submarginal 
line ; a series of marginal white points ; a dark streak from apex. 
Hind wing wdth the basal half whitish, with a dark medial line : 
the outer area fuscous; a marginal series of white points. 

Bab. Sikhim. Exjp. 50 milUm. Type in B. M. 

Genus TURNACA. 

Tumaca .Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 464 (1864). 
Ambadra, Swinh., C. ^ S. p. 183 (1887). 

Type, '1 . acuta, Wlk. 

Range. Bengal and throughout S, India. 

Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head ; the first two joints 
smoothly scaled, the third short ; antennae with the branches short, 
serrate at apex, Tore wing long and narrow, the apex very acute 
in male, less so in female ; inner margin with a rounded lobe ; 
vein 6 from angle of cell ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked ; no areole. Hind 
wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; a bar between veins 7 and 8. 



TUENACA. — Is'ORBACA. 



137 



227. Turnaca acuta, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 464; C. ^ S. no. 1511, 

Corma ernestina, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 302, pi. 20, fio-. 2 : C. & S. 

no. 1233. ° 
Pydna indica, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 67; C. 8f S. no. 1183. 

Palpi dark at sides ; head, thorax, and fore wing pale brown, 
irrorated with greyish fuscous ; the last with an indistinct series 
of postmedial dark specks curved inwards above inner margin ; 
abdomen and hind wing paler. 




Some specimens have the apex less acute than others : the form 
tndica IS paler, with the submarginal specks more prominent. 

Hab. Bombay; Eanchee; Calcutta; Canara; Bangalore. Rvp., 
d 54, $ 42 millim. ^ ' 



Genus NORRACA. 

Norraca, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 340. 

Type, iV. longi^ennis, Moore. 
Range. Ceylon. 

Palpi upturned, the first two joints smoothly scaled, the third 
short; antenna slightly ciliate. Abdomen long. Pore wing loner 
and narrow with a dentate lobe on inner margin; vein 6 from 
angle of cell; 9 and 10 anastomosing with 7 and 8 to form a 
smaU areole. Hmd wing with veijis 6 and 7 on a long stalk, 8 
runnmg close along 7 to near end of cell. 




Fig. %2.~Korraca longipennis, c?. \. 

228. Norraca longipeiinis, Moore, P z S. 1881, p. 340. 

c?. Head, thorax, and fore wing ochreous, the last with traces 



138 



NOTODONTID^E. 



of four or five waved fuscous lines beyond the middle ; abdomen 
and hind wing with a reddish tinge. 

Larva sphingiform, with a horn on anal somite. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Penang. Exp. 48 millim. 

Genus NIGANDA. 
Niganda, Moore, Lcp. Atk. p. 63. 

Type, N. strigifascia, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi upturned, the first two joints smoothly scaled. Antennae 
minutely ciliated in female. Fore wing very long and narrow, the 
apex ratber acute ; vein 6 from angle of cell ; 9 anastomosing 
with 8 to form the areole from which 10 is given off. Hind wing 
witb veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 running close along 7 before the 
end of the cell. 

229. Niganda strigifascia, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 63, pi. 3, fig. 16; 
a. ^ S. no. 1153. 

c? . Pale ocbreous brown ; the outer area of wings greyish, 
rore wing with a striated \A bite streak from the base to beyond end 




Pig. 83. — Niganda strigifascia, 5 • t- 



of cell, angled at end of cell, and pale yellow from thence to apex ; 
postmedial and marginal series of black specks. Hind wing 
reddish fuscous. 

$ . Pale reddish ochreous. Pore wing with a pale yellow 
streak from near the base of the cell to outer margin, narrowing 
at the discocellulars ; faint traces of a postmedial darker line and 
series of specks beyond it. 

Hah. Sikhim. 'Exp., 6 55, $ 62 millim. 

Genus PYDNA. 

Pydna, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1753 (1855). 
Bireta, Wlk. Cat.yii, p. 1754 (1855). 
Torona, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 467 (1864). 
Menapia, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 461 (1864). 
Ceira, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 462 (1864). 



PYDNA. 



139 



Type, P. testacea, TVlk. 

Range. Japan ; China ; and throngliout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma. 

Palpi upturned, reaching above vertex of head, fringed with hair 
in front, the 3rd joint short. Fore wing produced, longer and 
narrower in female than male ; vein 6 from the angle of cell ; 9 or 
both 9 and 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. Hind 
wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 running close along 7 before 
the end of cell. 

Sect. I. (Pydna). Tore wing with the areole short ; 
vein 10 given 'off after it. 

A. Female with antennce slightly pectinated. 

230. Pydna testacea, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1754; C. ^ S. no. 1184. 

Menapia kamadena, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 812 ; C. ^ S. no. 1512. 

. Pale ochreous ; palpi black, fringed with white. Eore wing 
suffused with fuscous ; a black speck at base and another at end of 
cell ; an indistinct subbasal waved and curved line ; a highly waved 
and curved antemedial line ; two very oblique lunulate indistinct 
lines from the apex to centre of inner margin ; a waved submar- 
ginal indistinct line ; a black speck at end of cell. Abdomen and 
hind wing reddish ochreous. 

2 with the fore wing longer, the abdomen and hind wing 
white, ochreous, or reddish fuscous. 

Another form is paler, the fore wing slightly irrorated with 
black scales ; the markings almost obsolete ; female with a dark 
blotch in the cell and another beyond it. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp., c5 60-66, ? 62-96 milHm. 

*231. Pydna decurrens, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 66 ; C. ^ S. no. 1144. 

$ . Differs from the pale ochreous form of testacea in having a 
sharply angulated antemedial band; a curved postmedial band 
sending two streaks to a submarginal maculate line ; an obliq ue 
streak from apex. 
Bab. Khasis. Exp. 53 millim. 




Fig. M.— Pydna longivifta, S • h 
232. Pydna longivitta, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1754; C. 8f S. no. 1186 



140 NOTODONTID^, 

(S . Head and thorax rufous ; abdomen ochreous. Fore wing 
ochreous, with a curved ferruginous band from the base to the 
apex ; numerous indistinct waved hues. Hind wing fuscous- 
brown. 

Bab. Simla ; Sikhim ; Nagas ; Eangoon. Ejp. 56 millim. 

233. Pydna nana, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 407. 

c? differs from longivitta in the band of the fore wing ter- 
minating before the apex ; two series of ferruginous submarginal 
specks ; costa and cilia rufous. 

-^ai. N. Cauara ; Nilgiris. -Krp. 42 miUim. 

234. Pydna pallida, Butl. A. M. N. U. (4) xx, 1877, p. 473; id. 111. 

Rtt. ii, pi. 25, tigs. 10, 11. 
Pydna notata, Swinh. Trans. Mit. Soc. 1891, p. 479, pi. xix, fig. 16. 

S . Differs from the pale form of testacea in not having the 
black speck at end of cell of fore wing ; some orange scales along 
median nervure and vein 4 ; the inner area suffused with brov\ n ; 
submarginal and marginal series of black specks. 

2 with the apex of fore wing generally more produced and 
acute; a black cell- spot sometimes present. 

Hab. Japan; Chekiang; Sikhim. Eay., (S 50-54, $ 54-56 
millim. 

B. Male antennce fasciculate, female ciliated ; the 
paljpi shorter and slight. 

235. Pydna ochracea, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 65 ; C. Sf 8. no. 1147. 

5 uniform orange-yellow ; the palpi blackish at sides. 
Idab. Sikhim. Exp. 79 milHm. 

236. Pydna galbana, Sivinh. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 438, pi. xl, fig. 5 ; 

C. S. no. 1185. 

2 . Ochreous white ; the vertex of thorax and abdomen brown ; 
fore wing with a black spot below the centre of cell and one above 
centre of inner margin ; a postmedial series of six spots and a 
marginal series of smaller spots. 

Hub. Sikhim. Ex_p. 34 millim. 

Sect. II. (Ceira). Fore wing with the areole long, vein 
10 given off from it ; palpi and legs less hairy. 

A. Male with the antennce fasciculate. 

237. Pydna metaphaea, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 462; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. 

ii, pi. 119, tig. 3; C.SfS. no. 1146. 

Differs from testacea in the thorax and fore wing being pale 
ochreous, with less rufous irroration ; some specimens have a large 



PTDXA.. 



141 



black spot below the origin of vein 2 and the short streak beyond 
the cell prominent, in others these marks are quite obsolete ; the 
rufous line from apex and the submarginal line better defined. 
Abdomen and hind wing darker brown, without the red tinge. 
Hah. Ceylon. Exp., c? 50, $ 62 millim. 

23S. Pydna eupatagia, n, sp. 

6 • Head and thorax olive-brown ; collar and patagia violaceous 
grey ; abdomen red-brown, the extremity grey. Fore wing whitish ; 
the inner area violaceous grey ; a dark speck near the base and 
streak on median nervure ; traces of an antemedial dentate line • 
a reddish patch in end of cell ; a denticulate postmedial dark line 
met by an oblique streak from the apex and with some rufous 
suffusion beyond it; a series of submarginal black specks. Hind 
■wmg fuscous with the apex whitish. 

The form from the N.W. Himalayas is paler, with the markings 
of the fore wiaw less prominent. 

6 52, $ 36 milhm. Type in coll. Knyvett. ^ 

239. Pydna aurata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 64; C. ^- S. no. 1150. 

S . Head and thorax orange fulvous, the collar grey : abdomen 
fuscous. Fore wmg fulvous yellow, the basal aSd costal areas 
golden; an orange streak from the base below median nervure- 
some oblique orange strigaj from the costa; a black spot at end of 
cell; a postmedial curved series of dark specks ; traces of a sub- 
margmal line; a marginal series of white lunules. Hind win^ 
fuscous; the ciha ochreous. ^ 
Bah. Sikhim ; Khasis. Exp. 50 millim. 

240. Pydna fasciata, Moore, Lep. Atk p. 66; C. ^- S. no. 1182. 

c?. Head and thorax ochreous brown; abdomen deep fuscous 
the dorsal tufts on first two segments long. Fore wing^ochreou ' 
irrorated with brown and suffused with fuscous; som^fine pale 

S7t.V " ^^'^ "^""'^ ''^'^ grey scales on il below 

the cell; the renilorm spot pale; a double postmedial series of 

i fusrut ""-""^^ '^^^^^ ^P-^- ffi-"-ing 

Bah. Khasis. Exp. 50 millim. 

241. Pydna sikkima, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 64 ; C. ^ S. no. 1162. 

Head and thorax bright ochreous ; collar pinkish grey • metathoror 

slight fusoou. suffusion on mneVandTui la, " 
waved snb,nargina. Mnl ; a margindToSe^oV btl l^ZcCli- 



142 



NOTODONTID^. 



nent towards apex. Hind wing smoky grey, the margin and cilia 
ochreous. Underside yellow, the disk and inner area o£ both wings 
suffused with black. 

Hah. Sikhira. Exp., S 62, § 64 millim. 

242. Pydna nigropuncta, n. sp. 

S. Head, thorax, and abdomen brown. Fore wing pale 
brownish ochreous, with a slight red-brown suffusion ; traces of 
waved ante- and postmedial red-brown lines, two indistinct series 
of postmedial specks on the nervules ; a prominent dark spot 
below vein 5, with a red-brown streak from it to the apex ; traces 
of a submargiual line ; a marginal series of black specks. Hind 
wing fuscous, the cilia ochreous. Underside fuscous ; the costa 
of fore wing and outer margin of both wings yellow. 

Hah. Sikhim (Mdller). Exp. 46 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

243. Pydna nigrofasciata, n. sp. 

S . Differs from nigropuncta in being pale olive-brown without 
the red-brown suffusion. Pore wing with a prominent black fascia 
from the base to near centre of outer margin, with some fuscous 
suffusion above it; a short black oblique subapical streak; the 
marginal series of specks indistinct. Hind wing paler. Under- 
side with the outer margin of both wings slightly ochreous. 

Hah. Sikhim (Elwes). Exp. 47 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

*244. Pydna basistriga, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 65 ; C. Sr S. no. 1143. 

S . Differs from nigropuncta in having the head, thorax, abdo- 
men, and fore wing pale yellow; the hind wing whitish. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 56 millim. 

B. Male with the antennae hipectinate, the hranches long. 

245. Pydna ferrifera, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 468 ; C ^ ^S. no. 1115. 

Ceira iunctm-a, Moore, Lep. Atk. P- fj/// l^^S. 
Ceira 'postica, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 66; C. ^- S. no. 1148. 

A Yellowish white; differs from longivitta in the band of 
the fore wing being much more diffused and ill deBned ; the veins 
streaked with ferruginous; the inner series of submargmal specks 
curved to the centre of inner margin ; the ciha pale. Hmd wmg 
yellowish white. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 48 millim. 

Genus RAMESA. 
Eamesa, WUc. Cat. v, p. 1016 (1855). 
Type, B. tosta, Wlk. 



BAMESA. 143 

serrate and fasciculate. Fore wing rather narrow; vein 6 from 
the angle of cell ; 9 and 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. 
Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 running close along 7 
to towards the end of the cell. 

246. Ramesa tosta, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1017 ; Butl. III. mt vi pi 104 
fig. 5 ; C. 4- S. no. 1527. ' ^ ' ' 

Kamesa luridivitta, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 12. 

Head and thorax red-brown. Fore wing ochreous, slightly 
suffused with red-brown, and streaked with dark brown along the 




Fig. 85. — Bamesn, tosta, . \* 



basal half of the costal area to the lower angle of the cell, and 
extending along veins 4 and 5 to the outer margin ; shorter streaks 
below the apex, and a paler streak along inner margin ; postmedial 
and submargmal series of dark specks; cUia fuscous. Abdomen 
ana hind wing paler. 

The Ceylon race luridivitta is much darker ; the head, thorax, 
and fore wmg wholly dark brown, the last with rufous streaks 
from lower end of cell to outer margin and apex. 

Hah. Burma; Ceylon. Exp., ^ 32, $ 36 millim. 

247. Eamesa fuscipennis, n. sp. 

tint "^W^n^ViiT^ dull brown; abdomen with a reddish 
smfll' ? I ''• f^'^ ^^^^ ^'^^ reniform spot 

SLTpHp? f '""'V^^ ^''^ P"^" "^^l^"^^' i°^^i«tinct post- 
i^side them ' ' "^''^ ^^"'^ '''''' ^^^^ ^^^"^ «P^«1^« 

Burma. 44 miUim. Type in coll. Moore. 

*248. Eamesa divisa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 65 ; C. ^ 8. no. 1151. 

S . Differs from fuscipennis in beino- rpd hrnwr, -p 
with pale flesh-coloured streaks on inner area arT^Aw 7' ""'"^ 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 56 Sim ^ ^^'S^^' 

*249. ?Ramesaalbistriga.i»fo«..,x.^.^,/.p.64; C. ^ ^. no. 1149 

brotn^'Zr« w^'^'^'A^"'^^' ^ ^^^'^ «f abdomen grey- 

brown. I ore wing with some grey streaks along median nerviLT; 



144 



NOTODONTID^. 



an indistinct double waved antemedial dark line ; a dark spot at. 
end of cell ; a pinldsh streak from lower angle of cell to outer 
margin ; four or five indistinct waved postmedial lines ; a marginal 
series of dark specks. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 50 millim. 



Genus ZANA. 

Zana, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1700 (1855). 

Type, Z. lignosa, AValk. 
Range. Almoi'a; Madras. 

Palpi slight and porrect. Antennse serrate in female. Fore 
wing broad, the outer margin crenulate ; vein 6 from the angle of 
cell ; 9 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. Hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 stalked : 8 running close along 7 to near the end of 
the cell. 



250. Zana lignosa, Wlh. Cat. vii, p. 1700; Butl. 111. Het. vi, pi. 104, 
fig. 4 ; C. <^ S. no. 1510. 

2 . Head and thorax pale buff ; abdomen bright orange above, 
with a paired series of lateral black spots. Fore wing grey, with pale 




Fig. 8Q.—Zana lignosa, § . i. 



yellow patches below and beyond the cell ; brown streaks along 
median nervure and on discocellulars ; a highly dentate brown line 
from apex to lower angle of cell ; brown streaks on each side of 
the veins on outer margin ; a waved marginal black line. Hind 
wing pale yellow. 

Hab. Almora ; Madras. Exp. 44-56 milhm. 



Genus ANTICYRA. 

Anticyra, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1091 (1855). 
Dinara, Wlk. Cat vii, p. 1699 (1855). 

Type, A. comhusta, Wlk. , , . „ , 

Ucmqe. Philippines; N.W.Himalayas; Kardchi; Poena; Java. 
Palpi slight and porrect. Antennae fasciculate. Pore wnig 
broad, the apex rather acute; vein 6 given off beyond the end of 



AlfTICrEA. — ANTHEUA. 



145 



cell ; 9 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole, which is long. 
Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 running close along 7 to 
near the end of the cell. 



251. Anticyra combusta, Tm. Cat. v, p. 1092 ; Moore, Len. E. I. Co. 
pi. 13 «, %. 5, and pi. 23, figs. 3, 3 a (larva) ; C. 8^ 8. no. 1135, 
Diaara lineolata, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1700. 

Head and collar buff; thorax brown with the patagia grey; 
abdomen orange above with a series of black lateral spots; the 




penultimate segment fuscous, the terminal ochreous. Eore wiuo- 
pale yellow; the inner half irrorated with a few black scales and 
suftiised with brown, especially between veins 2 and 4: brown 
streaks below the costa, in the cell, and between the nervules of 
the yellow area towards outer margin; a waved marginal brov^n 
line. Hind wmg fuscous. 

Zf«n;a. Blue-green, with a few long hairs : head black. 



Genus ANTHEUA. 
Antheua, Wlk. Cat. iii, p. 766 (1855). 
Type, A. varia, Wlk., from Natal. 

v7S\y't^'''V ^^^^o^gliout India and Ceylon; Java. 

brants S .tore^:Ltbrot^^^^^^^^^^ ^^4^ ^^'''^ 
fn>m angle of cell; 

areole. Hind wms with vein^ R 7 ii j o ■ , 
along 7 to near the end o£ cell ' 



146 



yOTODONTID^. 



Antheua exanthemata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. Ill, pi. 119, fig. 2 ; 
C. Sf S. no. 1137. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen fulvous j-ellow suffused with rufous. 
Fore wing fulvous yellow, irrorated with a few rufous scales, a 
brown patch below the end of cell; costa and inner margin 




Fig. 88. — Antheua servula, . \. 



narrowly rufous; outer margin broadly rufous. The hind wing 
may be any shade of colour between ochreous white and dark 
brownish fuscous, the latter being the form exanthemata. 

Larva. Brown with a yellow lateral line and paired subdorsal 
and sublateral red spots ; the stigmata white ; the head streaked 
with black. 

Eah. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java. Exp. 
46-50 millim. 

Genus ZARANGA. 

Zaranga, Moore, Trans. JEnt. Soc. 1884, p. 357. 

Type, Z. pannosa, Moore. 
Batige. N.W. Himalayas. 

Palpi short and porrect. Antennae bipectinated to near apex, 
the branches short. Tore wing with the outer margin highly 
irregular ; vein 6 from angle of cell ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind 
wing with the outer margin waved, and excised towards anal 
angle ; vein 5 from middle of discocellulars ; 6 and 7 stalked ; a 
bar connecting 7 and 8. 

253. Zaranga pannosa, Moore, Tram. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 357 ; C. S,- S. 
no. 1217. 

c^*. Head, thorax, and abdomen brown; metathorax fringed 
with yellow; antennae tipped with white; tarsi banded with 
white. Fore wing dark brown, a white speck at base; a large 
pale red-brown patch on inner margin, nearly joined by a similar 
patch occupying all the apical area except the costa and apex ; an 
indistinct antemedial waved line; black lines on each side of 
discocellulars ; an indistinct waved postmedial line, white at costa 



ZABA-NGA. — PENTONTA. 



147 




Fig. 89. — Zaranga pannosa, ,^ . \. 

and towards inner margin Hind wing fuscous ; the disJi whitish 
two pale streaks above anal angle. 
Hab. Simla. Exp. 74 millim. 

Genus PENTONIA. 
Fentonia, Butl. Trans. Eat. Soc. 1881, p. 20. 
Type, F. ocypete, Brem. 

Range. Japan; Amur; N.W.Himalayas; Sikhim • Canara 
Palpi upturned and short, the first two joints fringed w^th hair 

neaiV^^p;x^hl^oVnot^^^^^ Hind""''^ 

and 7 stalked^ 8 running doTe Z.g 7 to'';rearre^erof LT ' 

Sect. I. Hind wing with the stalk of veins 6 and 7 short 
a. Antennce of mcde with hranches short and reaching the apev 

^ro*ii?7.'^^^"*^^^^^' 1865, p. 813.; C. ^ S. 



Head and thorax grey, marked with bro^vn; abdomen yellow 




^^g- ^^--Fcntonia argent if era, ^. \ 

with the tip g.ey. 3u,,,y g,^^^ ^^^^^^^ 



L 2 



148 



NOTODONTIDjE. 



waved brown or rufous lines ; medial and postiuedial waved lines ; 
a double submarginal lunulate line ; a bighly waved marginal line. 
Hind wing yellow at base and inner area; tbe outer area brownish 
fuscous ; tbe ciba whitish. 

Hob. Sikhim, 7000 to 10,000 feet. Exp., S 60, $ 62 millim. 

255. Fentonia brunnea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 60 ; C, 8f S. no. 1169. 
Ileterocampa basalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 61 ; C. S. no. 1168. 

. Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown, the thorax brighter. 
Pore wing with the base pale ; a subbasal fuscous band with waved 
edges; medial area pale red-brown; an indistinct much waved 
postmedial line ; outer area fuscous and red-brown ; a pale oblique 
streak from tbe apex and submarginal series of black specks. Hind 
wing reddish brown. 

The form basalis has the ground-colour of fore wing greyish. 

Ilab. Sikhim. E.vp. 48 millim. 

*256. Fentonia obliquiplaga, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 61 ; C. ^- 8. no. 1172. 

c? . Head and thorax blackish; abdomen yellowish brown, the 
extremity blackish. Fore wing pale vinous brown; an oblique 
subbasal black band with dentate edges ; a broad marginal blackish 
band with waved inner edge and series of submarginal black specks 
on it. Hind wing pale brown, the inner area yellowish. 

Eah. Sikhim. Exp. 60 millim. 

257. Fentonia apicalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 68, pi. iii, fig. 12; C. 8,- S. 

no. 1525. 

Head and thorax greyish black-brown ; antennae fulvous. Fore 
wing pale chestnut-brown, suffused with darker brown near the 
base; numerous black spots between the veins ; a pale band from 
the costa before the apex narrowing to outer margin above the 
angle ; the outer area suffused with fuscous. Hind wing fuscous 
brown. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 48 millim. 

b. Antenna} of male ivitJi terminal one-tJiird serrate. 

258. Fentonia ocypete, Brem. Bull. Acad. Petersb. iii. p. 481 (1861). 
Fentonia leevis, Bull. Tra7is. Ent. Soc. 1881, p. 20. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale grey. Fore wing grey ; a 
black streak on base of median nervure ; double antemedial dentate 
dark lines ; double postmedial lines excurved round end of cell 
and angled inwards below the cell; an indistinct dentate sub- 
marginal line ; a dark marginal line. Hind wing pale grey ; a 
slight brown patch at anal angle ; a marginal brown line and a 
line through the cilia. 

Hab. Japan ; Amur ; Simla. Exp. 48 millim. 



FENTONIA. — STAUEOPUS. 



149 



Sect. II. Hind wing with the stalk of veins 6 and 7 very long ; 
antennas of male with the branches longer. 

259. Pentoniatenebrosa, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1725; C. ^ ,S. no. 1089. 
Phineca canities, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 407. 

6 . Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown. Fore wing o-rev, 
suffused with fuscous scales ; two curved antemedial black lines 
with a few silvery scales on them, the upper part of the space 
between them filled in with fuscous ; traces of a postmedial curved 
line ; a series of submarginal black streaks on the veins. Hind 
wing fuscous. 
Hah. N. Canara. Exp. 28-30 millim. 



Genus STAUROPUS. 

Stauropus, Germar, Prod. p. 45 (1811), 
Netria, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1504 (1855). 

Type, S.fagi, Linn., from Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Japan ; throughout India and Ceylon : Anda- 
mans ; Java. 

Palpi short and slight, or rarely longer and upturned. Fore 
wing broad, the subcostal vein hairy on underside ; vein 6 from 
iiugle of cell ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked ; no areole. Hind wing with veins 
b and 7 stalked; 8 running close along 7 to near end of cell. 

Sect, I. Male with antennae fasciculate ; female simple. 

260. Stauropus maculatus, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 60; Waterh. Aid, ii, 

pi. 132, hg. 6; C.Sf S. no. 1171. ' ' 

Head, collar, and patagia grey ; thorax brown. Fore wing o-rey 
the medial and apical areas suffused with reddish brown : one^'sub- 
basal and seven medial waved dark lines, the middle hues red- 
brown and ill defined on the disc; a submarginal series of dark 
spots ; ciha chequered grey and brown. Abdomen and hind wino- 
pale with a reddish tinge, the former grev at extremity. 

Hab. Sikhim; Nagas. Kv^., ^ 44, $ 53 miUim. 

Sect. II. (Stauro2)us). Male with antenna pectinated, 
female ciliated. 

261. Stauropus alternus Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1020 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, 

pi. 119, ligs. 1, la, b (larva) ; C. ^ 8. no. 1129. ' ^ 
Stauropus mdicus, Moore, P. Z 8 1879, p. 404; C. & 8 no 1131 
Stauropus albescens, Moore, P. Z 8 1879; p. 404 ; C.8f 8 no. 1128. 

d. Head and thorax brownish grey; abdomen grey- brown 
with the dorsal tuits on first six segments darker. Fore wing 



^^'^ NOTODONTIDiE. 

brownish grey, with indistinct ante- and postmedial pale waved 
hues ; a subniargmal series of rust-red spots with pale lunules 
inside them. Hnid wing whitish, with the costal and inner areas 




brown ; both wings with a marginal series of pale and red-brown 
lunules. Underside brown. 

2 with the hind wing uniform brown. 

The form albescens, from Bombay and Ganjam, is more uniform 
pale grey ; the hind wing hardly suffused with brown. 

Larva dark red-brown ; a pale dorsal line ; grey subdorsal 
streaks on 5th and 6th somites ; paired dorsal prominences on 6th 
to 8th somites ; the terminal somite swollen and carried over the 
back, with two angular processes from the extremity ; the anal 
prolegs absent ; 2nd and 3rd pairs of legs long. 

Hab. Sylhet ; Bombay ; Ganjam ; Canara ; Ceylon ; Eangoon ; 
Java. Bxja., 44, $ 62 millim. 

262. Stauropns sikkimensis, 3Ioore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 811, pi. 43, fig. 5 ; 

a ^ 8. no. 1132. 

Stauropus berberis^, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 400; Butl III. Set. 
vii, pi. 125, fig. 4 ; C. <^ S. no. 1130 a. 

c? . Differs from alternus in the antemedial line of the fore 
wing being more irregular, the postmedial line more curved and 
less dentate, and both with dark outlines ; a spot of dark raised 
scales below the middle of the cell, two towards the end of it : 
two submargina? sei'ies of spots of dark raised scales and marginal 
lunular series. Hind wing whitish, the costal area dark. 

2 darker than the male. 

Typical sihkimensis, from Sikhim, has the base of fore -vA-ing 
greyish ; the medial area of fore wing and costa of hind wing 
suffused with dark green ; in berberisce, from Kangra, the fore wing 
is wholly suffused with brown. 

Larva similar to that of alternus. 

Hab. Kangra ; Umballa ; Sikhim. Exp., c? 44 ; $ 60 millim. 

263. Stauropns dentilinea, Ilmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 60, pi. 141, fig. 10. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey and fuscous. Fore wing grey, 
irrorated with fuscous scales, and slightly suffused with brown on 



STAUROPUS. 



151 



basal and outer areas ; very indistinct ante- and postmedial waved 
dark lines ; a submarginal series of dark spots ; a prominent den- 
tate marginal dark line. Hind wing fuscous ; the costa pale. 
Hah. Nilgiri plateau ; Ceylon. Exp. 45 millim. 



264. Stauropus apicalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 69 ; C. ^ 8. no. 1130. 

S . J'ore Aving comparatively longer than in the preceding 
species. Head and collar fuscous brown ; thorax grey ; abdomen 
fulvous brown, the extremity grey. Fore wing grey, irrorated 
with fuscous scales ; a brown streak on the middle of the costa, one 
postmedial, and one subapical below the costa. Hind wing pale 
fuscous brown. 

Hab. Sikhim. Ex^p. 62 millim. 



Sect. III. (Netria). Both sexes with antennse pectinated. 

265. Stauropus viridescens, Wlk. Cat. vi. p. 1504 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. 
ii, pi. 120, figs. 2,2a (larva and pupa). 
Neti-ia griseata, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig, 14. 
Stauropus virescens, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 404 ; C 8f S. no. 1134. 

_ 6 . Head and thorax green ; abdomen brown, with the extre- 
mity green. Fore wing green; two indistinct subbasal waved 
dark lines, two antemedial, three postmedial, and one submarginal ; 
the orbicular and reniform spots paler. Hind wing fuscous brown. 
Underside paler. 

$ with the fore wing suffused with brown on basal area, and 
on medial area between the first antemedial and last postmedial 
lines. 

The form griseatus, from Trincomali, Ceylon, has the female very 
much paler, with hardly a trace of green suffusion ; fore wing with 
the ground-colour greyish white, the bands brown; hind wing 
pale and but slightly suffused with fuscous. 

Larva thickened at middle ; anal segment bifid ; green, with a 
dorsal purple line ; the spiracles white ; a sublateral yellow line • 
gulfe, fore legs, and mid claspers purple. 

Hah. Sikhim; Nagas ; Ceylon; Java. Exp., s 50-70, 9 82- 
100 miUijn, 



266. Stauropus pallidifascia, n. sp. 

6 . Head and thorax brown, grizzled with white and the central 
part of collar fringed with white ; abdomen paler. Fore wincr 
with the basal area grey-green, bounded by a double antemedial 
brown me ; a double postmedial line excurved between veins 
2 and 4, the area between the two double lines pale ochreous 
suffused with brown scales, and with the orbicular and reniform 



NOTODONTIDiE. 



spots inclistinctJy paler ; outer area grey-green ; a waved dark 
submargmal line. Hind wing wliitish, the costal and inner areas 
sultused with red-brown, the apex grey-green. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 4G millim. Type in coll. Knyvett. 

267. Stauropus albivertex, n. si>. 

6 . Palpi and sides of head black, the vertex white; thorax 
dark iron-grey ; abdomen greyish brown, the basal segments red- 
brown. Fore wing iron-grey ; an irregularly waved antemedial 
hne and waved oblique postmedial Hne. Hind wing nearly white; 
some dark hairs on inner area, and some brown on the margin at 
anal angle. 

Hab. Grurais Valley, Kashmir {Leech). Exp. 70 miUim. Type 
in coll. Leech. 

268. Stauropus fasciatus, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 58 ; C. 8f S. no. 980. 

Palpi black, fringed with white; head ochreous white ; thorax 
grey and fuscous ; abdomen brownish grey, the extremity gi-izzled. 
Pore wing grey irrorated with fuscous, some darker suffusion at 
base ; three indistinct waved antemedial lines ; a postmedial irre- 
gular line, expanding into ill-defined blotches below the costa, at 
middle and inner margin ; a wa^'ed submarginal dark line. Hind 
wing pale, with a large apical dark spot. 

A male from Sikhim has the collar white, and a large white 
blotch below the centre of the costa of fore wing in and below the 
cell : in a female from Sikhim the head also is white ; the fore 
wing wholly white, except the basal area, the inner area, and a 
patch on the costa beyond the middle, which are brown. 

Hah. Dalhousie; Sikhim; Khandala; Andamans. Exp., S 52, 
2 54 millim. 

269. Stauropus griseus, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 69, pi. 141, fig. 16. 
Lymantria canescens, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 6. 

$ . AiitenpfB brownish ochreous ; head and collar dark brown ; 
thorax and tore wing dark brown grizzled with grey, the latter 
with traces of dark ante- and postmedial lines. Abdomen and 
hind wing paler brown. 

c? with the whole fore wing, except the costa, much darker 
brown as far as the postmedial line ; the waved submarginal line 
more distinct. 

Hab. Nilgiris, southern slopes, 3000 feet ; Ceylon. Exp., c? 50, 
2 63 millim. 



270. Stauropus orbifer, n. sp. 

$ . Head red-brown ; thorax and abdomen pure white. Fore 
wing red-brown with a purplish tinge ; the whole inner area, 



STAUROPUS. — SOMEEA. 



153 



embracing the basal half of cell and area below vein 2, white with 
buff patches on median nervure and towards outer angle ; a large 
I'ound white apical patch with buff centre ; the red-brown area 
with some indistinct lines on it ; the orbicular and reniform spots 
outlined with grey ; a series of white submarginal specks. Hind 
wing red-brown; the basal and inner area whitish. 

Bah. Sikhini. Ex^. 55 millim. Type in coll. Knyvett. 

271. Stauropus basiniger, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 805 : C. & S. 
no. 10U2. ^ i' » 9 

$. Pale brown; collar blackish. Pore wing with the basal 
area blackish, bounded by a curved black line ; a double incurved 
waved postmedial line, prominent towards inner margin ; a sub- 
marginal series of black lunules. 

Hah. Dehra Dun ; Balasore. Exp. 64 millim. 



272. Stauropus vinaceus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 404, pi. 33, fig. 1 : 
C. c^- S. no. 1133. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen grev-brown. Pore wing 
brown, shghtly irrorated with grey ; the basal area pale ; traces 
of a double oblique waved autemedial line and postmedial double 
series of specks ; two red-brown streaks beyond the cell ; a sub- 
marginal dark line bordered inwardly with white, curved in its 
upper portion, dentate towards inner margin. Hind wine brown 
ira6. "India." ^.ty. 56 millim. 



273. Stauropus plagiviridis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 61 ; C. ^ S. no. 1173. 

6 . Head and thorax dark red-brown ; antenn£e and abdomen 
pale red-brown, the latter greyish at extremity. Pore wing red- 
brovvn, with subbasal, ante- and postmedial highly irreo-ular broad 
bands of a beautiful silvery green, with bright green lines on 
them ; a waved submarginal green hne. Hind wing ochreous ; an 
indistinct hne from middle of costa to anal angle, beyond which 
the area is suffused with red-brown. 
Bab. Sikhim. Exp. 54 milhm. 



Genus SOMERA. 
Somera, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 882 (1855). 

Type, S. viriclifusca, Wlk. 
Range. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Ceylon. 

Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head; the first two ioints 
ringed with hair Antenna) with the branches long and rea hW 
the apex. Legs hairy. Pore wing broad, the subcostal nervml 



154 



NOTODONTID^. 



and cell clothed with long hairs on underside ; vein 6 given off 
3ust beyond the angle of cell ; 9 and 10 anastomosing with 8 fo 
form the areole. llind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked; 8 
runnnag close along 7 to near the end of the cell. 

274. Somera viridifusca, WlJe. Cat. iv, p. 882 : Buil. III. Het. vi, 
pi. 104, fig. 7 ; a ^8. no. 1059. 

c? . Palpi brown ; vertex of head and thorax green ; abdomen 
fuscous, with the extremity green. Fore wing bright green, with 
a brown patch below and beyond the end of cell ; two subbasal 



waved dark lines ; two antemedial ; four postmedial and one sub- 
marginal, the last with brownish blotches on it. Hind wing 
fuscous brotvn. 

The brown patch on the fore wing is often absent. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Ceylon. Exjp. 58 millim. 



Type, L. postaTbida, Hmpsn. 
Range. Naga Hills. 

Palpi slight and porrect. Antennae with the branches long in 
male. Mid tibice with one pair of spurs ; hind tibise without spurs. 
Pore wing with vein 2 curved ; 5 from near upper angle of cell ; 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing broad, the costa arched ; vein 
5 from near the upper angle of cell ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 7 and 8 
recurved upwards to the costa. 

275. Liparopsis postalbida, n. sp. 

. Head and thorax grey; vertex of thorax slightly suffused 
•with brown ; abdomen white. Pore wing wiih the base white, 
edged by some diffused dark scales, beyond which the area is 
suffused with red-brown to a double indistinct outwardly-oblique 
antemedial line, a broad medial white area irrorated with dark 




Fig. 92. — Somera viridifusca, J . 



Genus LIPAROPSIS, nov. 



LIPAEOPSIS. — CERURA. 



155 



scales, and continued along the costa to the apex, an indistinct 
double waved postmedial line ; the outer area from vein 4 to outer 
angle suffused with red-browu. Hind wing pure white. 




Pig. 93. — Liparopsis postalbida, S- t- 

Hah. Naga Hills, 6000 feet (DolerUf). Exp. 38 millim. Tvpe 
in coll. Elwes. ^ i n 



Genus CERURA. 

Cerura, Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii, 2 Abth. p. 155 (1802). 
Harpyia, Ochs. Hur. Schmett. iii, p. 19 (1810). 

Type, C. furcula, Schr., from Europe. 

Sange. N. America ; Europe ; China ; throughout India and 
Ueylon. 

Palpi slight and porrect ; antennae with the branches long and 
reachmg the apex. Legs hairy. Fore wing broad; veins 6 and 
10 given off from end of areole, which is short and formed by 9 
anastomosing with 8. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked; 8 
running close along 7 to near the end of the cell, 

276. Cerura lit^^^^ta.^^J]|^ea^ v, p. 988; Butl. III. Ret. vi, pi. 106, " 

Cerura damodara, Moore^ P. Z. S. 1865, p. 812 ; C. & S. no. 112.3 
Harpyia kandjia Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 108, pi. 120 fio-s 1 la 

(larva and pupa) ; C. ^ ^. no. 1126. ^ ' ° ' 

Harpyia wisei, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 139, pi. viii, fig. 3. 

Pure white; palpi black; collar, tegul^, and thorax spotted 
with b ack; abdomen either banded or al.aost completely suffused 
with black, leaving a white patch with a black semicircular mark on 
the last segment, lore wing with two waved subbasal lines from 
the costa to median nervure, some black spots below the median 
nervure; a highly waved antemedial band ; a waved medial hne • 
a black line on discoeellulars surrounded by a hlack ring-mark- 
three waved postmedial lines ; the last with some black spots be-' 
yond It ; a marginal and cilial series of black spots. Hii d Mdng 
more or less suffused with fuscous ; two indis inct medial lines 
and a series of marginal black spots. 



156 



NOTODONTIDJE. 



The palest and smallest form ( ^ 46 millim.) is from Madras, in 
which all the black markings are slender; the hind wing pure 
white with small marginal black specks ; Uturatci (62 millim.) has 




the black ring-mark round the discocellular line of the fore M'ing 
incomplete, the hind wing slightly suffused with fuscous, except at 
base ; luisei ( $ 90 milhm.) has the antemedial band of the fore 
wing wider, the ring round the discocellular line complete, the 
hind wing whoUy, but slightly, suffused with black ; clamodara (70 
millim,), from China and Bengal, has the abdomen almost wholly 
black, the black ring-mark of fore wing sometimes filled in with 
black ; Icandyia, from Ceylon (60 millim.), is again rather darker, 
the hind wing being blacker. 

Hah. China ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Bombay ; Madras ; Ceylon. 
Exp., S 46-70, $ 62-90 millim. 

277. Cerura prasana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 812; C. ^ S. no. 1125. 

. Differs from liturata in the head, thorax, and abdomen being 
white, with hardly a trace of black markings ; the terminal seg- 
ments of abdomen black with a white anal tuft. Fore wing with 
•pale centres to the ante- and postmedial bauds, the latter inter- 
rupted at middle ; some black strigse from costa, and minute specks 
near base ; the dentate lines absent. 
Bed). N.E. Bengal. Exp. 40 millim. 



Genus DAMATA. 
Damata, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1044 (1855).; 

Type, D. longipennis, Wlk. 

Range. Sikhim ; Naga Hills : Cambodia. 

Palpi porrect and bairy. Antennae vnih the branches very long 
and ceasing abruptly one-fourth from apex. Fore wing long and 
narrow ; vein 5 from just below the angle of cell ; 6 and 10 from 
end of areole, which is formed by 9 anastomosing with 7 and 8. 
Hind wing with vein 5 from near upper angle of cell ; 6 and 7 
stalked ; 8 running close along 7 to towards the end of cell. 



DAMATA. — DICRANURA. 157 

278. Damata longipennis, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1044 : Butl. III. Ilet vi 
pi. 106, %. 10; a ^ S. no. 1179. 

d . Antennae black ; head and thorax dark chocolate ; patao-ia 
white fringed with red; abdomen brown, with slight white lateral 
tufts. Wings white. Pore wing irrorated with black scales- 




Fig. ^0.— Damata longipennis, c? . \. 



large triangular chocolate marks on costa and inner margin before 
and after the middle; a series of small marginal spots ; cilia copper- 
coloured. Hind wmg with a short brown line from the inner 
margin above the anal angle and patch at angle ; the margin 
narrowly brown ; cilia chequered copper and white. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 70 millim. 

279. Damata microsticta, n. sp. 

6 . Differs from longipennis in the thorax and patagia beins 
grey, lore wing more thickly irrorated with fuscous, so that it 
appears grey; the triangular marks much smaller and black- the 
spot towards outer angle absent ; series of small black spot's on 
the nervules beyond the cell, in interno-median interspace,^rnd on 
vein 1 ; no marginal spots. Hind wing with a slight fuscois patch 
and sh.ak at anal angle. Ciha of both wings chequered fuLons 

Genus DICRANURA. 
Dicranura, Boisd. Lid. Meth. p. 54 (1829). 

Type, D. vinula, Linn., from Europe 

Europe ; Japan; China; N.W. Himalayas 
Palpi slight and porrect ; antenna^ wifli VwTt ' ^ i 
Blender and reaching the apex''~m VaL' M^^^^ 
wing broad ; vein 5 from just below upper Se of ce^ 6 
end of areole, which is formed bv 9 nnll i n ^ ? • ' 

luimeu Dy y and 10 anastomosing with 7 



158 



NOTODONTID^. 



and 8 Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked; 8 running close 
along 7 to towards the end of cell. 

280. Dicranura himalayana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 400 : Butl. III. 
Ilet vii, pi. 125, fig. 3 ; C. ^ S. no. 1124. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen covered with long brownish-grey 
hair; thorax with traces of black spots; abdomen with smoky- 
black bands and longitudinal streaks on the terminal segments. 




Fore wing grey with a basal whitish patch ; a black speck at base ; 
a series of subbasal black spots ; two highly dentate postraedial 
indistinct fuscous lines ; a series of marginal spots. Hind wing 
paler fuscous grey, with a series of marginal spots. 

One female has two prominent black streaks on the thorax ; 
fore wing with prominent double black antemedial lines, and all 
the markings stronger. Closelv allied to the European erminea, 
Esp. 

Ifab. Dharmsala. Exp., c? 60, $ 80 millim. 



Genus METASCHALIS, nov. 

Type, M. dismpta, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi porrect, stout and thickly scaled. Antennse bipectinate 
almost to tips in male, the branches short, the basal joint tufted. 
Eore wing rather long and narrow : vein 5 from just above centre 
of discocellulars ; 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind w'ing with veins 3 
and 4 stalked, 5 from the centre of the discocellulars ; 6 and 7 
stalked ; 8 running close along 7 at middle of cell. 

281. Metaschalis disrupta, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 62 ; C. ^- S. no. 1155. 

c? . Palpi, antennte, thorax, and abdomen red-brown ; vertex of 
head and coxa) of fore legs creamy white ; tarsi banded with white. 
Eore wing dark brown ; the costa and area above vein 1 suffused 
with red-brow'n ; a white spot followed by an orange spot iu end 



META SCH ALI3 . — CH ADISEA. 



159 



of cell ; a black spot on discocellulars from which a golden-yellow 
streak proceeds to a large creamy white patch on outer margin 
below the apex. Hind vving pale fuscous. 
Eab. Sikhim. Exp. 50 millim. 




Pig. 97. — Metaschalis disrupta, $ . \. 



Genus CHADISRA. 
Chadisra, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i, 1862, p. 81. 

Tyj)e. C. bipars, Wlk. 

Bange. Ceylon ; Borneo. 
^ Palpi upturned in male, reaching vertex of head, the first two 
jomts fringed with hair, the third short; slight and porrect in female. 
Antennae fasciculate in male, ciliate in female. Pore wing rather- 
narrow, the apex rounded; vein 6 given off beyond the an^rle of 
cell ; 9 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole, which is^lon^ 
Hmd wmg with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 running close along 7 to 
towards the end of the cell. 



282. Chadisra bipars, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser, 3 i 1862 n 89 . 
a ^ S. no. 1138. ' ' ' -P' ' 

Pheosia basalis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 113, pi. 121, fio-g 1 i « 
(larva and pupa) ; C. Sf 8. no. 1206. , o • , ^ 

<S . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown. Pore wing with 
the basal area red-brown with fine pale streaks ; a black medial 




rig. 98. — Chadisra bipars, . \, 

line bent inwards at vein 2 ; two waved postmedial lines with 
brown patches between them at costa and inner margin and w th 
b ack dentate marks on them ; a submarginal series if spels 



160 



NOTODONTID.'E. 



$ . Head, thorax, and base of fore wing ochreous white ; the 
markings of the fore wing more distinct. 

Larva greenish white above, green below ; pale green oblique 
lateral lines ; a grey-bordered yellow dorsal line with a red tubercle 
on nth somite; head black-lined; legs green. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp., <S 38, $ 44 miUim. 

Genus PHEOSIA. 

Pheosia, Hiibn. Ferz. p. 145 (181G). 
Hoplitis, Hiibn. Verz. p. 147 (1816). 
Hupodonta, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 475 (1877). 

Type, P. dictcea. Linn., from Europe. 

Range. Europe; Japan; and throughout India. 

Palpi slight and porrect. Fore wing rather long and narroM' ; 
vein 5 given off just below the angle of the cell ; 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 
stalked, or 10 from cell ; no areole. Hind wing with veins 6 and 
7 stalked ; 8 running close along 7 before the end of the cell. 

Sect. I. Antennre of male with short stiff branches ; the 
terminal one-fourth filiform. 

283. Pheosia fasciata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 401 ; Butl. HI. Het. 
vii, pi. 125, figs. 9, 10; C. ^' S. no. 1207 a. 

Head and thorax grey, with a few red-brown hairs ; abdomen 
grey. Eore wing whitish ochreous, suffused in parts with pale 




Pig. 99. — Pheosia fasciata, c? . t- 



brown ; some red-brown strigse and streaks on and below the 
costa ; a series of short streaks on the nervules towards outer 
margin ; inner margin red-brown : cilia chequered pale and red- 
brown. Hind wing ochreous white ; the outer margin slightly 
clouded with brown, especially at anal angle. 

Larva pale green ; head streaked with dark red, a series of dorsal 
quadrate red marks largest from 7th to anal somite ; the 4th to 
anal somites in some specimens wholly striated with red-brown ; a 
long dorsal process on 4th somite. 

Hah. Dharmsala, Sikhim. Exp., 6 42, $ 50 millim. 



PHEOSIA. 



161 



284. Pheosia pulcherrima, Moore, r. Z. S. 18G5, p. 814, pi. 4S, fio-. 4 : 
C. ^ -S. no. 1160. ' o ) 

Hupodonta corticalis, Butl. A. M. N. 11. (4) xx, 1877, p. 475. 

Head and collar red-brown ; thorax and abdomen reddish 
ochreous. Pore wing pale brown, su:ffused in parts with red- 
brown and fuscous, the inner area ochreous except at outer angle ; 
a large medial patch of fuscous suffusion from costa to vein 2 ; 
three indistinct dentate postmedial curved lines ; a red-brown line, 
followed by an ochreous line, and a dark grey band with a black 
line on it on outer margin. Hind wing fuscous; an ochreous 
patch with dark and red-brown lines on it at anal angle. Under- 
side fuscous ; hind wing with a postmedial curved line. 

Hah. Japan; Sikhim. Exp., S 56, $ 64 millim. 



285. Pheosia excurvata, n. sp. 

S . Head and thorax grizzled brown and grey ; abdomen pale 
fuscous. YovQ wing pale brown, with a slight vinous tinge and 
fuscous suffusion ; a black streak along median nervure from the 
base; an indistinct waved antemedial line; black streaks in the 
end of cell and ou the nervules beyond it ; two postmedial lines 
very highly excurved below the costa, the inner line indistinct. 
Hind wing pale fuscous ; cilia of both wings chequered pale and 
dark. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 50 millim. Type in coll. Knyvett. 



286. 



Pheosia grisea, Swinh. Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon. iued. 



6 . Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish grey. Fore wing 
with an indistinct dark subbasal line ; a spot on the costa before 
the middle; medial and postmedial lines, the latter bent inwards 
at vein 3 ; two curved oblique subraarginal lines, far apart at costa, 
approaching each other towards inner margin. Hind wing white 
with a brownish-grey patch at anal angle. ' 

Hah. " N. India." Exp. 48 millim. 

287. Pheosia strigata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 68, pi. iii, fio- 13 • n &■ S 
no. 1204. ' ^ 1^ ; 1 • lii, iio- 9 

Head and thorax grey ; frons and a streak on vertex of thorax 
blackish ; antennae fulvous. Pore wing longitudinally marked pale 
and dark chestnut-brown ; a basal grey patch ; short costal grey 
streaks before the apex, with a dark curved fascia from them to the 
apex ; a waved marginal brown line. Hind wing white • the costa 
brownish ; a large black spot speckled with grey on outer margin 
near anal angle. ° 

Hah. N.E.Bengal; Canara. Exp., s 66, $ 76 millim. 



VOL. I. 



162 



NOTODONTID.'E. 



Sect. II. Antennae o£ male ciliated. 
88. Pheosia sikkima, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 69 ; C. Sf S. no. 1L'08. 

. Head black ; collar grey; thorax and abdomen red-brown. 
Fore wing very dark red-brown ; a large pale red-brown patch 
from middle of costa to apex ; inner margin pale red-brown ; 
indistinct dark lines across end of cell and on discocellulars. Hind 
wing uniform fuscous. 

Hub. Sikhim. Exp. 56 millim. 



Genus NOTODONTA. 

Notodonta, Ochs. Eur. Schmett. iii, p. 45 (1810). 
Peridea, Steph. III. Brit. Ent, Haust. ii, p. 32 (1829). 

Type, N. dromedarius, Linn., from Europe. 
Range. Europe ; Himalayas ; Naga Hills. 

Differs from Pheosia in the branches of the antennae of the male 
being longer, and in the fore wing having a prominent tuft of 
scales on inner margin. 

289. Notodonta albifascia, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 69 ; C. 8f S. no. 1205. 

S. Head and thorax red -brown; patagia and metathorax 
fringed with dark scales ; abdomen pale red-brown. Fore wing 
with a broad whitish fascia from base to near apex, leaving the 




Fig. 100. — Notodonta albifascia, S • h 

costal, inner, ahd outer areas pale red-brown; veins 5 and 6 
streaked with black at their origins ; an indistinct pale submarginal 
line- the tuft oE ^scales dark. Hind wing pale with a reddish 



tinge 



Hab. Sikhim. E.vp. 70 millim. 
290. Notodonta gigantea, Ehves, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 399. 

9 . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown ; basal segments of 
abdomen fuscous above ; all the segments ^'^^l^..Pf^^'«j, f ^l^^^^ 
ochreous tufts. Fore wing red-brown; the medial costal area 



NOTODOKTA. — HTPEE^SCHEA.. 



163 



suffused with grey; some dark red-brown irregular marks on basal 
area : reniform pale, with a red-brown streak on the discocellulars ; 
a highly dentate double postmedial line ; a series of indistinct 
lunulate submarginal marks ; a marginal dark line ; the tuft of 
scales dark with a black line above it. Hind wing yellow ; the 
veins black. 

Hah. Kulu ; iSikhim. Exp. 126 millim. 

291. Notodonta moorei. 

Notodonta sikhima, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 68 (nom. prseocc.) ; C. ^ S. 
no. 1192. 

Head and collar grey, the latter fringed with brown ; patagia 
black ; thorax and abdomen pale brown. Fore wing grey ; basal 
area dark brown, with a double subbasal waved line, and bounded 
by a double waved line ; a white blotch on the discocellulars and 
speck at origin of vein 2 ; three dark postmedial blotches on costa, 
between veins 4 and 5, and on inner margin, with traces of a 
waved line before them ; a marginal series of dark spots ; the 
tuft of scales dark brown. Hind wing grey; a fuscous post- 
medial slightly irregular band, with a waved line before it. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp., S 70, ? 92 millim. 

92. Notodonta sikkima, Moore, P. Z. S. 18Go, p. 812; C. & S. 
no. 1174. 

Heterocampa irrorata, Moore, Lep, Atk. p. 60 ; C. ^ S. no. 1170. 

Head, thorax, and fore wing uniformly clothed with light and 
dark brown, greenish-yellow, and white" scales. Fore wing with 
the veins slightly streaked with black. Abdomen and hind wing 
pale red-brown; the former darker at extremity. 

The form irrorata is paler. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp., ^ 60, $ 48-56 millim. 

293. Notodonta rufa, n. sp. 

2 . Head and thorax dark red-brown, the collar grizzled ; abdo- 
men fuscous. Fore wing dark brown ; indistinct ante- and post- 
medial waved dark Imes ; the latter edged with grey at costa - two 
dark specks on discocellulars ; irregularly placed dark streaks in 
the marginal interspaces, slight pale streaks from base below 
median nervure and on inner margin. Hind wing fuscous, with 
traces or a medial line. 

Hah. Kaga Hills {Doherty). Exp. 54 millim. Type in coll 
Jiilwes. ^ 

Genus HYPER.ffiSCHRA. 

Hyperaeschra, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, p. 65 (1830). 
Type, H. pallida, Butl. 

Range. Kangra ; Sikhim; Ceylon; Singapore. 
Palpi upturned, fringed with hairs in front ; antenn® with 

m2 



164 



NOTODONTID^. 



short stiff branches reaching the apex in male. Pore wing rather 
long, the outer margin evenly curved, a tuft of scales on inner 
margin ; vein 6 from angle oE cell ; 9 and 10 anastomosing with 
8 to form the areole. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 
running close along 7 to towards the end of cell. 



Sect. I* Eemale with antennae pectinate. 

294. Hyperseschra pallida, Butl. A. M. N. H. (6) vi, 1880, p. 65 j 111. 
Met. vi, pi. 104, tig. 6; C. ^- S. no. 1530. 

5 . Head and thorax brown and grey. Fore wing grey suffused 
with brown, especially along inner margin, beyond the lower angle 
of cell, and at apex ; a black streak from the base below median 
nervure ; a short streak in the cell above the origin of vein 2, one 
beyond the cell between veins 3 and 4, and two subapical streaks ; 
a waved postmedial dark line. Hind wing pale brown. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Singapore. Exjo. 54 millim. 



Sect. II. Eemale with antennae ciliate. 

295. Hyperseschra basistriga, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1888, p. 400 ; Butl. III. 
Bet. vii, pi. 125, tigs. 5 & 6; C. ^ /S. no. 1168a. 

S . Differs from palUd.a in being darker ; the dark streak from 
the base of the fore wing shorter and broader; the paired ante- 
and postmedial waved lines more distinct, as also is the submar- 
ginal series of lunules ; no black streak in the cell above vein 2 ; 
a black streak on the discocellulars. Hind wing white. 

$ . Hind wing pale fuscous. 

Hab. Kangra; Dharmsala. Exj?., S 52, § 56 millim. 



296. Hyperseschra tenebrosa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 815 ; C.8^S. 
no. 1524. 

S . Dark brown : fore wing with a pale fascia on inner area, 
extending and narrowing along the outer margin to the apex: a 
large pale patch on the apical portion of the costa ; indistinct den- 
tate postmedial and submarginal lines. Hind wing duller brown. 

Eah. Sikhim. Exp. 58 millim. 



297. Hyperseschra hasalis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 813; C. ^- S. 
no. 1190. 

Head thorax, and the basal two thirds of fore wing dark pur- 
plish red-brown, the vertex of thorax and base of fore wmg paler, 
the latter with pale streaks ; outer area of fore wing greenish grey ; 



HTPER^SCHRA. 



1G5 




specks ; a broken waved submargiual line ; a series of marginal 
specks. Abdomen and hind wiug fuscous. 
Hah. Sikhiin. Exp. 50 millim. 

298. Hyperseschra nigribasis, n. sp. 

<S . Head and thorax smoky black ; abdomen fuscous, Tore 
wing with the base black as far as the antemedial curved double 
hue, the area beyond which is fuscous ; a black spot at end of cell ; 
reniform pale and elongate; an indistinct double postmedial 
waved line; a dentate submarginal indistinct line from below the 
apex, the area beyond it with an olive tinge ; the costa towards 
apex, mterspace between veins 4 and 5, and area near outer antrJe 
also with an olive tinge. Hind wing fuscous, with traces of a 
pale medial line. 

Hah. Sikhim, Ex^^. 54 millim. Type in coll. Knyvett, 

299, Hyperaeschra dentata, Hmpm. 111. Set. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 11. 
$ . Head and thorax brownish grey with brown markings 

Fore wmg brownish grey suffused with brown ; some dark streaks 
along the veins at base ; a waved antemedial line, highly dentate 
towards inner margin ; a dark streak on the discoceUukrs ; dentate 
postmedial and submargmal hues ; a waved marginal line - abdo- 
men and hind wmg grey-brown. 

Hah. Trincomali, Ceylon. Exp. 56 millim 



*300, ?Hype^schra variegata, Moore, Le,. AtU. p. 61; a ^ 8. 

6 . Head and collar olive-green ; thorax and abdomen ffrev 
brovvn, lore wing purplish brown, suffused with veUow near £se 
a pale patch a end of cell ; a yellow patch on costa bef ore apex ' 
a marginal yellow band. Hind wing brown, the area in the^cell 
^ u'h dark line and yellow p'atch at anal angle 

Hah. Sikbim. Ex^. 58 millim. "^b^e. 



166 



NOTODONTIDJE. 



Genus LOPHOPTERYX. 

Lopliopteryx, Steph. III. Brit. Ent., Haust. ii, p. 26 (1829). 

Type, L. camelaria, Linn., from Europe. 
Jtancje. Europe ; Japan ; China ; Sikhim. 

Palpi porrect. Antennso serrate and fasciculate. Pore wing 
broad, the apex acute, outer margin crenulate, a pronounced tuft 
of scales on inner margin ; vein 6 from just above the angle of 
cell ; 9 and 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. Hind 
wing witb veins 6 and 7 stalked; 8 running close along 7 to 
towards the end of cell. 



Sect. I. Eore wing with inner margin nearly straight 
beyond the lobe. 

301. Lopliopteryx saturata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 415; Butl. lU. Set. 
Yi, pi. 107, fig. 1. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark red-brown ; an indistinct 
waved subbasal line ; paired dentate oblique ante- and postraedial 
lines ; the reniform spot pale ; cilia rufous at outer angle. Hmd 
wmg fuscous; a patch at anal angle composed of short rufous, 




Fig. 102. — Lophopteri/x saiuraia, J . 



pale and dark brown bands suffused with grey ; underside with 
pome pale strigse on the costa before apex. 
Hab. Sikhim. Ex^., d 42, $ 60 milhrn. 

302. Lophopteryx atrofusa, n. sp. 

J . Differs from saturata in being much darker ; the thorax 
and fore wing suffused with black-bro\vn and irrorated with 
bluish-grey scales, the latter without markings, except for traces of 
a postmedial line appearing as two pale dentitions below the costa. 
Hind wing with one whitish line above the anal grey patch. 

Hab. Sikhim (MdUer). Exp. 37-44 millim. Type in coll. 
Elwes, 



LOPHOPTEBYX. — MEGAOERAMIS. 



167 



303. Lophopteryx flavistigma, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 67; C. ^ S. 
no. 1163. 

S . Differs from saturata in the fore wing being without the 
subbasal waved hnes ; the ante- and postmedial Hnes single, 
dentate and curved, instead of waved and oblique. Hind wing 
with the patch and streak at anal angle sometimes minute. Under- 
side with pale marks on the costa towards apices of fore and hind, 
wings. 

Huh. Sikhim. Exp. 44 milhai. 



Sect. II. Eore wing with the inner margin slightly excised 

beyond the lobe. 

304. Lophopteryx ferruginosa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 67 ; Waterh. Aid, 
n, pi. 132, tig. .5 ; C. ^ 8. no. 1162. 

. Differs from flavistigma in the markings of the fore wing 
being obscured by fuscous suffusion ; the antemedial dentate line 
oblique ; the reniform hardly visible ; the postmedial Hue more 
recurved. Hind wing fuscons, without anal patch or streak. 
Underside of hind wing with a spot on the discocellulars and 
curved postmedial line. 

Hah. Murree ; Sikhim ; Naga Hills. Exp. 38-46 millim. 



Genus MEGACERAMIS, nov. 

Type, M. lamprolepis, Hmpsn. 
Ikinge. Sikhim. 

Palpi small and porrect. Antennse fasciculate in the male. 
Head, thorax, and patagia very thickly scaled. Pore wing with 
vein 6 from angle of cell ; 9 and 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the 
areole, which is short. Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 stalked, 5 
trom the middle of the discocellulars ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 running 
close along 7 at middle of cell 




1 



Fig. 103.— Megaceramis lamprolepis, 

305. Megaceramis lamprolepis, n. sp. 

d. Head thorax, and abdomen red-brown ; patagia very dark 
red-brown, fringed with glittering scales. Pore wing bright red- 



108 



NOTODONTIDvE. 



brown, suffused in parts with purplish and irrorated with a few 
w hite scales ; some oehreous streaks towards the apex ; a medial 
series of dark specks joined by a curved postmedial series on inner 
margin ; a dark streak on discocellulars ; the tuft composed of 
glittei'ing dark scales. Hind Ming fuscous. Underside of both 
wings Avith a waved postmedial line. 

Hab. Sikhim {Elwes). Exp. 36 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



Genus APELA. 

Apela, Walk. Cat. v, p. 1092 (1855). 

Type, A. divisa, Wlk. 
Mange. Nepal. 

Palpi upturned and slender ; antennae ciliate in female. Fore 
Adng very broad, the costa arched, the apex acute ; the inner margin 
with a dentate lobe, and a tuft of scales on it beyond which the 
margin is excised ; a tuft of scales at outer angle ; vein 5 from 
near angle of cell ; 7 and 10 from end of the long areole, which 
is formed by 9 anastomosing with 8. Hind wing with veins 6 and 
7 stalked ; a bar between veins 7 and 8. 

306. Apela divisa, Walk. Cat. v, p. 1093 ; C. ^- S. no. 1181. 

2 . Oehreous brown. Fore wing with two very indistinct ante- 




Pig. 104. — Apela divisa, $ . j. 

medial curved lines ; an oblique line from the apex to the lobe on 
inner margin ; the tuft of scales dark. Hind wdng fuscous brown. 
Hub. Nepal. E.vp. 46 millim. 



Genus SPATALIA. 

Spatalia, Hilbn. Verz. p. 145 (1816). 
Rosama, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1066 (1855). 
Caschara, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 133 (1862). 
Allata, WUc. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 140 (1862). 
Celeia, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 463 (1864). 

Type, S. argentina, Schiff., from Europe. . . 

Eange. Europe; Japau ; China; Himalayas; Canara; Nilgiris 

Borneo ; Java. 



SP ATAXIA. 



169 



Palpi porrect and bairy; abdomen with lateral tufts of hair 
and two large terminal tut'ts. Pore wing with the inner margin 
more or less lobed and excised ; a large tuft of scales on the lobe, 
and a tuft at outer angle ; vein 6 from the angle of cell ; 9 and 10 
anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. Hind wing with veins 6 
and 7 on a short stalk ; 8 running close along 7 to towards the 
end of cell. 



Sect. I {Spatalia). Antennae of male with the branches short 

and stiff. 

307. Spatalia argentifera, Wlk. Joum. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 140. 
Celeia plusiata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 463 ; C. Sf S. no. 1156. 
Celeia sikkima, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 63 j C. ^ S. no. 1157. 

c?. Head, thorax, and abdomen pale and dark brown. Fore 
wing pale bro\vn, with some dark and red-brown suffusion below 




Fig. 105. — Spatalia argentif&ra, c?. \. 



the median nervure near the base ; a silver streak along the median 
nervure from below the middle of the cell to lower angle, with a 
spot beyond it, and sending spurs outwards along veins 2 and 3, 
which may be separated into spots ; some dark hvovm suffusion at 
apex and middle of outer margin ; an ill-defined dark or red-brown 
submarginal line. Hind wing fuscous. 

Some specimens have the head, thorax, and fore wing very much 
darker. 

In the form argentifera=plusiata from Canara and Borneo the 
silver streak is broad ; Mima is darker, with the streak narrow. 
Hab. Sikhim ; Canara ; Bangalore ; Borneo. £Jxp. 50-54 millim. 

308. Spatalia gemmifera, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 62, pi. iii, fig. 14 ; 

S . Head and thorax chestnut-brown ; abdomen pale sienna- 
brown ; a small silvery white spot below the base of the cell and a 
large triangular spot at origin of vein 2 ; a dark brown streak from 
the lower angle of cell to outer margin below apex ; some black 
dots near apex ; a submarginal series of pale spots ; the tuft on 
inner margin black. Hind wing pale sienna-brown. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 50 millim. 



170 



NOTODONTID^. 



309. Spatalia COStalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 69 ; C. ^ S. no. 1207. 

Dull brown; thorax with a buff-white tuft on vertex. Fore 
wing with the costal area white, slightly suffused and the veins 
streaked with pale red-brown; a trifid white mark on disco- 
cellulars ; median nervure and origin of veins 2 and 3 streaked 
with white; very indistinct double postmedial and submarginal 
Maved dark lines. Hind wing pale fuscous. 

ffab. Sikhim. Exjj. $ 54 milling. 

310. Spatalia argentata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 67; Waterh. Aid., ii, 

pi. 132, fig. 4; a ^>S. no. 1161. 

c? . Head and thorax dark red-brown, the patagia grey ; abdomen 
paler red-brown. Fore wing silvery grey, slightly suffused with 
red-brown, especially towards outer angle ; some dark strigse on 
the costa and a blotch before the apex ; indistinct double subbasal, 
medial and postmedial waved dark lines ; reniform outlined in 
black; a submarginal series of dark specks. Hind wing pale 
fuscous grey. 

Sab. Sikhim. ii'ap. 40 millim. 

311. Spatalia albifasciata, n. sp. 

S . Head and thorax brown ; collar white. Fore wing Mith a 
broad white fascia on the costal area occupying nearly half the 
wing; the inner half brown, with a large oval ferruginous subbasal 
patch ; an indistinct pale postmedial line ; a reddish patch beyond 
lower angle of cell ; an indistinct waved dark submarginal line. 
Abdomen and hind vmig pale fuscous. 

Mab. Nilgiris (Lindsay). Exp. 50 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 

Sect. II. (JRosama). Male with branches of antennae long. 

312. Spatalia auritractata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 811 ; C. ^- S. 

no. 1154. 

S differs from argentifera in having the metallic streak along 
the median nervvire of fore wing narrow and golden, the lobe on 
inner margin shorter. 

Hab. Sikhim. Ex;p. 52 millim. 

313. Spatalia plusioides, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 62 ; C. S)- S. no. 1202. 

(S . Head and thorax ochreous, the collar purpHsh ; wings 
shorter and more rounded than in the preceding species. Fore 
wing yellow, with waved rufous striae ; the costal and outer areas 
purplish, leaving ochreous spots beyond the middle of the costa 
and on centre of outer margin ; a silvery triangular spot below the 
end of the cell ; a waved submarginal dark line. Abdomen and 
hind wing fuscous. 

2 . The patagia also purphsh brown ; fore wing with the silver 



SPATALIA. — CLEAPA . 



171 



spot absent ; the costal area paler ; the purplish suffusion confined 
to the apex ; a prominent series of marginal white points ; abdo- 
men and hind wing dark fuscous. 

A specimen from Sikhim has the basal part of costa of fore wing 
and outer area suffused with silvery grey ; another from the Nivga 
Hills has the ground-colour chocolate. 

Hah. Kaugra; Sikhim; Nagas. jKiy. 36-40 millim. 

Genus BESAIA. 

Besaia, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 458 (1864). 

Type, B. riibiginea, Wlk. 
Sange. Sikhim ; Khasi Hills. 

Palpi upturned, the first two joints heavily fringed with hair. 
AntennsD of male fasciculate. Fore wing with fringes of hair at 
lobe on inner margin and outer angle ; vein 6 from angle of cell ; 
9 and 10 anastomosing Math 8 to form the areole. Hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 stalked, 8 running close along 7 to beyond middle of 
cell. Abdomen long, slender, and with an anal tuft. 

314. Besaia rubiginea, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 459 ; Butl. III. Set. vi, 
pi. 104, fig. 10 ; e. ^ S. no. 1142. 

c?. Olive-grey. Fore wing with a rust-red subbasal line; a 
double antemedial highly-waved line, vtdth a streak running outwards 




Fig. 106. — Besaia rubiginea, . \. 



from it along vein 2 and one towards base along inner margin • a 
double postmedial line, its outer portion diffused, with a series 'of 
pale specks on it, and sending projections outwards towards the 
apex and between veins 3 and 4; a series of marginal dark specks. 
Hind wing fuscous. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 58 millim. 

Genus CLEAPA. 

Cleapa, Wlk. Cat. v,p. 1036 (1855). 

Type, C. latifascia, Wlk. 
Range. Burma. 



' NOTODONTTD.fl. 

Palpi porrect and slightly scaled. Antenna; with the branches 
rather short and reaching the apex. Fore wing short and broad ; 




Fig. 107— C'leapa latifascia, 2- }■ 

vein 6 from angle of cell, 9 and 10 anastomosing with 8 to form a 
long areole. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 running 
close along 7 to towards the end of the cell. 

315. Cleapa latifascia, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1037 ; C. 4- S. no. 1176. 

$ . Head and thorax dark brown. Eore wing dark brown, with 
some pale red-brown on inner basal and outer areas ; two dark 
sti-eaks in the cell ; a double antemedial indistinct waved hne ; a 
similar but curved postmedial line, with a black spot beyond it on 
inner margin ; traces of a pale waved submarginal line. Abdomen 
and hind wing fuscous. 

Bab. Moulmein; Eangoon. ^rp. 42 millim. 



Genus ICHTHYURA. 

Ichthyura, Hubn. Verz. p. 162 (1816). 

Gaugamela, TVlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 138 (1862). 

Uxela, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1982 (1866). 

Type, /. anastomosis, Linn., from Europe. 

Range. N.America; Europe ; Japan ; China; throughout India 
and Ceylon, Borneo, Java. 

Palpi porrect and slender. Antennae with the branches long 
and reaching the apex. Pore wing rather narrow ; vein 5 from 
near upper angle of cell ; 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked ; no areole. Hind 
wing with vein 5 absent ; 6 and 7 on a short stalk ; 8 running close 
along 7 to towards the end of cell. Pore leg with the tarsal joints 
very short, broad, and thickly fringed with hair. 

316. Ichthyura anachoreta, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, p. 120. 

Ichthyura fulgurita, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 433 ; C. &f S. no. 1195. ^ 
Ichthyura javana, Moore, Lep. E.I.C. p. 352, pi. xvi, figs. 7, (a 

Neifee'pamda, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1077 ; C. ^ S. no. 1180. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown ; palpi fringed with 
dark brown ; frons dark brown, a dark streak from the vertex of 
head to vertex of thorax. Pore wing grey-brown; two pale 



ICHTHTUHA. 



173 



oblique anfceraedial lines, the outer bent outwards near inner 
margin ; a slightly curved postmedial line ; the whole apical area 
beyond the cell dark grey-brown down to vein 3, with an irregular 




Fig. 108. — Ichthyura anachoreta, . \. 

series of postmedial white spots on it from the costa to vein 3, and 
some red suffusion beyond them ; an indistinct series of submarginal 
black spots, the one Ijetween veins 2 and 3 prominent and placed 
further from the margin. Hind wing pale fuscous. 

The Indian form fulgurita ( c? 34, $ 45 millim.) generally has 
some black sufFusion beyond the outer antemedial line near the 
inner margin, this being wanting in the European, Japanese, and 
Chinese typical form ; the iovmjavana ( c? 26, $ 32 millim. ; tvpes 
bred) is smaller and paler; pallida ($ 54 millim.) is a large "pale 
form from Nepal. 

Larva pale browu, covered sparsely with short pale hair ; a dorsal 
hump on 4th somite, with paired white spots on each side of it • an 
indistinct dark dorsal line; lateral area streaked with dark brown 

Bah. Europe; Japan; China; throughout India and Ceylon' 
Java. Exp. 26-54 millim. ' 

317. Ichthyura costicomma, n. sp. 

Differs from anachoreta in wanting the dark streak on head and 
thorax. Eore wiug with an oblique line in addition to the two 
antemedial lines from the costa before the middle to inner margin 
at the postmedialhne, beyond which the area is bright red-brotn 
suffused ^^th dark brown, except near inner margin beyond the 
postmedial line; three regularly-disposed postmedial white snots 
belmv the costa: a well-defined submarginal waved darlline.^ 
^ Hah. Cjinara; Nilgjris Exp., j 28, ? 32 miUim. Type S 
in Mus. Oxon., $ m B.M. ° 

318. Ichthyura cnpreata, Bull P.z.S. 1886, p. 387. 

$ . Head thorax, and fore wing pale reddish brown. Eore 
wing with two pale oblique antemedial lines, the first angled It 
median nervure the second curved to near inner margin ; a media 
outwardly-curved line joining a straight postmedial line at inner 
margin; remform filed m with fuscous; an indistinct LuhS 
submarginal line Abdomen and hind wing paler. 
Hah. Campbellpur, Punjab. Exp. 30 millim. 



174 



NOTODONTIDjE. 



319. Ichthyura restitura, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 438 ; Moore, Lep. Cetjl. 
ii, pi. 122, lig.s. 1, 1 a, 6 (larva and pii])a) ; C. 8f S. no. 1107. 
Ichthyura indica, Moore, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 813 ; C. ^ S. no. 1196. 

cJ . DiflTers from cupreata in being dark red-brown ; the vertex 
of head and thorax dark velvety brown. Abdomen and hind wing 
dark brown. 

Lai'va purplish brown or grey, wdth pinkish dorsal tubercles on 
4th and 11th somites ; a sublateral series of small tubercles ; slight 
lateral dai'k lines ; the thoracic somites each with a white black- 
centred spot ; two lateral series of whitish dots and some dorsal 
ones. 

Hah. Bengal; S.India; Ceylon, ^^.rp. 26-34 millim. 



320. Ichthyura nndulata, Hmpsn. III. Set. viii, p. 60, pi. 141, fig. 3. 

2 . Pale olive-brown. Fore wing with some dark suffusion 
above centre of inner margin and below apex ; the two antemedial 
lines dentate, the outer line oblique and angled near inner margin ; 
the postmedial waved and curved ; the dark waved submargiual line 
well defined. Abdomen and hind wing rather paler, the latter 
with an indistioct curved postmedial line with a pale spot on it at 
inner margin. 

The race from the N.W. Himalayas differs from the typical 
Nilgiri form in the male having the thorax and fore wing ferru- 
ginous, the latter with the two inner and outer lunulate lines grey 
with dark edges and a black speck at the end of the cell ; hind 
wing with the postmedial line and white spot more distinct. _ The 
female is darker ; fore wing with the space between the inner 
lines and also the outer area suffused with dark grey. 

Eab. N.W. Himalayas ; Nilgiris, N. slopes, 3500 ft. Exi^. 30 
millim. 



*32] . Ichthyura ferruginea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 813 ; C. 8,- S. 
no. 1194. 

9 Pale red-bro\\TD. Head and vertex of thorax dark brown. 
Fore' wing with slightly curved subbasal and straight ante- and 
postmedial lines, with a short oblique line between them above mner 
margin ; two dark marks at end of cell ; two indistmct series ot 
submarginal spots. 

Mab. N.E. Bengal. Exp. 40 milhm. 

Genus CYPHANTA. 
Cyphanta, Wlk. Cat. xxxiii, p. 855 (1865). 
Type, C. xanilioclora, Wlk. 

S uptuS"reaching above vertex of head, the first two joints 
fringed with hair, the third naked. Antenn^E simple. Legs hairy ; 



CYPHANTA. 



175 



mid tibiffi with one pair of spurs, hind tibise with two pairs. Fore 
Ming with a tuft of scales at centre of inner margin ; the apex 
produced and acute ; veins 4 and 5 from angle of cell, 6 from upper 
angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 from 
angle of cell ; 5 from centre of discocellulars ; 6 and 7 stalked • 
8 running close along 7 to middle of cell. ' 

322. Cyphanta xanthochlora, TVlk. Cat.xxxni, p. 856; Butl III mt 
\i, pi. 107, 3; 0.4- S. no. 1229. 

Head pale brown ; palpi orange ; collar bright green ; thorax 
chocolate- brown. Abdomen orange. Eore wing bright green ; an 




'Fig- 109.— Ci/pha7i^a xanthochlora, c?. j. 

oblique band composed of a purplish ground with three red-brown 
Imes on it from the costa near apex to inner margin at middle then 
-bent inwards to the base above inner margin ; a brown spe^k o 
median nervure, one at end of cell, and a submirginal series^ Hin 
rfe^s'^VuZsil^^ -b--gi-lLcous streaks 0 
?nrprtmecS1i;:f ^ ^^^^ -'^^ 

Bab. Sikhim. &^p., ^ 70, 5 ^^^^^^ 

323. Cyphanta chortochlora, n. sp. 

c?. Head and palpi dark brown above, pale below: prothorax 

fZstrwitHn'sr' "t''°^^" '^^^^ ^^^^^ -bdom^n'octeous 
sultused with fuscous. Fore wmg grass-green ; a brown mark 

enclosmg a green spot on inner ba'sal area ; a black spedc at end 

of cell ; some small obliquely placed postmedial pale spots edged 

with brown Hmd wing ochreous, the outer area suffused v^Sh 

fuscous Underside ochreous, each wing with a cell -spot and dark 

postmedial line, which is obsolescent on fore wing, curved on hind 

"Himalayas." ^rp. 56 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 



6 



NOTODONTIDJE. 



Species formerly recorded as Indian ivJuch are omitted. 

Artmda opponens, Wllv., C. & S. no. 1116. Type lost, descrip- 
tion unrecognizable. 
Sybrida inordinata, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1114, is a Pyrale. 
Paravetta discinota, Moore, C. & S. no. 1158, is a Pyrale. 
Paravetta siMcima, Moore, 0. & S. no. 1159, is a Pyrale. 
Cetola dentata,W\k., C. & S. no. IWe^liamesa ligniferata, Wlk., 

C. & S. no. 1526, is a Noctua. 
Tricena denticidata, Moore, Butl. lU. Het. vii, p. 45, is a Noctua. 
Hyhoma divisa, Moore, Butl. 111. Het. vii, p. 45, is a Noctua. 
Hyboma umbrifera, Butl. 111. Het. vii, p. 46, is a Noctua. 
Euscotia inextricata, Moore, Butl. 111. Het. vii, p. 47, is a Noctua. 
Ichthyura submarginalis, Hmpsn. 111. Het. viii, p. 60, is a Noctua. 
Ingura cornucopia, Hmpsn. 111. Het. viii, p. 61, is a Noctua. 
Inqura cristatrix, Guen., C. & S. no. 1198, is a Noctua. 
Liqura subapicalis, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1199, is a Noctua. 
Ichthyura argentea, Butl., C. & S. no. 1193, is a Tinea. 
Thyacidas postica, Wlk., C. & S. no. \Om = Drymonia denotata, 
Wlk., C. & S. no. 1165, is a Nocrua. 

Calpe bicolor, Moore, C. & S. no. 1218, is a Noctua. 

Calpe fasciata, Moore, C. & S. no. 1219, is a Noctua. 

Calpe 'minuticornis, Guen., C. & S. no. 1220, is a Noctua. 

Calpe ophideroides, Guen., C. & S. no. 1221 is a Noctua _ 

Dabariia icterica, Swinb., C. & S. no. lU7 = Calpe bt/asciata, 
Hmpsn. 111. Het. viii, p. 61, is a Noctua. 

Calpe orthograpta, Butl., C. & S. no. 1222, is a Noctua. 

Gadera incitans, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1223 is a Noctua. 

Ora^sia argyrosigna, Moore, C. & S. no 1224, is a Noctua. 

Orcesia eniarginata, Eabr., C. & S. no. 1225, is a Noctua. 

Orcesia provocans, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1226, is a Noctua. 

Orcesia rectistria, Guen., C. & S. no. 1227 is a Noctua 

Orcesia vagabunda, Swinb., C. & S. no. 1228 is a Noctua. 

Arsacia frontirufa, Svvinh., C. & S. no. 1230, isa ISoctua. 

Arsaciasaturalis, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1231 is a Noctua. 

Callcenia elongata, Butl., C. & S. no. 1528 is a Noctua 

Callc^nia pullata, Moore, C. & S. no. 1529, is a Noctua. _ 

Botodont! electa, Wlk.. C. & S. no. 1191. Type lost, description 
unrecognizable. ^ . -.t 

Elydna tralsmrsa, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1122, is a Noctua 

uiipermchra annulata, Swinb. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 189. is 

SphHtfmo^ei, Sw-inb., C. & S. no. 1141 is a ^"octu^ 

slhetta biocellata, Moore, C. & S. no. 1140, is a Noctua. 

'iZta apicali., Wlk. C. & S. no. 1139 - ^o^^^^^^^^ 
DanaJca pr/raliformis, Moore, 0. & S. no. 1210, i s a l yn.ie. 

" Udecila, Moore, C & S. no. 1232 is a Noc ua 

Oxicesta marmorea, Moore, C. & S. }^^^^ 

Gluphisia sinuata, Moore, C. & S. no. 1178, is a Noctua. 



CYMATOPHOKIDiE. 177 

Ptilophora l-ashghara, Moore, C. & S. no. 1200, is from Tur- 
kestan. 

Moma cJiampa, Moore, C. & S. no. 1213, is a Noctua. 



Family CYMATOPHORIDvE. 

A family of moths resembling the Noctuidce in appearance. 
Proboscis present. Antennae usually rather thickened and flattened. 
Mid tibia with one pair of spurs, hind tibia with two pairs. Fore 
wing with vein 1 a short and slight, not forming a fork with 1 h ; 
1 c absent ; 5 from the centre of the discocellulars ; veins 7 and 8 
stalked, and 9 and 10 stalked and almost or quite anastomosing 
with 7 and 8 to form an areole. Hind wing with two internal 



Fig. 110.— Lar^a of Thyatira hatis. \. (From Buckler, LarviB 
Brit. Butt. Moths, pi. liv, fig. 2.) 



veins 



vein 5 from the centre of discocellulars, or generallv from 
below the centre ; veins 6 and 7 given off not far from the base ; 
b bent down and quite or almost touching 7 after the bifurcation. 
Larva : JNoctuffitorm, with five pairs of prolegs*. 



Key to the Genera. 



a. 
b. 



Fore wing with a tuft of scales at outer angle. 



wing 



^iiu a xuit 01 scales at outer angle. 1. Habeosynb,p.178 
with no tuft of scales at outer 



a 



Fore 
angle. 

. Fore wing with vein 6 from angle of cell, 
a . l^ore wing short and broad 
b'. Fore wing long, narrow, and arched 
■ ^'""^ with vein 6 from above angle of 

a\ Fore wing with apex rounded; hind 

wmg with outer margin rounded .. 
b . Fore wmg with apex acute ; hind wing 

with outer margin slightly angled. 
a . Antennee thickened and flattened in 
botti sexes 

b\ Antennas tiliform and ciliated in" both 
sexes .... 



2. Thyatiba, p. 180. 
6. ToxoiDES, p. 185. 



3. Gaurena, p. 181. 



4. P0LYPI,0CA,p.l82. 

[p. 185. 

5. Nemacerota, 



VOL. I. 



178 



CYMATOPHOKID-a;. 



Genus HABROSYNE. 
Ilabrosyne, Hubii. Vers. p. 230 (181G). 
Type, H. derasa, Linn. 

liange. N. America ; Europe ; Japan ; Himalayas. 

Palpi porrect, the first two joints heavily scaled, the third short 
and naked. AntennjE with the joints rather broad and flattened ; 
collar and patagia thickly fringed with hair ; terminal segments of 
abdomen with thick lateral tufts of hair. Fore wmg with a tutt 
of scales at outer angle; vein 6 from angle of cell; 7 and 8 
stalked ; 9 and 10 stalked, and almost anastomosing with 7 and « 
to form a short areole. Hind wing with vein 5 from near lower 
angle of cell. 

324. HalDrosyne derasa, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 851 ; Buckler, Larvcs 

Brit. Butt. Moths, pi. 54, fig. 1 (larva). 
Habrosyne fraterna, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 406 ; Butl. III. Het. 

vii, pi. 125, fig. 11 ; C.^ S. no. 1629 a. 
Gonophora lAdica, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 44; Waterh. Aid, i, 

pi. 9. 

Head and thorax golden brown, the collar with fine dark lines ; 
abdomen pale fuscous. Fore wing silvery grey ; a large golden- 
brown triangular patch from the costa near base and at apex to 




Fig. 111. — Habrosyne derasa, <S • \- 

inner margin near outer angle, bordered inwardly by a white line 
whTch^ends a tooth obliquely towards the base ; a whitish s reak 
Tlon? the costa crossed by some waved brown lines ; small black 
s rL towards the apex ; orbicular and reniform spots with pale 
n Xe an extremely I ndulated quadruple postmedial me from 
ve^ 6 t; nea^iLne^ a slightly curved or almost straight 

lubmarginaTpale band;\ waved marginal pale line; cilia pale, 

brown; a dark dorsal line; subdorsal round 



HABEOSTNB. 



179 



white spots on 4th, 5th, and 6tli somites, the two posterior spots 
sometioies obsolete. 
Eab. Europe ; Dharrasala ; Sikhim ; Burma. Exp. 40-54 millim. 

325. Habrosyne plagiosa, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 90 ; C. S. no. 1631. 

$ . Head aud thorax pinkish brown, the collar, meso- and meta- 
thorax fringed with brown hair. Fore wing pinkish brown ; an 
antemedial oblique pink line met below the costa by an oblique 
line from near the base; the area beyond the antemedial line 
suffused \^dth brown ; some short faint waved brown lines from 
the costa ; orbicular spot represented by a speck ; reniform elon- 
gate, with a dark outhne ; a faint waved double postmedial hne 
filled in vnth. bright chestnut towards inner margin ; a curved pink 
band from apex to outer angle. Hind wing fuscous. 
Rab. Sikhim. Bxp. 56 millim. 



326. Habrosyne armata, Moore Lep. Atk. p. 90 : Waterh. Aid, ii, 

pi. 117 ; C. ^- S. no. 1629. 

_ . Head and thorax pale ferruginous, the latter tinged with 
pink. Eore wing ferruginous, some pale marks at base ; a pinkish 
obhque hne from costa near base to inner margin beyond the 
middle; a postmedial pink patch on the costa; a double highly 
waved postmedial hne ; a curved submarginal pink band, with a 
grey patch on its inner edge ; two whitish marginal lines. Hind 
wmg pale fuscous. 

Hah. Khasi Hills. Exp. 66 millim. 

327. Habrosyne argenteipuncta, n. sp. 

? • Head thorax, and abdomen brown ; thorax with paired 
tiitts of pale grey, brown-tipped scales from below the patagia. 
lorewmgohve-brown; some blue-grey streaks from the costa; 
a silvery subbasal spot below the median nervure ; a medial dark 
band with waved edges occupying the middle third of the win- 
«ath some ye low on its outer edge towards inner margin ; tfe 

blue ^v't'^ ^-gi-al area suffused 'wi l 

blue-grey. Hind wmg fuscous. 

Bah. Sikhim {Knyvett). Exp. 38 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

328. Habrosyne sanguinea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 90; C. <§• s. no. 1032. 

6 . Head and thorax bright ferruginous red ; abdomen fuscous 
lore wmg with a bright fermoinnn., Koc.„i ^ u !^ luscous. 
c,r.^<- II ""-'y^ J-«riuginous basal patch, bearinw a silvprv 

spot be ow the median nervure, and with creamy white on Tts 
outer eclge; the outer half of wing dark ferruginou,s brown Zh t 
bright ierru^nous streak and pftch on inneVmTrgin tt ill? 
with a waved white inner edge; two bright ferru J^i pat^^^^^^^^^ 



180 



CYMATOPnOniDJE. 



on costa M ith white inner edges ; the waved lines as in derasa. 
Hind wing dark fuscous. 

i/a6. Sikhim. iSlvp. 44 millim.' 

I 

Genus THYATIRA. 
J Thyatira, Hiibn. Verz. p. 236 (181G). 

Type, T, hatis, Linn. 

Eange. Europe; Palaearctic Asia ; Himalayas; Borneo; Java. 

Palpi upturned, the first two joints heavily fringed with hair, 
the third joint of moderate length and naked ; antennae ciliated ; 
collar and patagia fringed with long hair; third segment of 
abdomen with a tuft of dark scales. Fore wing with the apex 
rounded ; thickly scaled ; vein 6 from the angle of cell ; 9 and 10 
stalked, and almost anastomosing with 7 and 8 to form a short 
areole. Hind wing with vein 5 from near the lower angle of 
cell. 



329. Thyatira batis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 836; Buckler, LarveeBnt. 

Butt. Moths, pi. 54, fig. 2 ; C. ^ S. no. 1524. 
Thyatira cognata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 406 ; Butl. III. Set. vn, 

pi. 125, fig. 12. „ ^ 

Thyatira decorata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 328, pi. 37, fig. 1 ; 

a ^ S. no. 1625. 
Thyatira vicina, Gueti. Noct. i, p. 13. 

Head and thorax pinkish white, with fine brown lines. Fore 
wing brown ; a large basal pink patch with two brown spots on 
it towards inner margin, and bordered by a black line ; two pinkish 




Fig. 112. — Thyatira batis, 



patches below the costa towards apex, one on inner margin, and a 
larger one with brown centre at outer angle, with a small spot on 
the margin above it; some waved medial and postmedial lines. 
Hind wing and abdomen fuscous. 

The variety cognata is without the pink patch on inner margin 
of fore wing, aiid has a waved marginal black line ; decorata^ ivom 
Sikhim, has an extra pinkish spot in the cell of the fore wuig a 
smaller one beyond, and a more complete marginal series ; the 



THTATIEA. — GAUBENA. 



181 



palpi are usually pink ; and it is probably a distinct species. Vicina, 
from Java, is like the typical form, but browner. 

Larva brown ; the 1st somite purplish, the 2nd and 3rd 
yellowish ; paired dorsal hump on 2nd and 5th to terminal somites ; 
oblique lateral dark stripes on 4th to 10th somites. 

Bob. Europe ; N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Java. Exp. 46 millim. 



Genus GAURENA. 

Gaurena, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 619 (1864). 

Type, G.jiorens., Wlk. 
Mange. Sikhim ; Assam Hills. 
_ Only differs from Thyatira in having vein 6 of the fore wing 
given off beyond the angle of cell. 

330. Gaurena florens, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 620: JButl. III. Het vi, 
pi. 109, fig. 4 i a ^ ^. no. 1627. 

Head and thorax olive-brown. Eore wing olive-brown suffused 
with yellow, the markings pale yellow and white ; a spot near 
base, a subbasal waved band ; a spot in the cell, and a larger spot 




at the end of it ; a postmedial patch on the costa ; another at 
apex, and one at outer angle ; submarginal and marginal series of 
lunulate spots ; costa and veins 1 and 2 spotted with yellow 
Abdomen and hind wing pale yellowish fuscous. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 40 railiim. 



331. Gaurena anrofasciata, n. sp. 

S . Differs from florens in the head and thorax being olive • 
the subbasal band of the fore wing broader; no white spot at 
middle of cell ; the spot at end of cell oblong and golden • a 
complete postmedial band between the patches on costa and outer 
angle ; the submarginal and marginal lunules absent, except two 
above outer angle. 

Hah. Sikhim {Elwes). Exp. 40 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



182 



CYMATOPHOllIDiE. 



332. Q-aiirena florescens, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 620 ; Butl. III. Het. \\, 

pi. 109, tig. 5 ; 6'. ^- S. no. 1(328. 

Differs from Jiorens in the head and thorax being spotted with 
yellow ; the waved subbasal band of the fore wing replaced by a 
spot on the costa and one below median nervure ; the spot at end 
of cell large ; the postmedial spot placed below the costa ; the 
patches at apex and near outer angle smaller ; the marginal series 
larger. 

Bab. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Nagas. Exp. 42 millim. 

333. Gaurena fuscescens, n. sp. 

S . Head and thorax dark fuscous ; abdomen pale. Fore wing 
dull brown suffused with fuscous ; traces of numerous waved dark 
lines ; a pale speck below median nervure near the base ; an in- 
distinct dark spot on discocellulars ; a pale patch at apex. Hind 
wing pale fuscous, with an indistinct paler band just beyond the 
middle. 

Hah. Naga Hills, 6000 feet {DoJierty). Exp. 40 millim. Type 
in coll. Elwes. 



334. Gaurena lichenea, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish grey. Pore wing whitish 
grey, crossed by numerous waved dark lines ; indistinct antemedial, 
postmedial, and submarginal curved dark bands ; orbicular and 
reniform spots indistinct, the former figure-of-8-sbaped, the latter 
elongate ; an oblique black apical streak and marginal lunulate 
line. Hind wing white, with an indistinct medial fuscous line and 
broad blackish marginal band. 

Hab. Sikhim (Mdller) ; Na'ga Hills, 6000 feet (DoJierty). Exp. 
38 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



Genus POLYPLOCA. 



Polyploca, Hiibn. Verz. p. 273 (1816). 
Palimpsestes, Hilhn. Verz. p. 273 (1816). 
Saronaga, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 330. 

Type, P. ridens, Fabr., from Europe. 

Eange. Europe ; N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Naga Hills. 

Palpi with the first two joints hairy, the third porrect, rather 
long and naked. Antennoe with the joints wide and flattened ; 
patagia heavily fringed with hair. Fore wing thickly scaled the 
apex acute and rather produced ; vein 6 from above the angle ot 
cell ; vein 9 anastomosing with 7 and 8 to form an areole. Hind 
wing ^vith vein 5 from just below the middle of discocellulars 
or iust above the lower angle of cell, or stalked with vein 4. Head 
and frons tufted ; abdomen with a tuft on 3rd segment. 



POLTPLOOA. 



183 



335. Polyploca orbicularis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p, 407 ; C. 8r S. 
no. 1644 c. 

Head and thorax grey-brown ; the collar with a darker edge ; 
abdomen fuscous, the tuft on 3rd somite blackish. Fore wing 
grey-brown ; a dark spot at base ; a waved subbasal line ; curved 




treble ante- and postraedial lines ; the orbicular and reniform spots 
whitish or reddish outlined with black ; a waved line beyond the 
postmedial line and another submarginal commencing as a black 
oblique streak from the apex ; a waved marginal line ; some dark 
specks on costa near apex. Hind wing fuscous. 
Hob. Dharmsala; Sikhim. Kvp. 4:4: millim. 

336. Polyploca anguligera, n. sp. 

S . Differs from orbicularis in the double antemedial lines of 
the fore wing being straighter ; the double postmedial lines highlv 
angled outwards beyond the ceU; the oblique streak from apex 
more prominent. 

Hab. Naga Hills (DoJiertij). Exp. 42 millim. Type in coll. 
Elwes. 



337. Polyploca renalis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 407 ; C.^S. no. 1644 n. 

Differs from orbicularis in the lines of the fore wing being less 
well defined ; the ante- and postmedial lines more dentate, the 
latter highly angulate ; the orbicular and reniform spots ochreous, 
with tufts of raised dark scales on their lower edges. Abdomen 
and hind wing darker. 

Hab. Dharmsala. Exp. 42 millim. 

338. Polyploca albidisca, Warr. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 299 ; C. ii- S 

no. 1642 a. 

Polyploca dubia, Warr. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 300 ; C. ^ S. no. 1644 b. 

$ . Differs from orbicularis in the collar being without the dark 
outline. Fore wing with the dark speck further from the base 
and oblique, with a white spot inside it; three waved antemedial 
black lines at even distances apart ; the lines of the outer area 



184 



CYMATOPnOEID^. 



more irregular : the orbicular and renifortn spots formed by black 
streaks with a few orauge scales round them, the area below them 
grey. 

The form duUa is without the white speck at base of fore wing, 
the innermost of the three lines is obsolescent, and another is deve- 
loped outside them, so that the series becomes medial ; the orbicular 
and reniforin spots less prominent and without grey suffusion below 
them ; the Hnes of outer area obsolescent. Some specimens have 
the medial area of fore wing suffused with fuscous. 

Hab. Kangra, Punjab. Exp. 36 milUm. 

339. Polyploca cuprina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 331, pi. 37, fis. 3 : 

a ^ S. no. 1644. ^ > & ' 

Head and thorax grey-brown ; abdomen paler. Pore wing grey- 
brown with a faint greenish tinge ; indistinct double ante- and 
postmedial curved and waved lines, and traces of other waved single 
lines ; a dark streak on the discocellulars, with a black spot inside 
it ; a waved submarginal pale line. Hind wing pale fuscous. 

Hab. Sikhim. Kvp. 38 millim. 

340. Polyploca albicosta, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 45 ; C (f- S. no. 1626. 

S . Head and thorax dark brown ; abdomen paler. Pore wing 
dark brown ; the costal area suffused with white and greenish at 
base ; numerous transverse waved dark lines, of whicli the most 
distinct are one antemedial and one postmedial ; orbicular and 
reniform spots large and confluent, their upper portions outlined 
wdth black ; an oblique black apical streak ; a luuulate marginal 
line. Hind wing pale fuscous, with slightly darker medial and 
broad marginal bands. 

The race from the N."W. Himalayas has the palpi and basal joint 
of antennae pink ; the collar fringed with pink ; fore wing with the 
costal area suffused with pinkish white ; the orbicular and reniform 
spots on a diffused yellow patch. 

Hab. Simla ; Sikhim. Exp. 48-50 milhm. 

341. Polyploca albibasis, n. sp. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen grey, slightly tiuged with rufous. 
Pore wing with the costa much arched at base and the apex very 
acute ; silvery grey ; the base white ; a whitish fascia along the 
costa from one-fifth from base to apex ; waved ante- and post- 
medial dark lines and submarginal series of white specks. Hind 
wing pale fuscous, the outer area darker. 

(5 . In specimens from Simla the ground-colour of the fore 
wing is greenish : a fine white submarginal line is present, and the 
hind wing is pale ochreous. 

Mab. Simla; Sikhim. Exj). 68 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



NEMACEROTA. — TOXOIDES. 



185 



Qenus NEMACEROTA, nov. 

Type, N. cinerea, "Warr. 
Range. Punjab ; Sikhim. 

Antenna) slender and ciliate, simple in female. Palpi upturned, 
reacliing vertex of head ; the first two joints hairj, the third naked 
and short. Pore wing with the apex acute and rather produced ; 
slightly scaled ; vein 6 from above angle of cell ; veins 9 and 10 
not quite anastomosing with 7 and 8 to form the areola. Hind 
wing with vein 5 from the centre of the discocellulars. 



342. Nemacerota cinerea, Warr. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 300 : C. & 8. no 

1644 E. 

Pale grey. Pore wing with two short dark streaks at the base ; 
the basal area brownish and bounded by an indistinct waved dark 




Fig. 115. — Nemacerota cinerea, . \, 

line ; an indistinct double postmedial waved line and pale waved 
submarginal line. Hind wing paler. 

Hah. Thandiani, Punjab. Exp. 40 millim. 

343. Nemacerota alternata, ilfoo?-e, P.z. S. 1881, p. 331, pi 37 fi<r 9 • 
C. ^ no. 1643. , P . u/, u^. ^ , 

$ . Head and thorax grey-brown ; the vertex of head and collar 
red-brown ; abdomen paler. Pore wing greenish ; ante- and post- 
medial pinkish bands and curved and waved black lines well defined 
towards the costa; traces of other single lines. Hind wincr pale 

lUSCOUS. ^ ^ 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 42 millim. 



Genus TOXOIDES, nov. 



Type, T. longipennis, Hmpsn. 
Range. Sikhim. 



.J^ l .^Pt^rned, reaching vertex of head, the second joint fringed 

v S f - "A P°^^^^* 5 antenna, flattened and 

with short fasciculated ciha. Pore wing very long and narrow 
the costa highly arched, the apex obtuse ; vein 6 from angle of celT-' 
7 and 8 on a long stalk ; 9 and 10 stalked. Hind wing%dth the 



186 



CYMATOPHOEIDiE. 



outei' margin slightly angled at vein 3 ; veins 3 and 4 from angle 
of cell ; 5 from centre of discocellulars. 

3-14. Toxoides longipennis, n. sp. 

S. Head pale, slightly tinged with rufous; thorax grizzled 
brown and grey, the collar tinged with rufous ; abdomen pale 
fuscous, fore "wing grey suffused with fuscous, especially from 
end of ceil to apex ; the base and costa rufous; numerous faint 




Fig. 116. — Toxoides longijyemiis, ^J. y. 

waved lines. Hind wing fuscous, with traces of a medial line ; the 
cilia paler. 

Eab. Sikhim. Exp. 58 millim. Type in coll. Knyvett. 



Species formerly recorded as Indian which are omitted. 

Bisoha hasalis, Moore, C. & S. no. 1633, is a Noctua. 

„ conjlaens, Moore, „ „ 1634, „ 

diversipennis, Wlk., „ „ 1635, „ 

„ literatn, Moore, „ „ 1636, „ 

„ ohstructa, Moore, „ „ 1637, „ 

,j prominens, Moore, „ „ 1638, „ 

„ repugna7is, Wlk., „ 1639, „ 

„ vialis, Moore, ,, „ 1640, „ 

Pitrasa variegata, Moore, „ 1645, „ 

„ vitellina, Moore, „ „ 1646, „ 

Tyracona obliqua, Moore, „ „ 1647, „ 

transversa, Moore, „ „ 1648. „ 

Sydiva nigrogrisea, Moore, „ „ 1649, „ 

Osica ■undulata^M.oove, „ „ }^^^\ 

Lazanda fasciata, Wlk., C. & S. no. IQol^Lahanda mnscosa, 
Wlk., C. & S. no. 3016, is a Noctua. 



SESIIDiE. 



187 



Family SESIID^. 

Diurnal Lepicloptera, which feed on the wing and settle on leaves 
in hot sunshine ; the flight very rapid. 

Antennae often dilated or knobbed. Legs often with thick tufts 
of liair ; raid tibiae with one pair of spurs; hind tibiae with two 
pairs, frenulum present. Wings generally more or less hyaline ; 
fore wing with veins 1 a and 1 b forming a fork at base ; 1 c absent ; 
veins 4 to 11 given off at almost even distances from the cell. 
Hind wing with three internal veins ; vein 8 coincident with 7. 

Many species are close "mimics" of various Hymenopterous 
forms. 

Larva : a fleshy internal feeder on bark or pith, with five pairs 
of prolegs. 

Fupa armed with hooks for movement in the galleries. 



Keif to the Genera. 

Hind legs without tufts of hair on the 
joints. 

a'. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 stalked, 
a^. Proboscis wanting. 

a^. Fore wing with vein 5 present. 
Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 
from angle of cell. 
a*. Hind wing with discocelhilars 
oblique ; palpi of medium 

length 

^1^. Hind wing with discocelhilars 
nearly erect ; palpi longer . 
Fore wing with vein 5 absent . 



b^. Proboscis present. 



a" 



1. Teochilium, p. 188. 



Hind wing with discocelhilars 
almost erect. 
z*. Fore wing with vein 2 present. 
Hind wing with veins 3 and 
4 from cell. 
a^. Hind tarsi of moderate 
length, and not fringed 
with scales. 
Abdomen with lateral 
tufts on the terminal 
segments 4, 

b\ Abdomen with the termi- 
nal tuft only g_ 

b\ Hind tarsi extremely "long 
and fringed with scales on 
the last four joints above . 
Fore sving with vein 2 absent. 
Hmd wing with veins 3 and 
4 stalked 7^ 



Sphecodoptera, p. 189. 
Anthrenoptera, 

[p. 190. 



Trilochana, p. 190. 

SCIAPTERON, p. 191. 

6. Macrotarsipus, p. 194. 

J rp-194. 

ICHNEUMENOPTERA, 



188 



SESIIDJ;. 



V^. Hiu^ wing with discocellulara 

oblique 8. Sesia, p. 196. 

b'. Fore win^ with veins 7 and 8 not 
stalked. 

a-. Palpi upturned. Hind wing with 

vein 3 from end of cell 9. Adixoa, p. 198. 

b'-. Palpi porrect. Hind wing Avith 

Tems 2 and 3 from a point before 

end of cell 10. Trichocerota, p. 199. 

h. Hind legs with tufts of hair on the j oints. 
«'. Legs with moderate or slight tufts 
on the joints. 
or. Fore wing with veins 5 and 7 
present. 

fl^. Plind wing with veins 2 and 3 
from a point. 
«*. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 

stalked 11. Tinthia, p. 199. 

5*. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 

not stalked 12. Ceratocokema, p. 200. 

b^. Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 

from angle of cell 13. AscHiSTOPHLEPS,p.200. 

b"^. Fore wing with veins 5 and 7 
absent. Hind wing with veins 3 

and 4 stalked 14. Oligophlebia, p. 201. 

b' . Hind legs with immensely developed 
hairy clothing. 
a^. Hind legs with the hair evenly dis- 
posed. Hind wing with vein 3 
from before end of cell ; 6 and 7 

stalked • • 15. Melittia, p. 202. 

h"^. Hind legs with the hair disposed in 
uneven tufts. Hind wing with 
vein 3 from end of cell ; veins 6 
and 7 not stalked ; club of antenna 
greatly developed 16. Lenyra, p. 205. 




pjg_ 117. — Troehilium ommaticBforme, <S . \- 

Genus TROCHILIUM. 

Troehilium, Scop. Int. Hist. Nat. p. 414 (1777). 
Sphecia, Hiibn. Verz. p. 127 (1818). 

Type, T. apiforme, CI., from Europe. 
Range. The Palacarctic Eegion. 

Antenna of male pectinated ; palpi upturned and reachmg the 



TEOCHILIITM. — SPHECODOPTERA. 



189 



top of head ; mid and hind femora but slightly hairy. Fore wing 
with veins 7 and 8 stalked. Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 from 
end of cell, the discoceUulars very oblique. 

345. TrocMlium ommatiaeforine, Moore, MS. 

_ d* • Palpi yellow ; antennae, thorax, and abdomen red-brown, 
with a few yellow scales : legs yellow. "Wings hyaline, the veins 
and margins very narrowly brown. 

Hah. Baluchistan. Exp. 38 millim. 

346. Trochilium ignicoUe, n. sp. 

Antennce rufous ; palpi yellow ; vertex of head rufous ; collar 
fiery orange ; thorax brown ; abdomen brown, the second segment 
fringed with red, the terminal segments fiery orange. Wings 
hyaline, with narrow brown margins ; costa of fore wing brown ; 
the costal, median, and internal nervures slightlv streaked with red. 

Hah. mmla (Harford). Exp., c? 36, $ 46 millim. TypeinB.M. 

Genus SPHECODOPTERA, nov. 

Type, S. repanda. Walk. 
Range. JS". India. 

The third joint of palpus longer than in Trochilium ; the tibi«, 
especially those of hind legs, much more thickly clothed with hair, 
-b-md wmg with veins 3 and 4 stalked ; discoceUulars more erect. 
Antennae almost simple, with a slight bristle to each segment. 

347. Sphecodoptera repanda, Wlk. Cat viii, p. 11 ; C. <§• S. no. 189. 

d. Antennae orange, black towards tips; legs fulvous, tibiae 
with some black hairs ; palpi, collar, and tegulte with some yellow 
scales ; thorax and abdomen black, the former with a yeUow stripe 
on vertex, the latter with fulvous segmental bands, the last two 




Fig. 118. — Sphecodoptera repanda, \. 

segments fulvous. Wings hyaline, with the veins and maro-ins 
narrowly fulvous ; slight black streaks iu the interspaces of Ce 
wing towards apex, and the costa and discoceUulars streaked 12 
orange. v^ua-cu. wilu 

Hah. Simla. Exp. 50 millim. 



190 



BESIIDiE. 



348. Sphecodoptera flavicollis, n. sp. 

$ . Differs from repanda in the antennfB being wholly black 
and shorter ; collar yellow ; two yellow streaks on meso- and meta- 
thorax, the latter fringed with yellow ; abdomen bright yellow, 
the first two segments black, the 3rd, 4th, and oth segments with 
terminal black bands, decreasing in width posteriorly. Legs 
yellow ; hind legs with a black patch on the inside at end of tibia. 
Wings as in repanda ; fore wing without the black streaks in the 
interspaces towards apex. 

JIab. Skardo, Kashmir, 8000 feet (ieecA). ^-^rp. 48 millim. Type 

in coll. Leech. 



Genus ANTHRENOPTERA. 

Anthrenoptera, Swinh. Cat. Set. Mus. Oxon. p. 35 (ined.). 

Type, A. contracta, Walk. 
Ranrje. Assam. 

c? . The antennfB more heavily pectinated than iu Trochilium ; 
the third joint of palpi but slightly longer ; fore wing narrower, 
with vein 5 wanting ; hind wing with veins 3 and 4 stalked ; tibiae 
fringed with hair, especially those of hind legs. 




Fio-. 119. — Anthrenoptera contracta, cJ. \. 



349. Anthrenoptera contracta, Walk. Cat. \in, p. 11; C. ^ S. 
110. 188. 

. Differs from Sphecodoptera repanda in the tegulae being 
wholly yellow ; the margins of wings more broadly fulvous ; fore 
wing with a large apical fulvous patch. 
Hah. Assam. Exp. 34 millim. 



Genus TRILOCHANA. 

Trilocliana, Moore, Lep. AtJe. p. 9 (1879). 
Type, T. scoUoide.% Moore. 

iilW/e. Sikhim ; Burma. . n -.u 

The apex of the fore wing somewhat pointed ; abdomen with 

lateral tufts on last two segments ; the anal tuft largely developed. 

Venation, antennse, palpi, and legs as in Sphecodoptera. 



TEILOCnANA. — SOIAPTEROIS'. 



191 



*350. Trilochana SCOlioideS, Moore, LeiJ. Atk. p. 10, pi. il, fif?. 2 : 
C. ^ S. no. 206. 

Antennae da.rk brown. Palpi, thorax, and abdomen purple- 
brovvn, the segments of the last fringed with grey; the last two 
segments at sides and below and anal tuft red, some black hairs 
fringing the tuft above. Legs clothed with long black hairs, hind 
tarsi yellowish. Wings shining olive-green, a short narrow trans- 
parent basal streak on fore wing and two triangular streaks on the 
hind wing. 

JIab. Sikhim. JExp. 47 millim. 

351. Trilochana ignicauda, n. sp. 

(S . Difiers from scolioides in the head, thorax, abdomen, and 
wings being uniform dark purplish metallic blue ; abdomen with 
the lateral and anal tufts fiery red. Fore wing without a hyaline 




Fig. 120.— Trilochana ignicauda, . \, 
Streak ; hind wing with three hyaline streaks at base. Underside 
with the outer half of wings bronzy. Palpi fringed with grey hairs : 
legs uniform black. ' 

Hab^ Momeit, Burma {Bolierty). Exp. 29 millim. Type in 
coll. Elwes. ^ 

Genus SCIAPTEEON. 

Sciapteron, Staudgr. Stettin. Mit. Zeit. 1856 p 195 
Pramila, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 9 (1879). 

Pseudosesia, Feld. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, xliii, 1, p. 28 (1861). 
Type, S. tabaniforme, Eott., from Europe 
Ranr/e. The Palsearctic Eegion ; Sikhim ; Burma 
Palpi upturned, the third joint short, as in Trochilium. Vena- 

cXll bnf Tr*^^*^ ^^^^^ ^^^g ^^'i^l^ the disco- 

cellulars but slightly oblique ; veins 3 and 4 from end of cell 

wiihhafr^ developed; hind tibi^ but slightly fringed 

Sect. I. Male with antenn;© bipectinated. 
352. Sciapteron flammans, n. sp. 

Palpi, head, and legs orange-yellow, with a few black scales on 
them ; antenna orange ; collar black, fringed with yellow thorax 
b ack the tegnhB and metathorax fringecf with yellow abdomen 
b ue-black, each segment with a bright yeHow band • anal tuf 
black and orange. Fore winp-nlnfliarl^^.ui, ""iLiu auai tutt 

5 X ui« wing Clothed with orange and black scales, 



192 



BESIIDy"E. 



the veins black. Hind wing hyaline ; the veins orange and black ; 
outer margin and cilia black. 

Hah. Murree. Exy., S 26, $ 31 millim. Type in coll. Leech, 

Sect. II. Male with antennaa fasciculated. 

353. Sciapteron grotei, 3Ioore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 414; C. 8f S. 

no. 207. 

Sciapteron rangoonensis, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soe. 1890, p. 165, 

S . Antennae and vertex of head black ; palpi and frons yellow ; 
gense white ; thorax black, with lateral yellow streaks ; metathorax 
with a yellow band; abdomen black, with yellow bands on all 
except the 1st and 3rd segments ; anal tuft black, shading to 
brown ; legs yellow and black ; tarsi white-ringed. "Wings yel- 
lowish hyaline ; fore wing with the margins and discocellulars 
broadly black, narrowly so in hind wing. 

Hah. Eangoon. E.ty. 30 millim. 

354. Sciapteron caeruleimicans, n. sp. 

(5 . Differs from rangoonensis in the palpi being black and orange ; 
the frons grey, surrounded by white ; thorax and abdomen with 
barely a trace of orange markings and bands ; legs with less 
yellow ; fore wing with some brilliant sky-blue metallic scales at 
and beyond the lower end of the cell. 

Hah. E. Pegu, 1000 ft., Apr. {Doherty). Exp. 30 millim. Type 
in coll. Elwes. 

355. Sciapteron atkinsoni, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 9, pi. ii, fig, 1 ; 

C. 8f S. no. 190, 

$ , Head, thorax, and abdomen bluish black ; legs brown ; palpi 
below and tarsal joints fringed with white. Wings hyaline; 
veins, costa, cilia, and a narrow discocellular streak to the hind 
wing black. Fore wing with a broad orange-red black-bordered 
discocellular streak. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 35 miUim. 

Sect, III. Male with antennae simple. 

356. Sciapteron noblei, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 1C6. 
Sciapteron jucunda, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 167. 




Fig. 121. — Sciapteron noblei, c?. 
The antennae fulvous ; palpi yellow. Head black ; genee white ; 
tegulffi more or less fulvous ; thorax and abdomen blue-black, with 



SCIAPTEEON. 193 

traces of orange bands above and white below; anal tuft blue-black 
above, with some orange below in one male, wholly orange in 
another male, this being the form named jucunda ; in the female 
black, with the tip orange. Legs black ; the tibiae and tarsi ringed 
with fulvous and white. Eore wing metallic blue-black, with a 
purple tmge. Hind wing hyaline, the veins and margins narrowly 
black ; cilia brownish. 

Bab. Eangoon. Ixp. 34 millim, 

*357. Sciapteron sitkima, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 9 ; C.^ S. no. 208. 

6 . Differs from noblei in the antennae being black above • thp 
thorax with a chrome-yellow streak on each side. Pore 'tarsi 
white ; mid and hind tarsi spotted with white. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 80 millim. 

358. Sciapteron metallicum, n. sp. 

men WnP wT? if ^^^f ^"^"^ ^^'^"^ blue-black; abdo- 

M fn^^f TJ'T' ' Sreyish below ; tarsi black. ^ 

Hal. Karen Hills {^Fea). Exp. 32 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 

359. Sciapteron gracile, Stvinh. Trans. But. Soc. 1890, p. 168. 

above tilrt?; I'f' ^^V^'""^ orange-yellow; abdomen black 
above, with the 1st and 3rd segments and anal tuft orano-e and 
traces of orange bands below. Fore mngs orange, powdered wt h 
a few black scales. Hind wing hyaline? the vf^s^ orange In a 
of both wings black. Legs orange and black. " ' 

Hab. Eangoon. Exp. 34 millim. 

360. Sciapteron cupreivitta, n. sp. 

yellow ; anal fuft blue M-k Sif^ f*"!"!"^ f'" '"'"''''d ^"'h 
iibi. banded S yel wft^rT^'Xw 11^'"°" 7 '^^ f ■ 
suffused with blue-blaek ■ Sf IT' ™.«'"g aboye brown, 

below coppery Sd ffi ^ ? ""^ "^""^ °f """l : 

oopperyX^vei?^''™rgt^rji^^^^^^^ ^--""^ 

Ty* in ^P"' (^-'f)- ^-i-- 28 milU.. 

361. Sciapteron tenuimarginatum, n. sp 



$ . Differs from typical Sciapteron in vein 5 of hind ^xH 
from near the upper angle of^cell. Palpf yeUowf f 



lug arising 
US white; 



194 



SESIIDiE. 



antenna; orange ; head and tliovax dark, much marked with 
yellow ; abdomen dark, the segments fringed with yellow. Legs 
yellow, some dark liairs on end of hind tibia. Wings hyaline, the 
veins, margins, and discocellulars of fore wing very narrowly dark. 
Hah. Karen Hills {Fea). Exp. 32 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 



Genus MACROTAESIPUS, nov. 

Type, M. alhipunctus, Hmpsn. 
liange. Burma. 

Palpi and neuration as in Sciapteron, except that vein 6 of the 
hind wing is from the upper angle of cell. Antenna? simple and 
very long. Legs very long; hind tarsi extremely elongate, the 
four terminal joints thickly fringed with scales above. 



3G2. Macrotarsipus albipunctus, n. sp. 

d". AntennjB, head, thorax, and abdomen metallic blue-black. 
Palpi blue-black, white below. Legs blue-black, coxae of fore legs 




Fig. 122. — Macrotarsipus albipunctus, . ^■ 

fringed with white ; a ring of white scales on hind tibia at each 
pair of spurs, and at end of first joint of tarsus. Wings hyaline : 
the veins narrowly black ; the margins and discocellulars ot tore 
wings somewhat broadly black. . 

Bah. Bhamo, Burma (Fea). Exp. 24 millim. Type in coll. 

Moore. 

Genus ICHNEUMENOPTERA, nov. 

Type, I. auripes, Hmpsn. 

Range. Bengal ; Assam ; Burma. ^ a . 

Palpi with the third joint longer than m Sciapteron. Antenn£e 
long and simple. Legs naked. Abdominal tuft long. Pore wnig 
with vein 2 absent; the stalk of veins 7 and 8 shorter. Hind 
wing with veins 3 and 4 stalked ; 6 from near the upper angle of 
the cell. 

363. Ichneumenoptera auripes, n. sp. 

S . Palpi vellow below, black above. Prons white ; antennae, 
head, thorax,- abdomen, and anal tuft black with a few scattered 



ICHNEUMENOPTEEA. 195 

yellow scales. Fore legs orange with the coxse yellow. Hind 
legs with the femur blae-black, tibia orange with a blue-black 



Fig. 123. — Icknevmenoptera miripes, J. ^. 

band, tarsus blue banded with white. Wings transparent the 
veins and margins narrowly black with a few yellow scales : cilia 
brown. > 

Hah Sibsagar; B. Pegu, 4000 feet, April; Tenasserim valley 
(Doherty). Kvp. 2Q miWim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

364. Ichneumenoptera flavicincta, n. sp. 

c?. Differs from auripes in each segment of the abdomen beiiio- 
fringed with yellow. Mid and hind legs black, ringed with yellowt 

S.? ^ ^"•^"'^ ^'^^1 discocellular band more broadly 

DJacJf. (iiore legs wanting.) ■ 

coif Dru^r''''""" ^'"^^"^ i^oherty). Kvp. 19 millim. Type in 

365. Ichneumenoptera xanthosoma, n. sp. 

r. ?ir"°i?®'' ^""T- ""^'''^'^ and vertex of head beino- 

vWh fll ''f 7 f '^'T ^'"'^^ f^on« • l^ead fringed 

xvith yellow behind; collar metallic blue; thorax yellow strip'd 
with black; abdomen yellow. Each segment fringed with black 
legs yellow, hind tibia with two blue-bla.k spots above. 
Bab. Moulmein. Kvp. 20 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 

366. Ichneumenoptera flavipalpus, n. sp. 

c?. Differs from auripes in the palpi being whoUy yellow the 
frons dark ; thorax and abdomen' brown, suffused ^w^th yellow 
iore wmg hyaline; the veins and margins, a discocellular band' 
and the outer area, brown suffused 4h Vellow Zd S 
hyaline; the veins and margins narrowly b^o wn. Legs wholly 

Bab. Barrackpore. E.vp. 20 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 

367. Ichneumenoptera ignifera, u. sp. 

antPnn^'''^ ^'^'^ above, yellow below ; frons surrounded by white • 

red and vhTte' Mo ""^^'^^ ^"^^ ''''' ^^^^ ' abdomen' 

lea and white below towards extremity. Eore wing yellowish 
hyaline; the veins, discocellular band? and margins So^iy 



196 



SESIID^E. 



brown, the outer margin witli a I road brown band. Hind wing 
hyaline, the veins and margins narrowly brown. 

Hah, Karen Hills {Fed) ; Bernardmyo {Doherty). Exp, 28 raillim. 
Type in coll. Moore. 



Genus SESIA. 

Sesia, Fabr. Si/st, Ent. p. 547 (1776): Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii, 1, 

p. 153 (180i). 
yEgeria, Fahr. llUg. Mag. Ins. yi, p. 288 (1807). 

Type, 8. tipuliformis, Clerk, Europe. 

Range. All the regions, except Australasian. 

Palpi slightly longer and more slender than in the preceding 
genera. Hind wing with the discocellulars oblique, the venation 
otherwise as in Sciapteron. Anal tuft large in the male. 

In the typical section the antennae are heavily ciliated in the male. 



Sect. II. The antennae simple in the male. 

368. Sesia quinquecincta, n. sp. 

Head and thorax blue-black; abdomen black, with five broad 
yellow bands ; anal tuft and legs blue-black, tlie latter slightly 
fringed with white ; coxae of legs white. Wings hyahne ; the 
veins, margins, and cilia smoky brown ; costa and discocellular 
streak of fore wing blue-black. Hind tibiae not fringed with hair. 

Eab. Bernardmyo, Burma, 6000 feet, May (Doherty). Exp, 
24 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



369. Sesia minuta, Swinh. Trans, Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 171, pi. vi, fig. 5. 

$ . Antenn® black ; palpi ochreous ; frons with the centre grey 
surmounted by white ; collar whitish ; thorax with a few orange 
scales; abdomen blac-k, the 2nd, 4th, and 5th segments with 
vellovv bands above ; all the segments white — banded below. Legs 
black and ochreous. Fore wing hyaline with opal tints, the veins 
and margins dark, and the whole outer ai'ea suffused with purplish 
fuscous; a prominent orange discocellular band. Hind _ wing 
hyaline, the veins and margins narrowly black. Underside of 
fore wing with the basal part yellow. Hind tibiae slightly hairy. 

Uah, Eangoon. Exp, 24 millim. 



370. Sesia nnicincta, n. sp. 

Differs from minuta in the third segment of the abdomen only 
havino- a yellow band. Fore wing with the margins narrowly 
black ° the area beyond the cell hyaline, with a few yellow scales 
bevond the discocellulars and near the apex. ^ 

Hah, Karen Hills {Fea), Exp, 18 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 



SESIA. 197 

371. Sesia xanthosticta, n. sp. 

6 . Palpi dark above, yellow below ; frons black and surrounded 
by yellow. Antennte, head, thorax, and abdomen black ; abdomen 
with a yellow dorsal patch on first segment; a yellow sublateral 
ime. Legs black, with some yellow on femora and tibi». Fore 
wing black, with a hyaline patch edged with yellow in the cell • a 
yellow patch beyond the cell, the veins crossing it black. Hind 
wing hyaline, the base and costa slightly yellow ; the veins, outer 
margins, and cilia black. 

Bab. Kashmir {Leech). Exp. 18 millim. Type in coll. Leech. 

372. Sesia tricincta, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 8; C. 8f 8. no. 194. 

6. Brown; the antennae grey at base; the palpi below, collar 
streaks at sides of thorax, and basal medial and^anal bands of 
abdomen yellow. Legs brown, tarsi with white bands. Win^s 
ceSar'band? "^'^ Purple-brown borders and discS- 

Hah. Siihim. Ex;fi. 22 millim. 

*373. Sesia flava, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 8 ; C ^ & no 193 
ontrta^anSllrfV''' "P',,'"-™'' •/-'pi. "ollar, and streaks 

^^^B^ ?F- ^^^^^^ 

Bab. Sikhim. Exp. 17 millim. 
374. Sesia flaricandata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 659, 1,1. 211, a„ 1, 




Pig. 'i24.~ Sesia Jlavicaudaia, (j". 2. 

Legs banded with yellow "Wino-B iitTni,-v,^ -i-u ^^ 
and discocellular banrpurple Sacf h. ' "^''"Z' 
narrowly on hind wing. ^ ^ °" ^^ing, 

Bab. Punduloya, Ceylon. Ea.p. 17 millim. 



198 



SESIIDiE. 



375. Sesia flavipes, TImpsn. 111. Ret. ix, ined., pi. 157, figs. 19, 20. 

Metallic blue-black ; palpi, collar, and tibia? orange. Abdomen 
with narrow segra^>ntal orange bauds expanding into wide lateral 
])atches ; anal tuft blue-black above, orange below. Wings hyaline ; 
the margins, discocellulars, and veins purple-black : fore wing with 
the margins broadly black, and nearly the whole outer area dark 
with narrow yellow streaks between the veins. Female with the 
abdominal orange bands broader. 

Hah. Bangalore; Punduloya, Ceylon. Exj).., S 16, $ 14millim. 



Genus ADIXOA, nov. 

Type, A. alterna, Walk. 
liange. S. India ; Tenasserima. 

(S . Antenna; with fascicles of ciha ; palpi as in Sciapteron. 
Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 not stalked ; the venation otherwise 
as in Sciapteron. Fore legs with a strong tibial tuft of hair ; the 
other pairs but slightly hairy. 

376. Adixoa alterna, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 10; C. 8r S. no. 192. 

cJ . Purple-brown ; frons, collar, tegulse, and metathorax yellow. 
Abdomen with lateral yellow spots on the first and fourth seg- 




Fiir. 125.— Adiccoa alterna, . \. 



ments, one each on the vertex of the second and seventn 
segments ; anal tuft black, the base of the tuft above and below 
yellow. Fore wing purple-brown suffused with yellow ; a hyahne 
streak in the cell and four beyond. Hind wing hyaline ; the veins, 
margins, and discocellular band purple-black. 
Bah. Coimbatore, S. India. Exp. 28 millim. 



377. Adixoa auricoUum, u. sp. 

A. Palpi, antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen blue-black ; 
frons white, head fringed with white behind : collar fringed with 
orange; abdomen with orange bands on three last segment^ and 
on all the segments below. Legs blue-black; ore leg with the 
tarsi white • hind leg with some pale hairs on tibia lore wing 
Sue-bl k! 'with hyaline spaces in and below the cell, and a small 
qLadritid s'pace beyond. Hind wing hyaline, with broad blue-black 
margins and discocellular band. 

Ilab. Tenasserim Valley {Doherti/). Exp. 25 milhm. Type m 

coll. Druce. 



TR lOHOCEROTA. — TINTHIA. 



199 



Genus TRICHOCEROTA, nov. 

Type, T. riificincta, Hmpsn. 
Range. Burma. 

Antennae with tufts of long cilia arising from serrations. Palpi 
somewhat slight and porrect. Fore wing with vein 4 absent; 
7 and 8 not stalked. Hind wing with veins 2 and 3 from near 
together and some vi^aj before the end of the cell; vein 6 from the 
upper angle of the cell. Hind tibiae naked. 

378. Trichocerota ruficincta, n. sp. 

_ . Palpi reddish ; head, thorax, and abdomen black ; thorax 
with shght reddish streaks ; abdomen with red bands on the fifth 




Fig. 126. — Trichocerota ruficincta, \. 

and seventh segments. Pore wing dark reddish brown, with -slight 
hyaline streaks in the cell and between veins 2, 3, and 4. Hind 
wmg yellowish hyaline ; the veins, margins, and cilia black. 

Hah. Eastern Pegu, 500 feet, April (Doherty). Exp. 22 millim. 
Type in coll. Elwes. L 

Genus TINTHIA. 
Tinthia, Walk. Cat. xxxi, p. 23 (1864). 

Type, T. vaiipes. Walk., from Celebes. 

Bange. Japan; China; Celebes; S. India. 

Antennae slender and serrated in both sexes, hardly dilated 
before the end ; _ palpi slight and porrect. Legs with slight tufts 
ot han- at the joints. Wings very narrow ; fore wing with the 
venation ot Sesia- hind wing with veins 2 and 3 given off at a 
point before he end of the cell ; 6 and 7 from the upper angle of 
cell ; discocellulars nearly erect. 

379. Tinthia cupreipeimis. Walk. Cat. xxxi, p. 11 ; e. ^ S. no. 191. 
6 . Brown with iridescent colours ; the palpi, tufts on legs, and 




Fig. 127.— Tinthia ciiprcipennis, . §. 
narrow segmental bands to the abdomen ochreous ; anal tuft 



200 



SESIIDJ). 



black, orange at the tip. Fore wing irrorated with ochreous 
scales. Hind wing hyahne, the veins and margins dark. 
Hah. Coimbatore, 8. India. Exp. 18 millim. 



Genus CERATOCOREMA, nov. 

Type, C. postcristatum, Hmpsn. 
Range. Ganjam ; Poona. 

Antennae with two series of very long cilia. Palpi short and 
porrect. Fore leg with tibia slightly hairy ; mid leg with the tibia 
and first tarsal joint strongly tufted with hair ; hind leg with two 
tufts of hair on the tibia and one on the first tarsal joint. Abdo- 
men short and stout, with lateral anal tufts. Wings short ; fore 
wing with veins 7 and 8 not stalked ; hind wing with veins 2 and 3 
from a point before the end of the cell, vein 6 from upper angle 
of cell. 



380. Ceratocorema postcristatum, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen reddish bro\vn ; anal tufts 
reddish at base, black at tip. Mid legs clothed with reddish 




Fig. 128. — Ceratocorema postcristatum, c?. \. 



hairs, those on the first tarsal joint blue-black ; hind legs clothed 
with mingled reddish and blue-black hairs. Wings yellowish 
hyaline, the veins and margins red-brown, narrowly so on the hind 
wing. 

Hab. Berhampore, Ganjam (i¥incAin) ; Poona. Exp. 16 millim. 
Type in coll. Elwes. 



Genus ASCHISTOPHLEPS, nov. 

Type, A. lampropoda, Hmpsn. 
Range. Assam ; Pegu. 

(S . Antennae simple. Palpi upturned, the third joint long and 
slightly porrected. Mid legs with terminal tufts of hairs on the 
tibiae ; hind legs with two strong tufts on the tibiae, and the first 
tarsal joint strangly tufted. Abdomen slight in the typical 
species. Wings rather short ; fore wing with veins 7 and 8 not 
stalked ; hind wing as in Sciapteron. 

381. AschistopMeps lampropoda, n. sp. 

c?. Head, thorax, and abdomen black. Hind legs with the 
tibia) fringed with yellow hairs near the base, the rest of the tibiae 



ASCHISTOPHLEPS. — OLIGOPHLEBIA. 



201 



and first tarsal joint with orange hairs mixed with a few silvery- 
scales ; the distal tarsal joints black. "Wings yellow hyaline, the 




Fig. 129. — AscMstophleps lampropoda, c?. J. 

veins, margins, and a broad discocellular streak to fore wing 
black ; cilia black ; inner margin of hind wing orange. 

Hah. Margarita, Assam, May {Dohertij). Exp. 20 millim. Type 
in uoU. Elwes. 

382. Aschistophleps melissoides, n. sp. 

$ . Abdomen apiform. Palpi white ; head, thorax, and abdomen 
black ; tibiJB and first tarsal joint ot" mid and hind legs clothed 
with black, grey, and white hairs. Wings hyaline, with the veins 
and margins black; fore wing with a black band occupying the 
middle third of the wing, and sending three spurs outwards along 
costa, vein 5, and inner margin. 

An excellent mimic of the smaller Indian bee. Apis indica 
Hah. Eastern Pegu, 1000 feet, April {Doherty). Ewp. 20 millim. 
Type m coll. Elwes. 



Genus OLIGOPHLEBIA. 

Oligophlebia, JSmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined. 

Type, 0. nigralba, Hmpsn. 
Range. Ceylon. 

Antennae minutely ciliated. Palpi upturned. Eore tibia with 
a terminal tu t of ha.r ; mid legs with a small median and W 
terimnal tuft to the tibia, the first two joints of the tarsus tufted 
hmd tibia with a very large terminal tuft. Eore wing with vein « 

3 :ndLtXi; ^^"^ ^^^^ -ct. ;:;n; 




Fig. V60.~0ligophlebia nigralba, ^. |. 
383. Oligophlebia nigralba, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 157, fi. 21 
6 . Head and thorax black ; frons, gen^, palpi below, and pLtus 



202 



SESIIDiE. 



silvery white. Legs black, the tibiae and tarsi ringed with white. 
Fore wing black, with a hyaline patch on the disk crossed by veins 
4 and 6, which are black. Hind wing hyaline, with the veins and 
margins narrowly black. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exj). 15 millim. 

Genus MELITTIA. 
Melittia, Walk. Cat. viii, p. 66 (1856). 

Type, M. satyriniformis, HUbn., from N. America. 

Range. S. and W. Africa. The Oriental region to Celebes and 
Gilolo; Nearctic and Neotropical regions. 

Antenna3 with fascicles of cilia in the male, simple in the 
female ; much dilated before the tip, M'hich is pointed. Palpi 
erect and rather slender, the 2nd joint slightly hairy. Hind leg 
with the tibia and tarsus clothed with thick long hair down to the 
ungues, and used for steadying the insect in the air whilst feeding 
from flowers. Fore wing with shape and venation of Sciapteron. 
Hind wing with vein 3 given off before the end of the cell ; vein 6 
present. Anal tuft slight. 

384. Melittia astarte, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 61, pi. 30, fig. 4 ; 

C. 8f S. no. 195. 

Glossy brassy black. Antennae ringed with lead-colour beyond 
the middle. Head, collar, and first and last segments of abdomen 
orange. Hind legs inwardly black ; outwardly orange with a few 
white hairs. Fore wing brassy black, with no hyaline streaks. 
Hind wing hyaline, the veins orange ; a black marginal line. 
Cilia of both wings orange. 

llab. Central India. Kvjp. 25 millim. 

385. Melittia pellecta, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc 1890, p. 169, pi. vi, 

fig. 2. 

5 . Black ; thorax fulvous, with a greenish tinge ; abdomen with 
a few terminal grey scales to each segment. Hind legs black, with 
a few grey hairs. Fore wing black, with very shght hyaline streaks 
between some of the veins and irrorated with gi-ey scales. Hind 
wing hyahne, with the veins and cilia black ; a few silvery-blue 
scales on inner margin. 

Hah. Eangoon. Exp. 38 miUim, 

386. Melittia VOlatilis, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 170, pi. vi, 

fig. 3. 

2 Differs from pellecta in the thorax being black ; the fore 
wing with no grey scales. Hind wing with a large silvery-blue 
patch on inner margin. Hind legs with more grey hairs. 

Hah. Eangoon. Exp. 24 miUim. 



MELITTIA. 



203 



387. Melittia eurytion, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 62, pi. 30, fig. 5 ; 
a v^- S. no. 197. 
Melittia strigipennis, Walk. Cat. xxxi, p. 17. 

Differs from volatilis in the thorax being olive-green; the 
abdomen with more distinct silvery segmental bands. Fore wing 
with the hjahne streaks in, below, and beyond the cell considerably 




Fig. 131. — Melittia eurytion, $ . |. 



more extensive, those beyond being either three or four ii] number ; 
some grey scales on the apical area. Hind legs clothed with 
black and chocolate-brown hairs, with a few grey hairs above and 
tufts below. 

Hah. Japan; throughout N.E. India and Burma; Poona ; 
Java; Gilolo. jE".!^:*. 24-30 millim. 

388. Melittia indica, Bxitl. A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 41 1 ; C. ^- S. no. 199. 
Melittia staudingeri, £oisd. Lep. Bet. i, p. 478; C. ^ S. no. 203. 

c? . Antennae, head, thorax, and fore legs red-browoi, darkest in 
Sikhim specimens ; pectus yellow. Hind legs black, with a tuft of 
pale , yellow hairs on the outside of the tibia. Abdomen black- 
brown, with narrow yelloM'ish segmental bands; white below. 
Pore wiug with five hyaline streaks between the nervules. Hind 
wing with pale greenish blue on inner margin. 

Mab. Sikhim; Sylhet; Tenasserim. ^Eltp, 32 millim. 

389. Melittia grandis, n. sp. 

(S . Thorax oHve-green. Abdomen dark green, with yellow 
rings; pectus yellow, with lateral purplish patches; fore legs 
black, yellow, and orange. Hind legs with the femur and tibia 
clothed with black hairs, some yellow hairs on the inner side of the 
femur ; the hairs on the outside of the tibia and all those clothing 
the tarsus fiery orange. Pore wing with no recurrent streak 
in the cell ; the apical hyaline area large and embracing the fork 
of the subcostals. Hind wing with a few bluish scales on the 
inner margin ; ciha of both wings brown. 

J-Iab. Sikhim (Mdller). Exy. 50 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

390. Melittia newara, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 10; C. S. no. 201. 

(S . Differs from indica in the thorax being bright golden 
yellow, the vertex slightly black. Pore wing with the apical 



204 



SESIID^. 



hyaline space larger, leaving a narrow marginal band. Hind wing 
with no blue on inner margin. Hind legs with a few red hairs 

rr rJ?]""^ ^"^^ Abdomen yellow below. 

Bab. Sikhim. Ecvj). 35 millim. 



391. Melittia kuluana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 392 : Butl. III. Het. 
vu, p. 98, pi. cxxxv, fig. 12 ; C. 8f S. no. 199 a. 

cJ . Differs from indica in the head, collar, thorax, and first two 
segments of abdomen being olive-brown; pectus and abdomen 
below yellowish white. Hind legs with a few fulvous hairs on the 
tibia and tarsus externally, as well as the yellow ones. Fore wing 
with the hyaline streaks between the nervules longer and leaving 
a small apical patch. Hind wing with no blue on inner margin. 

Ifab. Kulu. Kvj). 30 millim. 



392. Melittia notabilis, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 168, pi. vi, 
fig- 1. 

5 . Head, thorax, and first three segments of abdomen fulvous 
above, the other segments black with narrow yellow segmental 
bands; abdomen yellow below; pectus yellow and white. Hind 
legs black, with some tufts of yellow hair on the outside of the 
tibia and first joint of tarsus ; wings fulvous at base and inner 
margin ; fore wing irrorated with brown scales ; the hyaline 
streaks of the same extent as in eurytion ; cilia of both wings 
brown. 

Hab. Eangoon. Bw^. 40 millim. 



393. Melittia gigantea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 413 ; Waterhouse, Aid, 
ii, pi. 131, fig. 4 ; C. ^ S. no. 198. 

Differs from notabilis in the fore wing having the hyaline streaks 
between the nervules rather longer ; the apical area powdered with 
grey scales : the costa ochreous ; the recurrent black streak in the 
cell short. Hind legs with the tufts of hair externally fulvous, 
internally yellow on the tibia, black on the tarsus. 

Hab. Mussooree. Exp. 44 millim. 



394. Melittia chalciformis, Fabr. Ent. Srjst. iii,pt. 1, p. 382. 

Melittia bombyliformis, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv, p. 241, pi. 400 c ; 
a 8f S. no. 196. 

Melittia phorcus, Westio. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 62 ; C. ^ 8. no. 202. 

Head brown ; thorax fulvous with the vertex hvown ; the first 
two segments of abdomen fulvous ; the other segments black with 
narrow yellow segmental bands ; yellowish white below ; palpi and 
pectus yellow and white. Hind legs black ; the tibijc and tarsi 
tufted externally with yellow and fulvous hairs. Wings slightly 



MELITTIA. — LBNYEA. 



205 



fulvous at base ; fore wings irrorated with brown and grey scales ; 
the hyaline streaks as in eurytion ; cilia of both wings brown. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Central India ; Bombay ; Granjam ; Moulniein ; 
Sylliet; Tenasserim ; Java. Ex;p., S 32, 5 34-36 millim. 

395. Jlelittia nepcha, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 10; a 8)- S. no. 200. 

Melittia dorsatiformis, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 43, pi. cxxxix, fig. 21. 
Melittia congruens, Sioinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 169, pT. vi, 
fig. 4. 

Differs from clialciformis in having the collar blue-black ; mid 
tibia with blue bands ; hind legs with white hairs replacing the 
yellow ones, with a few blue scales at joint of femur and tibia. 
Fore wing with the hyahne streaks in and below the cell broader ; 
the apical hyaline area typically large and having a narroM^ black 
margin ; in the Pegu and Perak specimens it only just embraces 
the fork of the subcostals, whilst in the Eangoon specimen, 
congruens, it does not include the fork at all. 

Hah. Sikhim; Nilgiris ; Eangoon; Pegu; Tenasserim: Perak. 
Ea^p. 28-32 millim. 



Genus LENYRA. 
Lenyra, Walk. Cat. viii, p. 71 (1856). 

Type, L. astaroth, Westw. 
Range. Sikhim; Assam; Sylhet. 

c? . Head comparatively small, palpi slight and porrect ; antennae 
simple, thickened distally into a pronounced club. Thorax and 
abdomen covered with small closely appressed scales. Fore and 
mid pairs of legs without long hairs. Hind legs clothed with 
thick tufts of hair of irregular length. Pore wing with the apex 
much rounded ; vein 2 given off some way before the end of the 
cell ; 9 stalked with 7 and 8. 

396. ^^^y^^^stajoth, rVestw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 14, pi. vi, fig. 5; 
d. Entirely black, shot with brilliant metallic iridescent 




Fig. 132.— astaroth, $ . \. 
colours. Hind leg in Sikhim specimens clothed entirely with 



206 



TlNiEGEElIDiE. 



deep blue-black hairs, some of them ou the outside of tibia being 
tipped with white ; whilst iu the Sylbet specimen the hair ou the 
inside of the tibia is fuscous black. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Assam ; Sylhet. Exp. 46^51 millim. 



The following species formerly recorded as Indian are omitted. 

Thyris asiliformis, Pabr., C. & S. no. 205, is probably a W. 

Indian Zyycenid. 
Sura chalybea, Butl., C. & S. no. 209, is from Singapore. 



Family TIN/EGERIID^ *. 

Small day-flying moths, mostly with brilliant colours ; the an- 
tennae thickly fringed with long scales along the whole or part of 
their length ; palpi long, slender, and sickle-shaped. Wings long, 
nai'row, and pointed ; fore wing with vein 1 b slightly forked or 
simple at the base, veins 7 and 8 stalked ; hind wing more or less 
hyaline, three internal veins, vein 8 free from the root. Legs often 
clothed with long scales above or on the spurs, which are long. 

Larvce (of known species) feeding in webs. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Antennte fringed along whole upperside ; 

fore wing with vein 2 from end of cell. ... 1. Snellenia, p. 206. 

b. Antennae only fringed on median joints ; fore 

wing with vein 2 from before end of cell. 
a'. Fore wing with vein 6 present; hind tibiae [p. 207. 

with the spurs tufted 2. OEdematopoda, 

b'. Fore wing with vein 6 absent ; hind tibiae 

with the spiu-s not tufted 3. Ehetmoceea, p. 208. 



Genus SNELLENIA. 
Snellenia, Wlsm. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1889, p. 13. 

Type, S. coccinea, Wlsm. 

Eange. Japan ; Sikhim ; Australia. 

Antennje thickly fringed on the upperside. Palpi erect and 
slender. Pore wings "with vein 1 h forked at the base, 7 and 8 
stalked. Hing wing with vein 1 a short, 1 h furcate at base, 3 and 
4 stalked ; the end of cell square. Legs shghtly tufted at base of 
spurs. 

* This family is shown by Lord Walsinghara, in his Monograph, Trans. Ent. 
Soc. 1889, to be allied to Tint Ma in the Sesiidce on the one band, and on the 
other to the subfauiiliea of Tineida, the Gelechiina, Dasycerina, and Butalma. 



SNBLLENIA. — OiDEMATOPODA. 207 

397. Snellenia coccinea, Wlsm. Trans. Ent. Sue. 1889, p. 15, pi. ii. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen black. Fore wing scarlet, with 
small black spots at the base of costa and inner margin ; a bluish- 




Fig. 133. — Snellenia coccinea, . f . 
(From Walsingham, Trans. Ent. Soo. 1889, pi. ii.) 



black metallic spot at end of cell. Hind wing black ; the costal 
area to beyond the middle rosy pink. Cilia of both wings black. 
Underside with the outer area of both wings suffused with 
fuscous. 

Bah. Sikhim, 5000 feet. Exj>. 15 millim. 



398. Snellenia tarsella, Wlsm. Trans. Ent. Soo. 1889, p. 15, pi. vi, fig. 3. 

2 . Differs from coccinea in the thorax being scarlet, the 
fore wmg scarlet with the veins marked w-ith black lines; the 
inner area blackish. Hind wing rather paler than the fore wing, 
the outer area broadly blackish. Tarsi white-ringed. 

Uab. Sikhim. Exp. 28 millim. 



Genus (EDEMATOPODA. 

CEdematopoda, Zell. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1852, p. 96 (1854). 
Atkinsonia, Stccinton, Trans. Ent. Soe. v, p. 126 (1859). 

Type, (E. princeps, 7i., from Natal. 
Range. Japan; India; Natal. 

Antennae with the median segments fringed wdth scales • palpi 
very long and slender. Wings pointed ; fore wing with 'vein 1 
forked at the base, 2 given off before the end of cell ; hind wing 
with vein 1 a short, the lower angle of cell rounded. Legs, espe- 
cially the hmd legs, with the spurs tufted. 



399. CEdematopoda clerodendronella, staint. Trans. Ent. Soc v 
no 4940 ^^"** "^^^^^ ^ ' 

Head and frons purple ; palpi with the second joint orange the 
third purple. Antenna) purple-black. Eore wing brilliant coppery 
red. Hind wmg reddish orange ; the cilia of both wings greyish 



208 



TIN^GEEIID^. 



Thorax coppery red ; abdomen blue-black, witli a narrow white 
medial band. Legs black with white spots. 




'Fig. \54. — (Edematopoda ckrodendronella, |. 
(From Walsingham, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1889, pis. iv. & vi.) 

Larva dirty brown ; the head reddish brown ; the first somite 
black. Feeds on Clerodendron, drawing together the tops with a 
web. 

Bab. Calcutta. Exjy. 13-14 millim. 



Genus ERETMOCERA. 

Evetmocera, Zell. Vet. Ak. Handl. 1852, p. 96(1854). 
Staintonia, 8tgr. Stettin, ent. Zeit. xx, p. 250 (1859). 
Exodomorpha, Wlk. Cat. xxix, p. 833 (1864). 
Castorura, Meijr. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ser. 2, i, p. 1047 (1887). 

Type, E. fuscipennis, Zell., from S. Africa. 
Range. Africa ; India ; Aiistralia. 

Antennse as in (Edematopoda ; the third joint of palpi not quite 
so long. The upper angle of cell of both wings produced ; fore 
mng with vein 1 h not forked, 6 absent ; hind wing with vein 1 h 
not forked. Legs without tufts of scales. 

400. Eretmocera impactella, Wlk. Cat. xxix, p. 637 ; Wlsm. Trans. 
Ent. Soc. 1889, p. 34, pi vi, fig. 18 j C. ^ S. no. 4939. 

Head and thorax cupreous ; collar, tegulae, metathorax, aud 
abdomen yellow, the latter with the second, third, and terminal 




Fig. 135. — Eretmocera impactella, $ . \. 
(From Walsingham, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1889, pis. t. & yi.) 

segments cupreous. Tore wing cupreous, with four yellow spots. 
Hind wing paler. 

Hah. N.E< India. Exp. 15 millim. 



SYNXOMID^. 



209 



Family SYNTOMID.^:. 

Small or medium-sized moths of semi-diurnal habit ; the palpi 
small and porrect. Antennae simple, ciliated, or pectinated, with 




Fig. 136. — Larva of Euchromia polymeria. \, 
(From Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 94, fig. 6 a.) 

short dilated branches ; spurs on tibia) always short or wantiuo- 
Fore wing with vein 1 h forked at the base, 1 c absent. Hind winc^ 
with vein 8 obsolete, its position indicated by a slight fold. ^ 
Larva : short and cylindrical, with thick, close, or sparse' tufts of 
hair. 

Cocoon silken and closely woven. 



Kei/ to the Genera. 

a. Hind wing with vein 6 wanting ; vein 2 present. 
a'. Hind wing with vein 5 absent. 
d\ Abdomen with the distal segments not 
dilated and hairy ; fore wing with vein 
7 present. 

a\ Fore wing with vein 3 from before end 

of cell; 4 and 5 not stalked. oga 

t S""? ^'-""^ ""^"^ ^ • • 1- SyNTOMOIDES," ' 

0*. Hmd wing with vein 3 present. 

i' 5- °J ^Si^ ^^"^ P*^^^ «P"^s. 2. Syntomis, p. 212 
b\ Hind tibia with one pair of spm-s ; ; 

fore wing broader and more 

h\ Forew?ngSiiVe\n3from'endoVcd^ 3. OALLixoKis,p.224. 

4 and 5 stalked ' a Twt^tt^^. oo- 

b\ Abdomen with the distal segments dilated P" 22o. 

TT. fore wing with vein 7 absent. 5. Psichotoe t) 225 

b Plind wmg with vein 5 present 6 ^Actil^'^^R 

^. Hmd wmg with vein 6 preint, vein 2 absent . 7 E^chkom'x:^^^^^^^^ 



Genus SYNTOMOIDES, nov. 
Type, S. imaon. Cram. 

SumS; ^"^l Burma to Malacca and 

VOL. J. 



210 



SYNTOMID^. 



Mid tibi£B with one pair oE minute spurs, hind tibi?D with two 
pairs. Fore winpj with vein 3 from before end of cell, 4 and 5 
from the end. Hind wing with vein 3 absent. 

Sect. I. Antenna) almost simple in both sexes. 
A. Abdomen with two hands. 

401. Syntomoides imaon, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii, p. 94, pi. 248 e ; C. -S. 

no. 245. 

Syntomia approximata, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 79. 
Syntomis fusiformis, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1595. 

Syntomis sargania, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1879, p. 4 ; C. Sf S. no. 259. 
Syntomis cupreipennis, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xu, p. 347 ; 

e. c^- -S. no. 229. 
Syntomis mota, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 134. 

Frons and collar yellow ; metathorax with a yellow streak ; ab- 
domen Mdth the first yellow band sometimes obsolescent. Fore wmg 

with the hyaline patches large, 
one fining the cell, another nearly 
the whole intei*no-median inter- 
space, one at junction of veins 2 
and 3, two subapical and two 
submarginal ; in some specimens 
there is a long streak between 
Fie. 1^1.— SyntoTiwides imaon, S- \- veins 5 and 6, which is the form 

named S. sargania, in others it is 
reduced to a spot, and in others entirely wanting. Hind wing 
with a subbasal hvahne patch extending hardly, or not at all, 
beyond the cell. Tips of antennae and proximal joints ot tarsi white. 
The spots of the fore wing vary considerably m size. _ 

Hah Sikhim ; Khdsi Hills ; and throughout the plains of India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Sumatra. Exp. 34 millim. 

402. Syntomoides godartii, Boisd. Mon. Zyg. p. 115, pi. 7, fig. 3; 

' SvLlfs fytehS'i^-'-^. P. Z. S._ 1871, p. 246 ; a ^ 6. no 239^^ 
Syntomis artina, Butl. Joimi. Linn. Soc, Zool. xu, p. 34/ , C. ^ S. 
no. 221. 

Similar to imaon, except that the frons is yellowish or dirty 
whi e Fore wing ^dth the spot between veins 5 and 6 never 
wnite X « hyaline, with narrow black margins. 




403. Syntomoides hydatina, Butl. Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii,p. 346; 
C. ^ S. no. 244. 

$ . Differs from imaon in the markings of the fore wing being 



SYNTOMOIBES. 



211 



reduced to two widely-separated spots in the interno-median inter- 
space, a small subapicai and two small submarginal spots. 

The last two may possibly be varieties of imnon. 

Hah, Calcutta ; Central India. Eccj), 24 millim. 



B. Abdomen with Jive yellow hands. 

404. Syntomoides hyalina, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 13; C. 8f S. no. 243. 

$ . Frons white ; antennae black with white tips ; collar and 
thorax black ; abdomen with the distal segments steel-blue. Fore 
^\•lng hyaline, with the veins black ; the margins narrowly black 
widest at apex and centre of inner margin. Hind uing hyaline' 
with costa and outer margin broadly black, the latter dentate near 
vein 2 ; inner margin orange. Tarsi black. 
Bah. Sikhim ; Naga Hills. JExj>. 40 millim. 

405. S^tomoides Y0la.lis, Sivinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 173, pi. vi, 

? . Differs from h^Jalina in the frons being grey-brown and the 
tips of antennffi not white. ^ "xownanatne 

ITah. Karen Hills. Kvp. 30 millim. 

Sect. II. Antennse bipectinated in male, the branches short 
and dilated distally, serrated in female. 

A. Ahdomen with two yelloiu hands in male, one in female. 

406. Syntomoides incipiens, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 68 -,0.^8. no. 266. 

"^'l?' ?® tegulffi yellow. Fore Winer 

with a subbasal, two medial, one subapicai, and two submLS 

^^^"^ ^ toasubm^rS 
with the end of abdomen dilated and with a tuft of ochreous 
Bah. S. India and Kanthalla, Ceylon. Kxy. 17 millim. 

B. Abdomen toith one hasal yellow hand in both sexes. 
407. Syntomoides brachypecten, mnpsn. III. Met. ix, ined., pi. 157, 

d . Differs from incipiens in having the collar and tegulje black 
Ifab. Anuradhapura, Ceylon. Kvp. 14 millim. 

p2 



212 STNTOMID^. 

C . Each segment of abdomen fringed with yellow. 
408. Syntomoides microcMlus, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen brown ; collar, tegulse, and meta- 
thorax yellow; each segment of abdomen fringed with yellow. 
3^rons yellow; legs brown; antennae white at tips. Fore wing 
hyaline ; a narrow, discocellular, brown band ; margms narrowly 
brown ; the outer marginal band widest from apex to vein 5 and 
betM^een veins 2 and 3. Hind wing hyaline, with narrow brown 



margins. „ -n- m 

Hah. Tenasserim Valley {Doherty). Exp. 20 millim. Type m 

coll. Druce. 

Genus SYNTOMIS. 

Syntomis, OcM. Eur. Schmett. ii. p. 103 (18P8). 
Hydrusa, Wlk. Cat. i. p. 265 (1854). 
Eressa, Wlk. Cat. i. p. 149 (1854). 

Trianeura, Butl. Journ. Lmn. Soc, Zool. xu, p. 353 (^18/ b). 

Type, S. phegea, Cram., from Europe. -, » • -n 

lllnge. Europe ; the whole of Africa and Asia ; Borneo ; 

Sumatra ; Java ; Australia. . • o v^^nH wincr 

jymevs ivom Syntomoides m having vein 3 of the hmd wing 

iarm thickly covered with hair ; the cocoon hairy. 

Sect. I. Antenna almost simple in both sexes. 
A. With one yelloiv hand to ahdomen on sixth segment. 

409. Syntomis unifascia, n. sp. 

o Erons white. Black shot with blue. Wings with the spots 
small Eore wing with one subbasal, two medial one subapical 
and two siWginal hyaline spots. Hind wing with one subapical 

Exp. 34 millim. Type in B. M. 

B. Ahdomen with two yellow hands. 

1. Thefrons yellow. 

410 Syntomis atkinsoni, Moore, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 246, pi. 18, fig. 2; 
C^-S. no. 223. 

r iiov W«Pk • a yellow patch on metathorax. Eore wing %yith 

hyalme spots. Hmd ™g „d first tarsal jotats white. 

-T^han'T" B„ro,» ; Te..s,erta. K.,. 30 

millim. 



SYNTOMIS, 



213 



411. Syntomis bicincta, Koll HiigeVs Kaschmir, iv, p. 460, pi. 19, 
fig. 8; a 8f S. no. 

Collar black. Eore wing as in atJdnsoni, except in having 
but one subapical spot. Hind wing with a subapical spot as well 
as subbasal. The spots of both wings are somewhat variable in 
size. 

Hab. Kulu ; Kangra ; Sikhim ; Khasi Hills. Exj^., (S 30, $ 
40 millim. 



412. Syntomis cyssea, Cra7n. Pan. Exot. iv, p. 124, pi. 355 b : C.& S. 
no. 230. 

Syntomis schoenerrhi, Boisd. Mon. Zyg. p. 112, pi. 7, fig. 1. 

CoUar yellow. The spots of both wings 
usually smaller than in bicincta, and 
often yellowish and vsdth an extra spot 
between the two medial ones of fore 
wing. In some specimens there is a 
small patch of white cilia near the apex 
of fore wing. 

Hah. Himalayas, from Kangra to Sikhim ; Continental India 
and CeyJon. Exp. $ 32 millim. 




Fig. ]38. 

Syntomis cyssea, <^ . 



413. Syntomis minor, Warren, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 294 ; C.^S. no. 252 a. 

(S . Wings with the hyaline spots very small. Fore wing with 
one subbasal, two medial, one subapical, and two submarginal 
spots. Hind wing with subbasal and subapical spots. 
Ilab. Punjab. Exp. 20 milhm. 

414. Syntomis insneta, Swinh. Cat. Ret. Mus. Oxon. p. 41. 

$ . Wings shot with copper. Fore wing with only two hyaline 
spots, one m the cell, one in interno-median interspace. Hind 
wing with a subbasal spot. 

Hah. Barrackpore. Exp. 32 millim. 

2. Thefrons black. 

415. Syntomis georgina, Butl. Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 345 ; 

C. Of S. no. 240. > r i 

Syntomis cysseoides, Butl. Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p 346 • 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 35, pi. 95, fig. 1 ; C. 8^ S. no. 231. 

Similar to cyssea except for the black frons. The spots vary 
considerably m size. 

oo^'^' Himalayas; Continental India and Ceylon. Exp. 

Z2-d2 milhm. *^ ^ 



214 



8YNT0MIDJE. 



416. Syntomis albapex, mnpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 157,% 1. 

<3 . Pore wing with only two hyaline spots, one in interno- 
median interspace, one between veins 3 and 4 ; cilia conspicuously 
white below the apex. Hind wing with the two hyaline spots • 
small. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp. 34 millim. 

417. Syntomis gelatina, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 43, pi. 139, fig. 1. 

2 . Pore wing with a hyaline patch filling the cell, another the 
interno-median interspace ; two large subapical, and three sub- 
marginal spots. Hind wing hyaline, with black margins ; a black 
streak running up vein 2. 

This species has the greater part of the wings yellowish hyaline, 
the veins black. 

Hab. Nilgiris, 6000 feet. Exp. 26 millim. 



C. Abdomen with two yellow hands and lateral spots on the inter' 

mediate segments. 

418. Syntomis extensa, Wlk. Cat. XXXV, p. 1863 J C. ^~ S. no. 237 ; 

Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, pi. 143, fig. 14. 

Frons and collar brown. Wings brown ; the fore wing much 
elongated with an oblique series of hyaline spots, one subbasal 
below median nervure, one filling the end of cell, sometimes with 
a small one below it, and two beyond the cell (in the Bombay 
specimen only one). Hind wing with a subbasal spot. Antennae 
tipped with white ; tarsi not white. 

Eab. Nilgiris, 6000-7000 feet; Bombay; Matheran ; Maha- 
bleshwar. Exp. 42-50 millim. 

419. Syntomis Incina, Bufl. Joum. Linn. Soc., Zool. xii, p. 345; 

C. 8f S. no. 260. 

Frons yellow. Antennse tipped with white ; first joint of tarsi 
white. Only differs from bicincta in the yellow lateral spots to 
abdomen ; in the Sikhim specimen the lateral pair of spots is 
expanded into a complete band on the segment next the second 
abdominal band. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Nepal. Exp. 34 millim. 

420. Syntomis khasiana, Butl. Joum. Linn. Sec, Zool. xii, p. 345 ; 

a ^ S. no. 246, 

Differs from lucina in the tegul» being yellow ; the end of 
the abdomen bluish ; the hyaline spots of wings not yellowish. 
Hab. Khdsi Hills. Exp., 6 30, $ 36 milhm. 



SYNTOMIS. 



215 



D. Abdomen with four yelloiv hands ; the second and last three 
segments being without hands. 

The frons yelloiu. 

421. Syntomis flavifrons, n. sp. 

S . Collar and tegulse yellow. Wings marked as in hicincta, 
but for the lower medial spot of the fore wing being larger and 
squarer. Tips of antennae and first joint of . tarsi white. 

Bah. Momeit, Burma, 2000 feet, June (Dohertg). Exp. 34 
millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

422. Syntomis quadrifascia, n. sp. 

$ . Collar and thorax black. Fore wing with the hyaline spots 
very large— one filling the whole cell, another almost the whole 
interno-median interspace; one long subapical streak, and two 
submarginal ones. Hind wing hyaline, with the veins and margins 
black ; a black streak running up vein 2. Tarsi black. 

Eal. Bernardmyo, Burma, 6000 feet, May (Doherty). Exp. 38 
millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



E. Abdomen toith six yelloiv bands ; the last tiuo segments ivithoui 

bands. 

1. The frons ivhite. 

423. Syntomis divisa, Wlk. Cat. i, p. 131 ; C. c^- S. no. 236 ; Butl. 

III. Het. i, p. 16, pi. 6, fiff. 14. 
Syntomis disrupta, Moore~ R Z. S. 1878, p. 84o, pi. 53, fio- 5; 

Frons and genae white ; tegulae yellow ; yellow lateral spots on 
meso- and metathorax. Fore wing with the hyaline patch in the 
interno-raedian interspace broken up into two, sometimes three, 
spots ; one or two subapical and three marginal spots. Hind winc^ 
with a large subbasal patch and a subapical one traversed by vein 3^ 
this patch being sometimes small, sometimes large, and joined to 
the subbasal patch. Proximal joints of tarsi white : abdomen 
steel-blue. 

The hyaline spots vary much in extent : in Sikhim specimens 
they are smallest, one having only one subapical spot to the fore 
wing ; in examples from Sylhet they are larger ; largest in Bur- 
mese specimens, this last being the form named S. disrupta, 
Moore. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Sylhet ; Burma. Exp. 36-40 millim. 

424. ^"^asoni, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 845, pi. 53, fig. 4 ; 
Differs from divisa in having the collar yellow ; the interno- 



216 



SYNTOMIDjE. 



median hyaline patch of fore wing entire ; the black border of 
hind wing not dentate at vein 2. 

Hah. Upper Tenasseriin. Exp. 50 millim. 

425. Syntomis diaphana, Kott. HilgeTs Kaschnir, iv, p. 460, pi. 19, 

Syntomis oenone. Bull. Journ, Linn. Soc., Zool. xii, p. 344 j C. 8f S. 
no. 256. 

Collar, tegula), and metathorax yellow, Fore wing with the 
interno-mediau hyaline patch unbroken ; two subapical streaks, 
one between veins 5 and 6 ; and three submarginal streaks. Hind 
wing with a large hyaline patch crossed by veins 1, 2, and 3 ; the 
margins black. 

Hah. Almorab ; Mussooree ; Kashmir; Sibsagar; Burma. Exp. 
48 millim. 

426. Syntomis melaena, Wlk. Cat. i, p. 133; C. S)- S. no. 252; 

Butl. III. Het. i, p. 17, pi. 6, fig. 10. 

Two yellow streaks on vertex of thorax ; the first four abdo- 
minal bands white ; otherwise similar to diaphana. 

Hah. ? Simla ; Nepal ; Sikhim ; Khasis ; Assam ; Shillong ; 
Burma. Exp., S 50, 5 58 milHm. 

427. Syntomis albifrons, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 845, pi. 53, fig. 6 ; 

a ^ S. no. 218. 

2 . Teguise and streaks on vertex of thorax white ; bands on 
metathorax and abdomen yellow ; the first four abdominal bands 
narrow. "Wings shot with purple. Fore wing with the hyaline 
patch in interno-median interspace not extending to near outer 
margin ; only a small spot between veins 2 and 3, and the sub- 
ajDical and submarginal spots smaller than in diaphana and mel(eiui. 

Hab. Momeit, Burma; Tenasserim. Exp. 60 milhm. 



2. The frons yellow. 

428. Syntomis discinota, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 13 ; C. 8,- S. no. 234. 

S . irons pale yellow ; collar, teguise, meso- and metathorax 
spotted with yellow ; abdomen with the bands incomplete on the 
vertex ; the black parts shot with green ; wings yellowish hyalme ; 
the veins and margins narrowly black ; the outer black margin 
dentated at vein 2 of both wings. First joint of tarsi white. 

In this species veins 5 and 6 of the fore wing are very close 
together, as also in sladeni, divisa, and others ; but as, m closely 
allied species, there is every gradation between the extremes of 
separation and approximation, this point is of no use in classihca- 



SYNTUMIS, 



217 



tion ; and in the same way the closeness with which vein 4 of the 
hind wing approaches the costa differs in allied forms. 
Hah. Khasi Hills ; Tenasserim. Exjp. 40 millim. 

429. Syntomis fervida, Wlk. Cat i, p. 131 ; C. 8f S. no. 238 ; Butl. 

III. Met. i, p. 18, pi. 6, fig. 16. 

2 . Trons orange ; the yellow markings on thorax and abdomen 
larger and brighter, the latter being nearly complete on the 
vertex. Wings with the base and inner margin orange ; the 
hyaline parts darker yellow than in discinota ; veins 5 and 6 of 
fore wing not so close together, and in some specimens with a 
black mark between them at their bases. First joint of tarsi 
white. 

Mab. Eastern Pegu ; Moulmein. Exp. 36-44 millim. 

430. Syntomis newara, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 12 ; C.Sf S. no. 254. 

2 . Bands of abdomen quite complete on vertex. Wings as 
in fervida, but not marked with orange at the base and inner 
margin. Fore wing with veins 5 and 6 far apart ; a black band on 
the discocellulars ; the black margin uneven, and running inwards 
at veins 2 and 3, and 5 and 6. Hind wing with the black margin 
very narrow. Legs almost entirely yellow ; tarsi not white. 
Hab. Bhutan; Sikhim. -Ea-p. 44 milUm. 



P. Abdomen ivith a yellow band on each segment. 
1. The tip of abdomen yellow. 
a. Frons brown. 

*431. Syntomis lepcha, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 12; C.8f S. no. 248. 

Collar and four thoracic stripes yellow; abdominal bands 
narrow; tip reddish. Wings yellowish hyaline; veins and cilia 
black. Fore wing with an elongated black hexagonal streak at 
the end of cell and short apical marginal band dilated and ending 
at vein 6. Hmd wing with marginal black band decreasing from 
apex. Tarsi not white. 

Hah. Sikhim. E.xp. 25 millim. 



b. The frons yelloiu. 

432. Syntomis sladeni, Mom-e, P.Z.S. 1871, p. 245, pi. 18, fig. 5; 
C. Of S. no. 261. ' b ■) 

Collar, tegulae, meso- and metathorax yellow. Wings as in 
axscmota. Tarsi white. 

Hab. Yunnan ; Bernardmyo, Burma ; E. Pegu. Exp. 36 miUim. 



218 



SYNTOMID^, 



433, Syntomis grotei, Moore, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 245, pi, 18, ng. 4; 

a ^ S. no. 242. 

(S . Similar to sladeni, but fore wing with a black band across 
the interno-median hyaline space ; the spot between veins 2 and 3 
not approaching the outer margin, and no streak between veins 
5 and 6. 

Uab. Yunnan ; Upper Tenasserim. Exjp. 36 uiillira, 

434, Syntomis vitrea, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1594; C. 4' S. no. 270. 
Syntomis austeni, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 389; C. Sf S. no. 224. 

$ . Differs from sladeni in veins 2 and 3 of fore wing arising 
and running close together for their whole length, and the inter- 
space between 5 and 6 being wholly filled in by black ; the hyaline 
parts of both wings yellowish. 

S. davidi, Pou]., from Tibet, only differs from this species in 
veins 2 and 3 of fore wing not arising close together. 

Hah. N.E. Bengal ; Sylhet. Kv^p. 40 millim. 

435, Syntomis submarginalis, Wlk. Char, undescr. Bet. p. 89 ; 

C. ^ S. no. 262. 

Similar to grotei, except that the fore wing has yellow streaks 
along the costa and inner margin, and both wings have yellow 
marks beyond the submarginal hyaline spots ; these yellow marks 
are much more extensive in Sikhim specimens than in the Burmese 
one. 

Hah. Sikhim, 4000 feet ; Bernardmyo, Burma, 6000 feet, E.xy. 
36 millim. 

436, Syntomis tigrina, Wlk. Cat. xxxi. p. 71, 

. Fore wing elongated. Hind wing with the inner margin 
expanded into a large lobe. Wings entirely yellow, with the cilia 
of both wings and veins of fore wing black. Marks on head, 
thorax, and abdomen as in preceding species. 
Hab. Burma ; Cambodia. Ea:p. 36 millim. 

437, Syntomis chlorocera, n. sp. 

c?. Antennae wholly yellow and thickly scaled above, Fore 
wing with no subbasal 'spot, two large medial spots, one small sub- 
apical and a double submarginal spot. Hind ^^^ng with the sub- 
basal joined to the subapical spot and tinged with yeUow, Tibiae 
and tarsi banded with yellow. 

Hab. Naga Hills. Eivp. 20 miUim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

2, Abdomen with the tip black. 
a. Thefrons yellotv. 

438, Syntomis luteifascia, n. sp. 

S , Collar orange ; orange spots on meso-, meta-, and vertex of 



SYNTOMIS. 



219 



thorax ; abdomen with broad orange bands. The hyaline spots of 
both wings large, one filling the cell, one subbasal in the interne- 
median interspace, two subapical and four sabmarginal ; the one 
between veins 5 and 6 minute and near the outer margin. Hind 
wing with some orange on inner margin ; the subbasal and sub- 
apical hyaline spots connected togther. 

Hah. Naga Hills. Exp. 32-36 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

439. Syntomis berinda, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 845, pi. 63, fio. 8 • 

a c5- S. no. 225. JO, 

d . Collar, tegulse, and metathorax spotted with orange ; abdo- 
men with narrow orange bands. Pore wing with fiv^e hyaline spots 
— one subbasal, two medial, one subapical, and a double submarginal 
one. Hind mng with a large hyaline yellow-tinged spot occupy- 
ing the greater part of the wing, 

Hab. Upper Tenasserim. Exp. 30 millim. 

440. Syntomis huebneri, Boisd. Mon. Zyg. p. 127, pi 8 fi<' 4 • 

C. 8rS. no. 296. ^ ' ^ ' ' 

Syntomis marsdeni, Moore, Zep. E. I. Co. ii, p. 323, 
Syntomis xanthomela, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. iii, p, 184, 
Syntomis contermina, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p, 78. 

Collar, tegulffi, and metathorax orange ; abdominal orange bands 
broad, Pore wing with one subbasal, two medial, one or two sub- 
apical, and two submarginal hyaline spots. Hind wing with a 
large basal hyaline patch tinged with yellow towards inner marc^in 
and two minute subapical spots, ^ ' 

Hab. Bombay ; Singapore ; Java ; C. York. Ev^. 22 millim. 

441. Syntomis wimberleyi, Sioinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 400, pi. 43, fig. i. 

$. Collar, teguljB, and metathorax yeUow; abdominal yellow 
bands rather narrow. Wings marked as in berinda, but "yellow 
not hyalme. 

ffab. Andamans. Exp. 28 millim. 

b. The from darTc. 

442. Syntomis passalis, Fabr. Sp. Ins. ii, p. 159 iC^S. no. 257 
XTkr;%^T^^^^ P- 248.; Boisd. 
^S^Ts ^""^l-J^^rn. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 349 ; C ^ S. 

Some traces of orange-red on vertex of thorax ; bands of abdo- 
men orange-red and rather narrow. Wings black, shot with 

^^rt^' i^^'l ^r^ '"'^^ orange-red at base and along inner 
margin ; the hyalme spots small, one subbasal, two medial, one 

iii'ats'po? '"^-^'^^"^^^gi-l- Hind wing with one smal sub- 



220 



SYNXOMID^. 



The form montana has all the spots rather larger, the two in 
the interDO-meclian intei'space oE the fore wing being almost joined. 

Hab. Assam and throughout Continental India and Ceylon. 
Kvp. 40 milhm. 

443. Syntomis formosae, Butl. Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 346. 
Syntomis emma, Butl. Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 350. 

Collar yellow ; thorax black ; abdominal yellow rings narrow. 
Fore wing with one subbasal, two medial, one or two subapical, 
and a double submarginal rather small hyaline spot. Hind wing 
with the large subbasal joined to the subapical spot. 

Hah. China; Eormosa ; Margarita, Assam ; E. Pegu, 2000 feet. 
Eaji., 6 26, $ 28 milHm. 

444. Syntomis eressoides, n. sp. 

$ . Collar yellow ; thorax black ; abdomen with the yellow bands 
rather narrow. Fore wing hyaline, ^^dth a black discocellular band ; 
veins and margins black ; outer black margin broad from apex to 
vein 5, and dentate at vein 2. Hind wing hyaline, with the veins 
and margins black ; apex broadly black. 

Hah. Momeit, Burma. Exp. 28 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



0. TJie frons white. 

445. Syntomis cherra, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 12 ; C.8f S. no. 228. 

(5' . Brownish black, pro- and metathorax with an orange spot 
on each ; abdomen with an orange band on each segment. Fore 
wing with a long hyaline streak in the cell; another below it ; 
two subapical and two submarginal streaks. Hind wing hyaline, 
with the apex and outer margin dark. 

Hah. Khasi Hills. Exj). 36 millim. 



Sect. II. (Eydrusa). Antennae serrated in male, and 
simple in female. 

446. Syntomis mnltigntta, Wlk. Cat. i, p. 134 ; C. <§■ -S. no. 268; Butl. 
III. Bet. i, pi. 7, fig. 3. 

Head vertex of thorax, and spots on vertex and sides of abdo- 
men blue-black in male, black in female ; collar, tegula;, and 
abdomen scarlet. Wings yellow hyaline; the vems and margms 

'in'some specimens the black on apex of fore wing and outer 
margin of hind wing is broad, and every gradation to a narrow, 
even, marginal band to both wings is found. 

Hah. N?pal ; Sikhim ; Tibet; Burma. Exp., 6 2 , 25-26 miUim. 



SXNTOMIS. 



221 



447. Syntomis Wanchardi, Pouj. Bull. Soc Ent. Fr. 1884, p. cxxxvi, 

S . Differs from multiguUa in the thorax having paired pale 
streaks on each side of the vertex ; the ground-colour of abdomen 
pale, crimson towards the apex below. Wings with the hyaline 
parts not yellowish. Pore wing with the outer margin excurved 
from veins 2 to 5 ; a broad black band on the discocellulars ; the 
apical black band extending down to vein 4, and sending a tooth 
inwards along vein 5. Hind wing with the apical band rather 
narrow and extending only to vein 2. 

Hob. China ; Sikhira. Exp. 24 millim. 

448. Syntomis nigra, n. sp. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen black; collar and abdominal 
segments slightly fringed with yellow ; two sKght yellow streaks 
on metathorax. Fore wing hyaline ; the veins and margins nar- 
rowly black ; a broad black band on discocellulars ; the interspace 
between veins 5 and 6 black ; a black marginal patch from the 
apex to vein 4. Hind wing hyahne; the veins and margins 
narrowly black : a large black apical patch. 

Hah. Simla {Harford). Exp. 25 millim. Type in B. M. 

449. Syntomis serrata, n. sp. 

Antennse with distal part white above ; frons, tegulse, and 
metathorax yellow ; abdomen greenish black, with yellow bands on 
the first six segments. "Wings hyaline, with the veins and 
margins black. Yeins 3 and 4 of hind wing arise from a point at 
lower angle of cell. 

This species bears a great resemblance to divisa, the hyaline 
patch in the interno-median interspace is unbroken, and a black 
streak between veins 5 and 6 present. 

Hab. Khasi Hills (Elwes). Exp. 38 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



Sect. III. (Eressa). Antennae bipectinate in male, the branches 
short and dilated distally ; serrate in female. 

A. The bands on abdomen t/ellow. 

450. Syntomis aperiens, Wlk. Cat xxxi, p. 68 ; a ^ -S-. no. 220. 

Syntomis lydia, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 134, pi. viii, fig. 7 
Tnaneura moorei, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 354 : C. &■ S 
no. 271. > ^ 

Black ; abdomen with a basal yellow band ; female with an 
ochreous anal tuft. Fore wing with the hyaline patches large ; a 
spot in ceU ; an elongate patch in interno-median interspace ; one 
between vems 2 and 3 ; two subapical ; two submarginal. Hind 
wing with a hyaline patch below and beyond the cell crossed bv 
veins 2 and 3. ^ 



222 



SYNTOMIDiE. 



In the form lydia the spots of the fore wing are all run together, 
and the hiud wing is wholly hyaline except for narrow black 
margins. 

Hah. NUgiris, 3000 to 7000 feet. Exp., s 24, $ 28 milUm. 

451. Syntomis ochreipuncta, n. sp. 

c? • Bark brown ; head and tegulse yellow ; abdomen with two 
yellow bands and lateral yellow spots on the intermediate seg- 
ments. Fore wing with one subbasal, two medial, one small 
subapical, and t\vo small submarginal ochreous spots. Hind wing 
with a large ochreous patch on the disk. Pirst joint of tarsi 
yellow. 

Hah. Ganjam. Exp. 18 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

452. Syntomis baiaea, Sivinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 473, pi. 19, fig. 10, 
Syntomis actea, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 474, pi. 19, fig, 7. 

S . Frons, collar, tegulse, a spot on A^ertex of thorax and 
metathorax yellow ; abdomen with seven yellow bands, the last 
segment blue-black ; antennte white at tips. Fore wing hyahne ; 
the veins, margins, a broad discocellular band running inwards 
between veins 5 and 6, black ; the black margin expanded between 
veins 2 and 3 and a black streak along vein 3. Hind wing 
hyaline, yellow on inner margin ; veins narrowly black, costa and 
outer margin broadly so. 

5 with a large yellow patch on last segment of abdomen. 

In the form actea nearly the whole interspace between veins 5 
and 6 of the fore wing is black, the distance between these veins 
being variable. 

Bah. Khasi Hills. Exp., 6 34, $ 40 millim. 

453. S3mtomis era, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 473, pi. 19, fig. 15. 

2 . Differs from haicea in having two yellow streaks on vertex 
of thorax ; no yellow patch on last segment of abdomen ; the mar- 
gins narrowly black, the outer margin rather broadly and irregu- 
larly so ; the veins yellow, some yellow within the black margins ; a 
black lunule on discocellulars. Hind wing with the veins and 
margins yellow ; the outer margin black, decreasing in width from 
apex to anal angle. 

Bah. Khasi Hills. Exp. 50 millim. 

454. Syntomis musa, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 290, pi. 20, fig. l;C.^' S. 

no. 274. ^ -J 

Eressa politula, Sivinh. Cat. Het. Mus. O.von., med. 

Dull black ; a large yellow spot on prothorax and streak on 
metathorax ; abdomen with yellow spots on vertex and sides ot 



STlfTOMIS. 



223 



each segment ; female v\'ith an ochreous anal tuft. Fore wing with 
a hyaline spot in cell ; one in interno-median interspace, and one in 
each marginal interspace. Hind wing with a hyaline patch on 
disk, divided into four by the veins. 

Hah. Kangra ; Naga Hills ; Bombay ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Burma. 
Exp., 26, $ 34 millim. 



455. Syntomis confinis, Wlk. Cat. i, p. 149 ; C. 8f 8. no. 273. 

S . Differs from musa in the tip of antennae being white ; in 
having no yellovA'- streak on the metathorax, and the hyaline patch 
in the interno-median interspace of fore wing extending to near 
outer margin. 

Hah. Almora ; Kulu. Exp. 24 millim. 

456. Syntomis suhaurata, Wlk. Cat. i, p. 149 ;C.8fS. no. 275 : Moore 

Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 36, pi. 95, fig. 4. ' 

Differs from musa in being smaller, and in the interno-median 
hyaline patch of fore wing extending to near base of wino-. 
Hah. Ceylon and ? Calcutta. Exp. 20 millim. ° 



457. Syntomis affinis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 596, pi. 69, fio-. 3 • 
C. ^ S. no. 272.' » o j 

d. Ground-colour darker than in preceding three species- 
the spot and streak on thorax bright orange ; spots of fore wino- 
smaller, and m hmd wing reduced to a small spot beyond the celf 
Hah Andamans : ?Travancore, Calcutta, and Khasi Hills. Exp 
si miliim. ^' 

*458. Syntomis aterea, Cram. Pap. Bxot. iv, p. 240, pi. 400 a; 

d". Abdomen with two yellow bands. Pore wing with minute 
subbasal and subapical, two small medial, and two small submar- 
ginal hyahne spots. Hind wing with a small subbasal spot 

ihis species may not be Indian. 

Hah. Coromandel coast. .Exp. ^ about 20 millim. 



B. Ahdomen with crimson bands. 
459. Syntomis erythrosoma, n. sp. 

c? . Head and thorax black ; collar and teffute nale crimson • 
abdomen greenish black, the basal and fifth segmentrbanded wUh 

wZTL^V ''T'''^^ ^^^'^^"^^ crimson balds 

Wings hyahne, the vems and margins narrowly black ; fore 



224 



STNTOMID^. 



with a black spot on discocellulars, and black marginal patcbea 
between veins 2 and 3, 5 and 6, and at apex. 

Hub. Matelei, Burma (Fea). Exp. 22 millim. Type in Mus. 
Geneva. 

460. Syntomis pectoralis, Wlk. Cat. i, p. 133 ; C.8f 8. do. 258. 

Black, with the frons, tegulae, and tip of antennae white ; first 
three segments of abdomen crimson. Pore wing with a milky 
hyaline patch filling the greater part of the subbasal and medial 
areas ; two subapical and two submarginal spots. Hind wing 
hyaline, with narrow black margins. 

Hah. Moulmein ; E. Pegu ; Cambodia. Exp. 26 millim. 

461. Syntomis thoracica, Moore, A.M.N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 343 ; id. 

Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 38, pi. 95, fig. 7 ; C. Sf S. no. 304. 

Differs from pectoralis in the pectinations of the male antennae 
being longer ; the frons and tegulae black, and only the first two 
segments of the abdomen being crimson. Hind mng with the 
veins black. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp., ^ 26, $ 28 millim. 



Genus CALLITOMIS. 

Callitomis, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 351 (1876). 

Type, C. syntomoides, Butl. 

Ea7ige. Kashmir ; Sikhim ; Naga Hills. 

Antennae with minute spines as well as cilia ; hind tibiae with a 
terminal pair of spurs only ; wings much broader than in 
Syntomis. 

462. Callitomis syntomoides, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 351 ; 
C. ^ S. no. 264. 




Fig. 139. — Callitojnis syntomoides, <J. f. 

(S . Greenish black; abdomen with two orange bands. Fore 
wing with an obsolescent subbasal, two medial, one subapical, and 
one double submarginal ochreous spot. Hind wing with subbasal 
and submarginal spots. 

Hah. Sind Valley, Kashmir ; Simla. Exp. 34 milhm. 



CALLITOMIS. — PSICHOTOfi. 



225 



463. Callitomis leucosoma, Butl Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 351 ; 

a ^- S. no. 263. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous ; antennae and 
legs greenish black. Wings dull and semitransparent brown, 
marked as in syntomoides, except that the subbasal spot of hind 
wing is larger and ochreous ; the spots of fore wing smaller and 
ochreous. 

Hah. Kashmir. Exp, 30 millim. 

464. Callitomis mnltifasciata, n. sp. 

S. Collar yellow; abdomen with a yellow band on each seg- 
ment. Wings as in leucosoma, but duller, with the spots larger. ° 
Hah. Sikhim ; Naga Hills. Eccp. 29 millim. Type in coll. Elwes, 



Genus TIIICH^TA. 

Trichseta, SwmJi. Cat. Eet. Mtts. Oxon. p. 52, ined. 

Type, T. teneiformis, Wlk. 
Range. N.W. Himalayas. 

S . Antennae ciliated ; tibiae without spurs. Fore wing with 
vein 3 from end of cell, 4 and 5 stalked. 

465. TrichaBta teneiformis, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1595 ; C.8f S. no. 269. 

c?. Black; collar, metathorax, and 
paired dorso-lateral spots on each seg- 
ment of abdomen yellow. Fore wing 
with a hyaline spot in the cell ; a long 
spot in interno-median interspace ; a 
single subapical and two submarginal 
spots. Hind wing with a hyaline patch 
below the cell crossed by veins 2 and 3. 
Hah. Simla. Exp. 21 millim. 




Fig. HO.—Trich(sta tenei- 
formis, cJ. j. 



Genus PSICHOTOE. 
Psichotoe, Botsd. Mon. Zyg. p. 129 (1829). 

Type, P. duvauceli, Boisd. 
Bange. Plains of JST. India. 
Antenna seirated in male Pore wing broad, the apex rounded • 
llT^^y" ^ ^^^'"^^^ ""''^ '^^ ^''^^ ««g«^«^ts dilated 



and hairy. 

TOL. T. 



226 STNTOMIDiE. 

466. Psichotoe duvauceli, Boisd. Mon. Zxjcj. p. 129, pi. 8, 6g. 5 ; C.SfS. 
no. 265. 




Fig. 141. — Fsichqtoe duvauceli, S- \- 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen black, the last with two orange 
bands. "Wings uniform fuscous hyaline. 

Hab. Karachi, Sind ; Calcutta. Exp. 18 millim. 

Genus NACLIA. 

Naclia, Boisd. Ind. Meth. p. 60 (1840). 

Dysauxes, Huhn. Verz. p. 171 (1818), gen. non descr. 

Type, iV. ancilla, Linn., from Europe. 
Range. Europe ; N.W. Himalayas. 

Palpi slight and porrect. Antennae simple. Mid tibia with one 
pair, hind tibia with two pairs of spurs. Venation as in Syntomis, 
except that vein 5 of the hind wing is present. 



467. Naclia punctata, Fabr. Sp. Ins. ii, p. 207. 

Naclia ancilla (var.), Fsp. Schmett. Eur. pi. 85, fig. 3. 

Head and thorax brown ; collar and abdomen yellow, each seg- 
ment of the latter with a black spot on vertex and ventral brown 

bands. Eore wing brown ; a white spot 
at centre of cell, with a crescent-shaped 
spot below it ; a postmedial spot below 
the costa, with a bifid spot below it on 
each side of vein 4. Hind wing yellow, 
with brown spots at base and end of 
cell ; a broad irregular marginal brown 
band. 

Hab. Europe; Kashmir, 8000 feet. 
Ex;p. 28 millim. 




Fig. 142. 
Naclia punctata, (S • 



Genus EUCHROMIA. 
Euchromia, Eubn. Verz. p. 121 (1818). 

Tvne E. svcrcUa, Cram., from Ashanti. 

llavae African, Indian, Malayan, and Australian regions. 

in fnnf bipec^inated in both sexes, more heavily m the male 
than the female. Palpi longer than in preceding genera. Mi^^^^^ 
hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. Hmd ^^"g ^^^tn 
ve^ 2 absent; veins 6 and 7 from the angle of cell or stalked. 



EUCHROAIIA. 



227 



Sect. I. Hiud wing with veins 3 and 4 stalked. 
468. Euchromia magna, Swinh. Trans. Eiit. 8jo. 1891, p. 133, pi. viii, 

Blue-black ; antennae with the distal part white ; abdomen with 
two yellow bands. Fore wing with a small subbasal, two large 
medial, one subapical, and two subraarginal hyaline spots. Hind 
wing with a large basal hyaline patch crossed by the subcostal 
and median veins and a submarginal spot crossed by veins 4 and 6. 

Hah. N. Canara ; Trincomali, Ceylon. Exp. 44 millim. 



Sect. II. Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 from angle 

of cell. 

469. Euchromia polymena, Linn. Stjst. Nat. i, pt. 2, p. 806: C. &• S. 
no. 287 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 94, figs. 6, 6a (larva). 

Black ; head with blue spot on the vertex ; the frons white ; 
tegulae with a white spot; collar and 1st, 4th, and 5th abdominal 
segments cnmson, the 2nd, 3rd, and 6th edged with metallic blue. 




Fig. 143. — Euchromia polymena, c?. \, 

Pore wing with a basal metallic blue spot and two at end of cell • 
large orange subbasal, bitid medial, and quadrifid postmedial 
orange spots. Hind wing with trifid basal and quadrifid post- 
white '"'"''"^^ °^ ^"""^ ^^^^^ P®^^^' 
Zar.a reddish with red tubercles ; long anterior and posterior 
tutts ot hair and shorter dense medial dorsal tufts : feeds on C<m- 
voivulacece. Pupa in a hairv cocoon 

Chfn!' V^'""' ^T^""^?' Nagas; Malabar; Ceylon; Andamans; 
China; Penang; Ternate; Celebes. Kvp., ^ 44, ? 52 millim. 

470. Euchromia orientalis, Mtl Joum. Linn. Sac, Zool. xii. p. 364 ; 

orirn?. ''''' *° ^^t/'ith the 6th abdominal segment also 

cnmson,_in the form mmed fraterna only edged with crimson 
A variety occurs which has the red collar^aad .abdominal rings 

Q 2 



228 



ZYGiENIDJE. 



turned to orange or yellow ; the two yellow spots below the cell of 
the fore wing may be conjoined or separate. 
Hah. Burma. Exp. 44-50 millim. 

471. Euchromia laura, Butl. Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 364; 
a ^ S. no. 285. 

. Differs from orientalis in having the tegulae blue and no 
subbasal orange spot to fore wing. 

The locality is doubtful, and it may not be Indian. 
Hab. E. India? Xvp. 50 millim. 

*472. Euchromia amcena, MoscJd. Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1872, p. 350 ; 
C. ^ 8. no. 281. 

$ . The 1st abdominal segment white, the 4th and 5th golden 
yellow. Fore wing with the subbasal yellow spot in interno-median 
interspace joined to the medial spot. 

Nearest to the Javan Jiorsf elcU, Moore, and possibly not Indian. 

Mab. ? Sylhet. Kvp. 44 millim. 



TJie following species formerly recorded as Lndian are omitted. 

Syntomis cerbera. Linn., C. & S. no. 227, is S. African. 
Syntomis latreillii, Boisd., C. & S. no. 247, is from Java and 
Amboina. 

Syntomis libera, Wlk., C. & S. no. 249, is from Malacca. 
Syntomis ochsenheimeri, Boisd., C. & S. no. 255, is from the 

Congo. , „ „. 

Syntomis^siamica, Wlk., C. & S. no. 260, is from Siam. 
sintomis diptera, Fabr., 0. & S. no. 233-rore ^^^S '^^^^^^ 

hyaline spots, hind wing with a yellow spot. Hah. E. India 

—is too vague for identification. ^ „ ^ os"^ 

Eucliromia creusa, Linn. = tJielebas, Cram., C. & b. nos. 

290 is from Celebes, Ceram, Gilolo, Austraha. 
Euchromia rhebus, Cram., C. & S. no. 288, is African. 
Euchromia siamensis, Butl., C. & S. no. 289, is not Indian. 



Family ZYG^ENID^. 



Closelv allied to the Syniomidce, but distinguished by vein 1 c 
ofSre wing being prient, except in ^-^-^a; -Tein 1^^^ 
the hind wing present and connected with 7 by a W , Teinlets 
in the cell of both wiugs generally present. Frenulum present, 
except in Himantoptenis. 

Larva short and cylindrical or fusiform. 

Pv^M in a silken cocoon. 



229 



Key to the Subfamilies. 

a. Mout.h-parts present. 

a. AntennaB not flabellate at tip 1. Zygcenince. 

b'. Antennae highly or somewhat flabellate at tip. 2. Chalcosiince. 

b. Mouth-parts wanting 3. Phaudince. 



Subfamily ZYGvENINiE. 

Small or medium-sized moths, of semidiurnal habit and rather 
elongate narrow wings. Antennae simple, ciliated, or pectinated, 




-Fig. 144. — Larva of Zygcsna filipendulm. {. 

with short branches. Palpi short and porrect. Legs with the 
spurs almost always minute or wanting. 

Larva short and cylindrical. 

Pu^a in a close-woven silken cocoon. 

Key to the Genera, 
a. Antennae dilated distally. Fore wino- with 

veins 9, 10, 11 stalked together. . . . .° 1. Zygjena, p. 230. 

0. Antennae not dilated distally. 

a'. Fore wing with aU tlie veins from the cell. 
d^. Hind wing with vein 6 absent. 
a^. Wings short and broad. 
aK Hind wing with all the veins from 
the cell. 

a\ Hind tibiae with one pair of 

spura; antennae of male with fp 931 

7.0 .^ew branches 2. DkndroceeI, 

0 . Hmd tibiae with two pairs of 

spurs; antennae of male with fp 23'> 

3. Chbysabtona, 

b. Mmd wmg with veins 3 and 4 Tn '>33 

¥. Wings long and narrow. ' 
a*. Hind wing with vein 5 remote 
from 7. 

a\ Fore wing very naiTow; an- 
tennae of male pectinated. 

««. Palpi long 6. Abtona, p. 234. 

b- Palpi very short 7. Tasem a, p. 236. 

b . hove wmg broader; antennje of 

h< m.T ''""P^^V-.- 18. ARiEocERA, p. 244. 
b*. Hmd wmg with vein 5 arising ^ 

close to 7 . . ^19, Arachotia, p 245 

c\ Fore wmg produced at apex and ' ^ 

^''''^'^ 13. Phacusa, p. 240. 



230 



ZYGMKIDJE. 



b-. Hind wing with vein 6 present. 
a^. Abdomen not tufted at end. 

a*. Hind wiug long and narrow .... 14. Goi^, p. 242. 
b^. Hind wing broad and rounded. .. . 12. Clelka, p. 239. 

P. Abdomen tufted at end 8. Lophosoma, p. 237. 

b'. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 stalked. 
Hind wings with veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 
2, 3, 4 from lower angle of cell; 5 

from upper angle ; palpi upturned ; legs [p. 233. 

with long spurs 5. Callaetona, 

c'. Fore wing with veins 8 and 9 stalked. [p. 238. 

a^. No veinlets in the cell 9. Monoschalis, 

b~. Veinlets in the cell of both wings .... 17. Platyzygjexa, 
d'. Fore wing with veins 8, 9, 10 stalked. [p. 243. 

a'-. Hind wing with all the veins from the 

cell 10. Thyeassia, p. 238. 

b-. Hind wing with vein 2 from angle of 

cell ; veins 3, 4, 5 stalked 11. Peocotks, p. 239. 

e'. Fore wing with veins 5, 6, 7 stalked to- 
gether. Hind wing with veins 2 and 5 [p. 242. 

absent 15. Ephemeeoedea, 

/'. Fore wing with veins 9 and 10 stalked . . 16. Piaeosoma.. p. 243. 



Genus ZYG^NA. 
Zygfena, Fabr. Syst. JEnt. p. 550 (1775). 
Type, Z. filipendulm. Linn., from Europe. 

Bavge. The whole Palsearctic region, including Afghanistan, the 
Himalayas, and Japan ; S.Africa. 

Antenna simple and dilated distally into a club, the tip pointed, 
rore wing with veins 9, 10, 11 stalked. Hind wing with all the 
veins from the cell. Legs with no spurs. 



A. Fore wing luiili yelloiv spots. 

473. Zygsena cashmirensis, Koll. HiigeVs Kaschnir, iv, p. 459, pi. 19, 
tig. 6 ; C.SfS. no. 213. 
Zygfena asoka, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 389; C. ^ S. no. 212. 

Fore wing black shot with green, with five yellow spots. Hind 
wing crimson, -with some black on the costa near the base and a 




Fig. 145. — Zygmna cashmirensis, J. 

black medial band which may be broken at middle; margin black, 
narrow at middle. A paii' of yellow lateral spots on the collar. 



ZTGiENA. — DENDKOCEBA. 



231 



Male with three, female with two crimson rings on the terminal 
segments of abdomen. 

In the var. asoTca the spots on fore wing are smaller. Hmd 
wing with black the predominant colour, the crimson being reduced 
to patches. Males from Nepal in the British Museum are exactly 
intermediate between the two forms. 

Hah. Kashmir; Kangra ; Punjab; Nepal. Exp., S 30, $ 38 
millim. 

474. ZygsBna erythrosoma, n. sp. 

2 . Differs from typical cashmiremis in being without th^ 
yellow spots on the collar, and in having the whole of the terminal 
segments of the abdomen crimson. 

Hah. Almora. Exp. 36 millim. Type in B. M. 

B. Fore wing with red spois. 

475. ZygEena afghana, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 286, pi. vii a, fig. 1 ; 

C. 8i-8. no. 211. 

$ . Fore wing with the spots red, with narrow white edges and 
very large, the basal spot occupying the whole base of wing ; the 
iuterno-median spot joined to the subcostal one. Hind wing red, 
with narrow black border. Collar and abdomen, except basal seg- 
ments, red. 

Hah. Afghanistan ; Quetta. Exp. 28 millim. 

Genus DENDROCERA. 

Dendrocera, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined. 

Type, B. quadripunctata, Hmpsn. 
Range. Ceylon. 

Antennae bipectinated in male, simple in female, the branches in 
the former sex widely separated, the secondary branches standing 
out from them in the same plane. Palpi porrect and of moderate 
length. Mid and hind tibiae with one pair of spurs. Wings shoit 
and broad. Hind wing with the upper portion of cells shorter than 
the lower ; vein 6 absent. 

476. Dendrocera quadripunctata, mnpsn. III. Het. \x, ined., pi. 167, 




Fig. HQ.— Dendrocera quadripunctata, J. 



232 



Purplish fuscous. Fore wing with two antemedial and two 
postmedial ochreous spots. 

Hab. Ceylon. Ex2). 14 millira. 



Genus CHRYSARTONA. 

Chrysartona, Sioinh. Cat. Set. Mm. Oxon. p. 56, ined. 

Type, C. stipata, Wlk. 
Range. Himalayas and Burma. 

Antennae bipectinated in male, simple in female. Palpi short 
and porrect. Mid tibije with one pair of minute spurs, hind tibiae 
with two pairs. "Wings short and broad ; all the veins from the 
cell ; hind wing with vein 6 absent. 

In Procris, to which stipata has been referred, vein 6 of the 
hind wing is present. 

477. Chrysartona stipata, Wlk. Cat. i, p. 114; Butl. Ill Ket:\, p. 13, 
pi. 7, fig. 9 ; a ^ S. no. 214. 

Head, thorax, legs, the base of costa of fore wings above, and of 
both wings below metallic coppery green or blue. Wings black : 
fore wing with two antemedial and two postmedial white spots : 




Fig. 147. — Chrysartona stipata, (J. \. 



hind vring with a single or double antemedial and one post- 
medial spot ; cilia white at apex of both wings and anal angle of 
hind wing. Abdomen black, banded with white below. 

Hab. Kangra ; Sikhim ; Bernardmyo, Burma. Exp.^ d" 18, $ 20 
millim, 

478. Chrysartona refalgens, n. sp. 

§ . Head, thorax, and abdomen suffused with metallic copper ; 
underside of thorax metallic copper and green ; abdomen with 
whitish bands. Wings black ; fore wing with a coppery spot at 
base ; two large yellow antemedial spots and two postmedial ; 
hind wing with a yellow patch on inner area from base to near 
anal angle and a large spot beyond the cell. 

Hab. Matelei, Burma {Fea). Exp. 26 millim. Type in Mus. 
Genova. 



BEACHAEXOITA. — CALLAETONA. 



233 



Genus BRACHARTONA. 

Braciiartona, Hmpsn. Ill Het. viii, p. 44 (1891). 

Type, B. quaclrimaculata, Moore. 
Range. N.W. Himalayas ; Tenasserim. 

Antennae bipectinated in the male, ciliated in the female. Fore 
wing with veins 8 and 9 from ceil. Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 
stalked; 6 absent. 



Sect. I. Male with antennae long, the branches slender. 

479. Brachartona quadrimaculata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 390 • 
a ^ S. no. 298. > r , 

Dull purplish black. Fore wing with a 
large ochreous spot beyond the cell. Hind 
wing with an ochreous streak beyond the 
cell, curving up to the costa beyond it. 

Hab. Mussooree ; Kangra ; ^Dharmsala. 
£Ixp. 18 millim. 




Fig. 148. — Brachartona 
quadrimaculata, (j* . \. 



Sect. n. Male with short antennae, the branches stout and 
decreasing to apex. 

480. Brachartona catoxantha, n. sp. 

c? . Upperside uniform dark brown ; frons and palpi yellow, 
the former with a black spot at middle ; underside of the thorax' 
abdomen, and the legs yellow. Fore wing brown below, with 
yellow patches on the costa at base and apex; hind wing brown • 
the costal area yellow, the veins on it black. ' 

Hab. Tenasserim Yalley {Doherty), Exp. 16 millim. Type in 
coll. Druce. ^ ^ 

Genus CALLARTONA, nov. 

Type, 0. purpurascens, Hmpsn. 
Range. ]N[^ilgiris. 

Palpi upturned, reaching the top of head. Fore wing with veins 
7 and 8 stalked. Hind wmg with veins 2, 3, and 4 f?om close to 
the lower end of cell 5 from near upper end, 6 and 7 stalked. 
Iibiae of mid and hind legs with the spurs long. 

481. CaUartona purpurascens, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 44, pi. 139, 
$ . Black, with a brilliant purple shot ; head and tegulje yellow. 



234 



ZYQ^NIDiE. 



Fore wing with two large yellow triangular spots on the costa. 
Hind wing with a yellow streak below the cell, curving up to the 
costa beyond it. Legs yellow. 

Hah. JSilgiris, W. slopes, 3000 feet. E.rp. $ 22 millim. 




Fig. 149. — Callartona purpurascens, 5- \- 



Genus ARTONA. . 

Artona, Wlh. Cat. ii, p. 439 (1864). 
BalatEea, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 110 (1864). 
Bintba, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 127 (1864). 
Ehaphidognatha, Feld. Wien. Mit. Mm. \i, p. 31 (1862). 

Type, A. cliscivitta, Wlk. 

Range. Amur ; China ; Japan ; Himalayas ; South Indian Hills ; 
Naga Hills ; Burma ; Perak ; Java ; Amboina. 

Antennae bipectinated in male, minutely ciliated in female, the 
distal portion slighter. Palpi long and porrect. Fore wing very 
narrow, with all the veins from the cell. Hind -wdng with vein 5 
from middle of discocellulars, vein 6 absent. Mid and hind tibiae 
with a terminal pair of minute spurs. 

A. Abdomen with no yelloiv. 

482. Artona postvitta, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 13 ; C. ^ <S. no. 297. 

Dark brown ; hind wing with a broad medial white fascia ; cilia 
whitish ; tarsal joints white. 
Hal. Sikhim. Ex-p. 20 millim. 

483. Artora postalba, Elwes, F.Z. S. 1890, p. 379, pi. xxxii,fig. 16. 

(5 . Brown. Fore \\dng with a slight yellow streak fi-om the 
base ; two medial and two postmedial yellow spots ; cilia pale 
yellow. Hind wing with the disk white ; cilia blackish. 

Hah. Sikhim, 12,000 feet. Exp. 18 milhm. 

B. Ahdomen of male hlacJc, with yellow segmental hands ; 
female yellow above. 

484. Artona discivitta, Wlk. Cat. ii. p. 440; C. ^ S. no. 293: Butl. 

III. Ret. v, pi. 84, fig. 8. 

S. Dark purplish brown; head at sides and tegulae yellow. 
Fore wing with a yellow streak from base to end of cell ; a spot 



AETOJTA. 



235 



beyond and rather above the cell. Hind wing with a yellow streak 
below the cell and a spot beyond it. Cilia dark. 

Hab. Almora ; Nilgiris ; Shevaroys. Exjp. 20 millim. 

485. Artona zehraica, Butl. Joum. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p, 356 ; id. 
III. Het. y, pi. 84, fig. 9 ; C. ^ S. no. 299. 
Artona fulvida, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 356 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 295. 

Artona nigrescens, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 356 ; C. ^- S. 
no. 300. 

S . Ifore wing with a subcostal as well as the medial streak from 
the base, and both interrupted at middle ; a spot below the end of 
the cell, and two postmedial spots. Hind M'ing with the whole 
basal area yellow, except a costal dark streak ; outer margin dark. 




rig. 150. — Artona zehraica, (S • \. 

$ . The abdomen yellow above, with a narrow black line on the 
first two segments ; the eighth segment wdth the sides black, and 
sometimes also the vertex. 

Some males have the abdomen coloured as in the females. In 
Mandi, Moulmein, and Kangra specimens the cilia are dark, in 
those from the Naga Hills and Perak the tips are yellow. 

Bob. Kulu ; Mandi ; Kangra ; Sikhim ; Nagas ; Perak. Exp. 
20-24 millim. 

486. Artona zebra, Elwes, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 379, pi. xxxii, fig. 11. 

d . Differs from zehraica in the subcostal and medial streaks of 
the fore wing being short and each followed by a large spot • a 
subapical elongate spot ; no spot below the end of cell. Hind 
wmg with two yellow streaks from the base. Cilia yellow, brown 
at apex of both wings. 

Hah. Sikhim, 11,U00 feet. Exi^. 18 milKm. 

487. Artona sikkimensis, Ehce,, P.Z.S. 1890, p. 379, pi. xxxii, 

ng. Li , 

6 . Fore wing with the subcostal yellow streak, the spot below 
end of cell, and subapical elongate spot only. Hind wing with one 
streak from base. Cilia dull yellow. 

Hah. Sikhim, 12,000 feet. Exp. 21 millim. 



236 



ZTGJ:NIDyE. 



488. Artona confusa, Butl. Juum. Linn. Soc, Zool. xii, p. 357 ; id. 
111. Ilet. V, pi. 84, ^i<,^ 10 ; C. Hf S. no. 292. 

c? . The abdomen banded with black. Antennae with the tips 
yellow; head black; collar and tegulae yellow. Pore wing with 
the subcostal and medial basal streaks ; the subapical and post- 
medial spots single and very large. Hind wing yellow, with broad 
black border. 

$ . The abdomen yellow, with the last two segments black, the 
tips yellow. 

-Hub. JS.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim. Ex]). 2G milHm. 



Genus TASEMA. 
Tasema, TVlk. Cat. vii, p. 1597 (1856). 
Type, T. bipars, Wlk. 

Range. Kangra ; Naga Hills ; Calcutta ; Burma. 

Antennae bipectinated in male, simple in female. Palpi very 
short. Fore wing narrow, the outer margin erect ; all the veins 
from the cell. Hind wing with vein 6 absent. 

489. Tasema bipars, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1597 ; C.^S. no. 216. 




Fig. 151. — Tasema bipars, cf. \. 



c?. Black. Hind wing hj^aline ; the costal area and margins 
black. 

Eab. Kangra ; Nagas. Krp. 16 millim. 

490. Tasema longipennis, n. sp. 

d". Pore wing longer, with outer margin more oblique than in 
bipars. Hind wing more thickly clothed with black hair-like 

Hab. Bernardmyo, Burma, 6000 feet (iJoZier^y). Xrp. 20 millim. 
Type in coll. Elvves. 

491. Tasema fuliginosa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 14; C. 8f S. no. 294. 

Dark brown ; the antennae, palpi, costa, and discocellulars of 
fore wing black. 

Hab. Calcutta. Exy., 6 15, $ 17 mUlim. 



TASEMA. — LOPHOSOM A . 



237 



492. Tasema nigra, n. sp. 

c? . Differs from fuliginosa in being uniform smoky black, not 
brown. 

$ . The pectinations of antennae shorter than in f uliginosa ; end 
of abdomen with a tuft of ochreous hairs. 

Hah. Bernardmjo, Burma {Doherty). Exp.^ S 15, $ 17 millim. 
Type in coll. Elwes. 



Genus LOPHOSOMA. 
Lophosoma, Stoinh. Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon. p. 59, ined. 
Type, L. aipreum, "Wlk. 

Bange. Himalayas ; Bengal ; Ganjam ; Andamans. 

Antennae bipectinate in male, simple in female, the terminal 
portion thinner. Palpi short and porrect. Wings narrow ; outer 
margin of fore wing oblique ; hind wing with vein 6 present. Mid 
tibia with one pair, hind tibia with two pairs of minute spurs. 
Abdomen with lateral tufts of hair on terminal segments. 

493. Lophosoma cnprenm, Wlh. Cat. vii, p. 1596 ; C.8fS. no. 301. 

Frons, genae, and a few of the scales on collar and tegul* golden 

metallic. Antennae, vertex of head, 
thorax, and fore wing dark brown, 
shot with blue, especially in Sikhim 
specimens ; metathorax metallic cop- 
per; abdomen purplish, with cop- 
pery bands to each segment ; lateral 
tufts black, with a purple gloss. 
Fig. Ib2.— Lophosoma ^'ore wing with basal hyaline streaks 
cupreum, cJ. \. below the costa and median nervure • 

^ ^ a hyaline spot at end of cell and one 

below it. Hind wing hyaline, with the costa and outer marcrin 
black. 

Tascia, Wlk., type chrysoletiis, in which this species has been 
placed, is a very distinct African genus. 

Hah. Kulu ; Sikhim ; Andamans. E.vp. 24 millim. 




^no^m""^ q^adricolor, wik. Cat. vii, p. 1596; C. ^ S. 

6 - Head, thorax, and fore wings brown, shot with green 
Hmd wing with the costal area fuscous, the rest hyaline. AMo- 
men copper-co oured, the last two segments purplish. 
iTaJ. Bengal; Ganjam. ^-rp. 20 millim. 



238 



Genus MONOSCHALIS. 

Monoschalis, Ilmpsn. lU. Ilet. ix, ined. 

Type, M. virescens^ llmpsn. 
Range. Ceylon. 

cJ. The antennse bipectinatecl. Palpi short and porrecfc, Tibiae 
with no spurs. Fore wing with veins 8 and 9 stalked. Hiad 
wing with vein 6 present. 



495. Monoschalis virescens, Hmiisn. HI Het. ix, ined., pi. 157, 



(S . Black, shot with green : abdo- 
men with 4th and 5th segments yellow. 
Fore wing with a hyaline spot in end of 
cell, a large spot below the end ; a bifid 
submarginal and small spot near outer 
angle. 

Hab. Colombo, Ceylon. Exp. 22 
millim. 




Fig. 153. — Monoschalis 
virescens, c?. t- 



Genus THYRASSIA. 
Thyi-assia, Butl. Journ. Linn. Sac., Zool. xii, p. 355 (1876). 
Type, T. subcordata, Wlk. 

Bange. Plains of N. India, S. India, and Ceylon. 

Antenna bipectinated in both sexes, more heavily m the male 
than the female. Palpi short and porrect Tibiae mth no spurs. 
Fore wings with veins 8, 9, and 10 stalked together. Hind wing 
with all the veins from the cell, 8 absent. 

496. Thyrassia subcordata, Wlk. Cat i, p. 132 ; C. ^- S. no. 280 ; Butl. 
7//. ife^. 1, p. 19, pi. vii, tig. 6. • m 

Thyrassia aurodisca, Hmpsn. III. Set. viu, p. 44, pi. cxxxix, fig. 10. 

Frons, collar, metathorax, and lateral 
streaks on each abdominal segment orange. 
Fore wing dark brown; a yellowish or 
whitish hyaline spot at end of cell, a trifid 
spot below it, a bifid or trifid subapical 
spot. Hind wing with an orange patch 
occupying the basal inner area and curving 
up to the costa beyond the cell. 
T. aurodisca, the southern form, has the orange of hind wmg 
more extensive and the border narrower. 

Hab. Plains of N.India, S. India, and Ceylon. Eap.,. 6 ^4, 
$ 26 millim. 




Fig. 154.— Thyrassia 
subcordata, S' r> 



PEOCOTES. — OLELEA. 



239 



Genus PEOCOTES. 
Procotes, Bull. Journ. Linn, Soc, Zool. xii, p. 355 (1876). 

Type, P. cUminuta, Wlk. 
Range. Ceylon. 

d" . Antennae bipectinated. Palpi short and porreet. Tibiaa 
without spurs. Abdomen with short lateral tufts of hair on the 
last segment. Fore wing with veins 4 and 5, and 8, 9, 10 stalked. 
Hind wing with veins 3, 4, 5 stalked. 



497. Procotes diminuta, Wlk. Cat. i, p. 230: Moore, Lep. Ceyl ii, 
p. '37, pi. 95, fig. 3 5 C.^S.no.2l7. 

S. Black, shot with blue-green. 
Fore wing with a hyaline spot in the 
end of cell, a long streak below it, 
and one beyond it. Hind wing with 
the area below and beyond the cell 
hyaline. 

Hah, Trincomali, Ceylon. Eccp. 23 
millim. 




Fig. 155. — Procotes 
diminuta, ^ . \. 



Genus CLELEA. 
Clelea, Wlh. Cat. ii, p. 465 (1854). 
Type, 0. sapphirina, Wlk. 

Range. China ; Formosa ; Sikhim ; Khasi and Naga Hills : 
Burma. 

Antennae bipectinate in male, nearly simple in female. Palpi of 
moderate length and porreet. Pore wing with all the veins from 
the cell. Hind wing broad, with all the veins from the cell. 

498. Clelea sapphirina, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 465. 

(S . Black : the shaft of antennae, head, and legs above metallic 

blue. Pore wing with short metallic 
blue streaks from the base along the 
costa and inner margin ; a transverse 
antemedial band broken at middle ; a 
subapical almost complete ring with a 
submargiual spot below it ; a marginal 
liue. Hind wing with a metallic blue 
streak sometimes present near inner 
margin. Underside of fore Mdng with' 
I . , T , some blue marginal streaks at apex; 

hind wing streaked with blue throughout. Cilia whitish. 

?. Ihe irons, collar and tegulae blue, a streak on vertex of 
morT vi^dd blue ^""^ ^^ta^^^o^ax ; shaft of antenna 

Abdomen in both sexes sometimes entirely brown, sometimes 




Fig. 156.— Ctelea sap- 
phirina, cJ. \. 



240 ZTGJENID^.. 

with blue segmental lines, sometimes with the terminal segments 
entirely metallic blue above. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Momeit, Burma, 2000 feet ; China. Exp., 6 24, 
5 30 millim. 

499. Clelea discriminis, Stoinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 475. 
Differs from sappldrina in the streaks from the base of the fore 

\\ing being green, and the lower one being along the median ner- 
vure ; the subapical markings more parallel ; the marginal line 
and blue on hind wing absent. Underside with a streak on median 
nervure of fore wing and several streaks on the hind wmg. 
Hah. Sikhim ; Naga Hills, 3000 feet. Exp. 27 miUim. 

500. Clelea nigroviridis, Ehces, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 380. 

Differs from sappMrina in the markings being metallic 
green not blue, and those of the fore wing being all joined together 
fo as to form reticulations ; the underside of fore wmg almost 

without markings. _ • , • j. ir 

Differs from cJiala, Moore, from Formosa, m haying no metallic 
colour on the end of abdomen and the markings being green not 

^^"fffl&. Nagas ; Bernardmyo, Burma, 6000 feet. Exp. 27 milhrn. 

501. Clelea plumbeola, n. sp. 

Black • fore wing with antemedial and broad and somewhat u-re- 

Type in coll. Elwes. 

Genus PHACUSA. 

^^iZool. xii, p. 355 (1876). 

^Zyli't.''^^^^^ Assam Hills; Burma; T^icobars 
Java ; Celebes ; ' , ^^^^^ heavily in the male 

Antjnn^ ^{P^^^lttort and ^r M and hind tibi« 
S "etrma s;t^ Wi'ngs broad ; hind whig with all 
The yergiven off from fhe cell. Vein 12 absent. 

Sect I. Tore ^-ing with veins 8 and 9 stalked. 
503. Phacusa dolosa, Wlk. Cat. vii p. 1594; C. ^- S. no. 278; Butl 
i«. ife^. V. p. 27, pi. 84. fig. 11. 
, -ni o hUo], Pore wing wath three small medial white 
stre^ks^' t^ottiteX^^^^ two larger submarginal spots. 
Hhid w ng with a minute submarginal spot. 
%a6.? Assam. Krp. 30 millim. 



PHACUSA. 



241 



503. Phacusa properta, Sioinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 400, pi. xliii, %. 6. 

Shafts of antennce bluish green ; collar, metathorax, and 6th and 
7th segments of abdomen, and lateral spots on some of t-he others, 
copper-coloured. Pore wing with hyaline streaks above and 
below costal nervure ; a large spot filling the cell ; another below 
it ; two subapical and two submargiual spots. Hind wing hyaline, 
with the veins and margins black. 

Bah. JSMga Hills ; Eaugoon ; Nicobars. Ex^o. 30 milKm. 



504. PhacTisa tenebrosa, Wlk. Cat. i. p. 150 : C. & 8. no 303 : BuU 
lU. Bet. i. p. 20, pi. 12. fig. 1. ^ , . 

Bronzy black. Head, collar, metathorax, base of fore wing, and 
a band on each segment of abdomen, except the last, copper- 
coloured. Markings as in properta. 

In some specimens the fore wing 
has a hyaline streak below the costa 
another on inner margin and one 
between vein 5 and 6 ; in others 
these are all absent. In some speci- 
mens the hyaline spots of the hind 
wing are all joined together, in 
, 1 . , „ others reduced in size, and the sub- 

basal series separated from the subapical by a black band. 
Hah. Momeit, Eurma ; Almorah. Exp. 33 millim. 




Fig. 157. — Fhacusa tenehrosa, 



Sect. II. Eore wing with vein 8 from the cell. 
505. Phacusa cyanocera, u. sp. 

..d ' ^"J^^"^* 5 collar, and teguh-e 

with a few copper scales; abdomen greenish black- veins and 
margins of wings black. Wings hyalin^e ; fore wbg withTcLper 
It middle''' ' ^^^'^^ -i^^ a copper %l 

inSE""'°'^™^''^'^^^^^^^ ^..^P. 32 milHm. Type 



Sect. HI. Pore wing with vein 10 out of 9. 
506. Phacusa khasiana, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 12 ; C. S. no 215 

hy^i^^S^S'S^tS^ 

^.^^.ng, costa of hind ^^t:i:^^7^^ 



n 



242 ZYGiENIDiE. 

Genus GOE, nov 



Type, 0. diapJiana, Hmpsn 
Jianr/e. Burma. 4. ixr- 

c?. Antenna) bipectinated ; palpi short and porrect. Wings 




Fig. 158. — Goe diaphana, J- 



rntTier narrow Fore wing with apex rounded and outer margin 
owl^ue? Z'd M'ing with^ein 8 pUent. Tibi. without spurs. 



507. Goe diaphana, n. sp. 

S . Black ; the wings diaphanous black ; the veins and margins 

"XfCwmyo,Burma,6000feet(Z)oA..,). E.,. 28millim. 
Type in coll. Elwes. 

Genus EPHEMEROIDEA, nov. 
Type, E. ariel, Hmpsn. 

AntennTwith the branches rather short Palpi long, 
u ■ V J ™;th the cell very narrow at base, expanded at the eud ; 
v^s S I^ T staW W^^^^ Hind wing with veins 5 and 
6 absent. Legs without spurs. 

508. Ephemeroidea ariel, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen black, Avith 
copper and green reflections. Wmgs 
hyaline, the veins and margins narrowly 
biack ; the inner margin of fore wmg and 
costa of hind wing broadly so. 

Hab. Bernardmvo, Burma, 6000 teet, 
May {DoluTty). Exp. 20 milhm. Type 
in coll. Elwes. 




Ei". 159.— Ephemeroidea 
ariel, c? • !• . 



509 Ephemeroidea flavocincta, n. sp. 



green 



EPILBMEEOIDEA. — PLATTZT&^NA. 



243 



basal and three terminal segments black above, green below, the 
third, fourth, and fifth segments bright yellow. Wings hyaline 
the veins and margins black ; fore wing with some yellow at base. 
Pemora and tibias metallic green ; tarsi white. 

Hah. Matelei, Burma (Feci). Exp. 28 millim. Type in Mus. 
Geneva. 

Genus PIAROSOMA, nov. 

Type, P. alhicinctum, Hmpsn. 
Range. Burma. 

cT. Thorax and abdomen stout; branches of antenna short 
Pore wing with the apex somewhat truncate and outer mar^^in 




Fig. 1 60. —Piarosoma alhicinctum, J . \. 

wtr^Lir'^? ^^^^^ 9 and 10 stalked. Hind 

vvmg broad, with veins 2 and 3 from a point near angle of cell. 

510. Piarosoma albicinctum, n. sp. 

6 . Blue-black ; collar and first segment of abdomen white • thp 
other segments slightly fringed with white. Win^wMtish 'im 
me; the veins black. Fore wings with the apex^and outer and 
nner margins the cell, and streaks along veins^2 anS H and for 

with thU?\^'°^" -^'T^^^ ^ broldly black. Hind win^ 

with the black margin dentate at vein 2 ^ 



Genus PLATYZYG^ffiNA. 

Platyzygaena, 8winh. Cat. Set. Mus. Oxon. p. 59, ined. 
Type, P. molleri, Elw. 
Bange. Sikkim ; Assam. 

^l\^T^4Tt;Jtl^'^ ^'^"'^'^ "Wo- 
511. PI^yzyg.na moUeri, EH.. P. z. s. ,s90, p. 885, p.. 

2 . Head, thorax, a:id abdomen bl„e-bkck, the last with white 

e2 



244 



ZYG^NIDiE. 



sef^mental bands ; proboscis crimson. Fore wing black at base, 
foUowed by a broad white band, with four black spots on it below 
tbe costa median, interno-median, and sub-median nervures ; the 




Fig. 161. — Tlatyzygceiia mblleri, 2 . \. 

one below the interno-median displaced outwards ; the outer half 
of wing black, with the veins on it grey ; a y^.^^^^^ffj 
band. Hind wing with the basal area white to the middle of 
costa and near anal angle ; apical area and outer margin black. 
Hab. Sikhim ; Assam. Exp. 36 millim. 



Genus AR-EOCERA, nov. 

Type, A. cyanescens, Hmpsu. 

Eanae Japan: China; Sikhim ;. Burma. . 

A tfnn^sLp e in both sexes. Tibi^ without spurs m male ; 
femaWth minute spurs. Fore wdng broad, the costa arched and 
apex acute. Hind wing with vein 6 absent. 

512. Arseocera cyanescens, n. sp. 

S Head, thorax, and abdomen black. Fore wdng fuscous, 
shot with purple. Hind wing fuscous. 




Fig. 162. — ArcBOcera cyanescens, S • t- 

Hah. Momeit, Burma {Bolierty). Eay. 20 milHm. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 

.513 Arsocera posthyalina, n. sp. 

Q Differs from cyanescens in the thorax and abdomen being 
shol.Sf;ur;re, an^l in the hind wing being hyaline, suffused 
with black towards the margins. 

Hab. aikhim {Elwes). Evp- ^^^^ 



AEACHOTIA. 



245 



Genus ARACHOTIA. 

Arachotia, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 14 (1879). 

Type, A. flaviplaga, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim ; Naga Hills. ^ 

AnteunjB long, bipectinated in male with the branches short, 
simple in the female. Palpi short and porreet. Mid and hind 
tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. "Wings narrow. Hind 
wing with vein 5 arising close to 7. 

514. Arachotia flaviplaga, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 14; C. 8f S. no. 398. 

Metallic blue-green ; antennse broadly banded A^dth white towards 
the tips. Erons ochi-eous ; abdomen with ochreous ventral and 
lateral bands. Fore wing with an ochreous subbasal band from 
median nervure to inner margin ; a large hyaline spot in end of cell 
and two below it, and seven streaks between the nervules beyond. 




Fig. 163. — Arachotia Jlaviiolaga, J. |. 



Hind wing with the costa white above ; a hyaline patch filling the 
lower part of the cell and interspaces below and beyond ; the veins, 
margins, and inner lobe of wing black. Pectus with ochreous 
spots. 

Hah. Sikhim; Naga Hills. Exp., 35, $ 44millim. 

515. Arachotia vespoides, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1879, p. 390 : C. & S 
no. 394. » F » J 

$ . Antennae black ; palpi yellow with black tips. Frons grey ; 
abdomen with yellow bands on the first six segments above, grey 
below. Wings hyaline, yellow at base ; fore wing with the margins, 
the subcostal, median, and discocellular veins black, the marginal 
band dentated at vein 2. Hind \ving with the costa white, the 
marginal band black and dentated at vein 2. 
Hah. N. India. Exp. 40 millim. 



24Q 



ZYGiENID^. 



Subfamily CHALCOSIINiE. 

The antennre bipectinated to the tips in both sexes, more heavily 
ill the male than the female, the branches dilated distally ; the tip 
of antenna somewhat flabellate. Palpi minute and porrect. Fore 




Fig. 164.— Larva of Trypanophora taprobanes. 
(From Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. pi. 95, fig. 8 a.) 



wing witb a veinlet in the cell more or less developed. Mid and 
hind tibi» \vith minute terminal pairs of spurs. 

Larva short and thick with tubercles, from which arise short 
hairs, and forming a close cocoon. 

Key to the Genera, 
a. Wings not uniformly semi-diaphanous. 
a'. Fore wing with the cell long. 

o^. Fore wing with no veiulets between 
Tein 12 and the costa. 
o3. Fore wing with the veins nearly 
straight. 

«*. Wings long and Zyganiform 
hind wing with all the veins 
&om the cell, 
a^. Fore wing with veins 9 and 10 

stalked 1- Callizyg^na, p. 248. 

J^ Fore wins- with veins 7, 8, and 

9 stalked 2. Tkypanophoea, p. 249. 

6*. Wings long but considerably 
broader. 

a^. Hind wing with all the veins 
from the cell, 
a". Fore wing with vein 7 given 
off further from the cell 

than 9 8. Heepa, p. 25/. 

6*. Fore wing with vein 7 given 
off nearer the cell than 9. 
ci'. Fore wing with veins 4 
and 5 stalked 
flS. Fore wing with vein 11 

anastomosing with 12. 9. Pintia, p. 258. 
6«. Fore wing with vein 
11 not anastomosing 
■with 12. 



CHALCOSlINiE. 



247 



a^. Fore wing with vein 
6 absent, 7 from 

cell, 8 and 9 stalked. 3. Phlebohecta, p. 251. 
i". Fore wing with vein 
6 present, 7, 8, and 

9 stalked 4. Sorttia, p. 251. 

c". Fore wing with veins 
6, 7, 8, and 9 stalked 

together 10. Heterusia, p. 259. 

fp. Fore wing with veins 4 

and 5 from cell 5. PiDoaus, p. 254. 

c*. Hind wing broader and more 
rounded. 

b^. Ilind wing with veins 4 and 
5 not stalked. 
Fore wing with vein 11 not 
anastomosing with 12, 
a'. IJind wing with veins 4 
and 5 from cell. 
a^. Fore wing with veins 4 
and 5 on a long stalk ; 

with large claspers. 11. Mllleria, p. 262. 
Fore wing with veins 4 
and 5 on a short or no 
stalk ; c? with small 

claspers 12. Chaxcosia, p. 264. 

b''. Hind wing with veins 4 

and 5 stalked 13. Cobma, p. 268. 

b^. Fore wing with vein 11 
anastomosing with 12. 
aJ. Fore wing with vein 6 

from below angle of cell. 15. Pompelon, p. 271. 
b". Fore wing with vein 6 
from angle of cell or 

stalked with 7, 8, and 9. 14, Cyclosia, p. 269. 
d^. Wings very short and broad. 
a\ Fore wing with vein 11 not 

anastomosing with 12 6. Heteropan, p. 250. 

Z»*. Fore wing with vein 11 anas- 
tomosing with 12 7. Aebtjdas, p. 2-57. 

eK Wings long and very broad ; fore 
wing with the apex square ; 
veins 7, 8, and 9 stalked; c? 

Avith claspers very large 16. Amesia, p. 272, 

>^ Fore wmg with veins 4 and 5 
much curved. 
Fore wing with vein 3 not 
stalked with 4 and 5. 
Fore wing with vein 10 not 
etalked with 7, 8, and 9 ... . 17. Erasmia, p. 273. 
b". lore wing with vein 10 stalked 

r. T. 7, 8, and 9 19. Cadphises, p. 275. 

b . Fore wing with vein 3 stalked 
with 4 and 5 ; 10 with 7, 8, and 
9, Hind wing with veins 4 and 
6 stalked, and all these much 

18. Campylotes, p. 274. 



248 



ztg;enii).'e. 



U^. Fore wing with veinlets between 
vein 12 and the costa. 
Fore wing not produced at apex ; 
veins 6, 7, 8, and 9 stalked to- 
gether. 

a'. Fore wing with no bar between 

veins 1 h and c ; the stalk of 

veins 7, 8, and 9 much curved ; 

veins 10 and 11 anastomosing 

with 12 20. IsBARTA, p. 276. 

6*. Fore wing with a bar between 

veins 1 h and c ; stalk of veins 

7, 8, and 9 not much curved ; 

vein 10 not anastomosing with 

12 21. Callamesia, p. 277. 

P. Fore wing much produced at apex, 
the outer margin very oblique; 
veins 7, 8, and 9 stalked. 

a*. Hind wing rounded 22. Gynautocera, p. 278. 

¥. Hind wing with outer margin 

extremely produced 23. Histia, p. 279. 

b' . Fore wing with the cell short; veins 4 
and 5 stalked ; 6, 7, 8, and 9 stalked ; 

hind wing with vein 6 absent 24. Canerces, p. 281 . 

b. The wings uniformly semi-diapbanous ; 
fore wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked, 
and 7, 8, 9 stalked. 
a'. Fore wing narrow and rounded at 

apex 2o. Philopatob, p. 281. 

b'. Fore wing shorter and quadrate 26. Agalopk, p. 282. 

c'. Fore wing long and quadrate. 

a^. Hind wing not produced into a tail. . 27. Chelura, p. 283. 
b-. Hind wing produced into a tail 28. Elcysma, p. 284. 



Genus CALLIZYG.5]NA. 

Callizyggena, Feld. Reis. Nov., Set. Erk. pis. 75-107, p. 2 (1875). 

Type, C. nivimacula, Feld. 

Bange. The Peninsula of India and Ceylon. 

Antennje bipectinated in both sexes. Palpi short and porrect. 
Fore wing with veins 9 and 10 stalked. Hind wing with veni 6 
given off from discocellulars. Abdomen of male with thick lateral 
tufts of hair. Shape as in Zygcenince. 

516. CallizygSBna nivimacula, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 83, fig. 4; C. ^- S. 
no. 291. 

2 . Black ; collar, and 2ud, 3rd, and 
6th segments of abdomen crimson 
above. Wings blackish fuscous: fore 
wing with a slight greenish tinge ; a 
large white spot at end of cell. 
Fig. m.-Callu,,.na Trincomali, Ceylon. E.^- 30 

nivimacula, J. i- millim. 




CALLIZ YG A. — TE YP ANOPHOE A . 249 

5 1 7. Callizygaena auricincta, Sivinh. Cat. Ilet. Mus. Oxon. p. 62. 

c5" . Black ; the shaft of antennae, head, prothorax, and tegulaa 
metallic hlue ; collar crimson ; abdomen ^\ith the 3rd, 4th, and 
last three segments golden above ; the lateral tufts black. Pore 
wing irrorated with metallic-blue scales, especially near the base 
of costa ; a large white spot at end of cell. Hind wing fuscous 
hyaline. 

Hah. Nilgiris. Exp. 26 millim. 

518. Callizygaena gana, Swinh. Trans. Etit. Sue. 1891, p. 133, pi. viii, 

%.. 12. 

S . Differs from auricincta in the lateral tufts of the abdomen 
being crimson. 

Hah. Ganjam. Exp. 28 millim. 

Genus TRYPANOPHORA. 

Trypanophora, Kollar, HilyeVs Kaschmir, iv, p. 467 (1848). 

Type, T. semihyalina, KolL 

liange. China; India, Burma, and Ceylon. 

Antennae with the pectinations short; very short in female. 
Palpi minute and porrect. lore wing with Veins 7, 8, and 9 
stalked, either 7 or 9 being given off furthest from the cell. Hind 
wing with vein 6 absent. 

519. Trypanophora semihyalina, Koll. HUgers Kaschmir, iv, p. 457, 

pi. 19, figs. 1-4 ; Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. ii, pi. xiv, fio-. 0 (iarva) ': 
C. ^- 8. no. 306. ^ 

Trypanophora argyrospila, TFZ/c. Cat. xxxi, p. 126. 

Syntomis humeralis, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1593. 

Trypanophora atkinsoni, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 15 ; C. 8f 8. no. 305. 
Syntomis glaucopoides, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 69; C. ^- 8. no. 279. ■ 

Blue-black ; antennae sometimes whitish towards the tips. 
Frons white in the Hongkong and some JS". India specimens^ 

X. 




Fig. IQQ. — Tri/panophora semihijalina, $. f 

yellow in the others. Tegulte black in one Hongkong specimen 
whitish in another ; orange in some Indian and red in others! 



250 



ZYGJEmDJE. 



Orange spots on pro- and metathorax, either or both of which may- 
be absent. Abdomen : the 5th and 6th segments with orange 
bands ; the anterior segments sometimes with orange lateral spots, 
which in some specimens form complete rather narrow bands. 
Pore wing with one or two subbasal hyaline streaks above the 
snbcostal and one below the median nervure ; in some specimens 
the base of wing is yellowish; the outer discal area hyaline, which 
varies in extent froni tilling the outer part of the cell and the inter- ' 
spaces beyond, leaving only the veins and margins black, to slight 
hyahne streaks between veins 2, 3, 4, and 10, 11, 12, the spots in 
the end of cell and the interspace below being replaced by ochreous. 
Hind wing with costal area pale ochreous ; a black patch towards 
end of cell ; all the interspaces below and beyond with hyaline 
streaks ; the outer margin irregularly black. In the female the 
hyaline patch is sometimes as complete as in the male, sometimes 
reduced to three short streaks beyond the cell; the base of the 
wing being sometimes ochreous. Pectus with yellow spots. 

In typical semihyalina the discal hyahne patches of the fore 
wing are large ; the frons and tegulse orange ; the abdomen with 
only two bands : in argyrosjjila the frons is white, the tegulse 
white or black, the abdomen with the bands on the proximal seg- 
ments complete : in humercdis the discal patches are much 
reduced and sometimes almost absent, the tegulse orange, and 
abdomen with only two bands ; but none of these characters are 
locally constant. 

Larva reddish brown, the tubercles dark brown ; head and legs 
red, the anterior somites yellow at sides and below. 

Hah. Hongkong ; Kashmir : Kangra ; Sikhim ; Calcutta ; 
E. Pegu. Exp., 6 31-36, $ 38-50 millim. 



520. Trypanophora flavalis, n. sp. 

2 . Antennse black, white at three-fourths from base ; frons, 
collar, tegulse, the vertex of thorax, and broad segmental band to the 
abdomen orange. Fore wing orange, the veins and margins black ; 
the outer part of cell and the interspaces beyond hyaline, leaving 
a narrow orange band within the black margin. Hind wing orange ; 
the outer margin black, expanding into a patch near anal angle ; 
veins 2, 3, and 4 streaked with black. 

Hab. Matelei, Burma {Fea). Exp. 43 miUim. Type m Mus. 
Genova. 

521 Trypanophora taprohanes, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 436 ; C. ^- S. no. 307 ; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl ii, p. 40, pi. 95, tig. 8 (larva, 8a). 

Dark indigo-blue; an orange streak on metathorax ; pectus 
crimson. Fore wing with a large discal hyaline patch hlimg the 
end of the ceU and the interspaces above, beyond, and below it, 
and crossed by the black veins. Hind wing wholly blue. 

Larva p urple- brown ; two dorsal and two lateral rows ot seti-, 



TBYPANOPHORiL. SOEITIA. 



251 



ferous tubercles, the lower lateral tubercle of 1st somite long; 
lateral yellow blotches on 10th and 11th somites. 
Hah. Ceylon. Exp., 6 28, $ 44 millim. 

Genus PHLEBOHECTA, nov. 

Type, P. fuscescens, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim ; Burma. 

Fore wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked ; mn 6 absent, 8 and 9 
stalked. Hind wing with vein 8 present. The wings rather 
narrow and apices rounded. Antennae with very minute pectina- 
tions in the female. Mid and hind tibiae with a minute terminal 
pair of spurs. 

522. Phlebohecta fuscescens, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 16 : C. & S. no. 445 - 

Mw. P. Z. S. 1890, p. 386, pi. xxxii, fig. 12. 

c? . Fuscous ; the collar pale red ; the disk of hind wing below 
the cell paler. 




Fig. 167. — Phlebokecia fuscescens, (J. f. 

$ with the inner area of the hind wing below the cell yellowish 
white. 

Hab. Sikhim, 3000 feet. Kvjj., c? 29, $ 36 millim. 
523. Phlebohecta flavicosta, Mw. P. Z. S. 1890, p. 386, pi. xxxii 

ng. 1. ' J. > r ' - ^ > 

2 . Differs horn fuscesceiis in the costal fascia of the fore winff 
being bright golden yellow ; the costa, apex, and apical half of the 
outer margin of the hind wing golden yellow. A specimen from 
Bernardmyo has the margins of the fore and hind wing pale 
yellowish white and much narrower than in the typical Sikhim 
specimen. ^ ^^^^^^u. 

Hab. Sikhim; Burma. E.vp. 42-50 millim. 

Genus SORITIA. 
Soritia, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 435 (1854) 
Retina, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 438 (1854)." 

Type, S. lejptalina, Koll. 

sul^Xneo."' '^^"^^'^^^''^^^^5 Assam; Burma; Malay Penin- 

Palpi minute. Antennse very minutely pectinated in the female. 



252 



Fore wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked, 7, 8, and 9 stalked. Mid 
and hind tibi® with minute terminal pairs of spurs. 

524. Soritia nibrivitta, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 439; C. 8f S. no. 440; Butl. 

111. Het. V, p. 25, pi. 84, fig. 4. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen greenish brown ; collar crim- 
son. Tore wing dark olive-green, with a broad crimson fascia 
from the base along the costa, then curving down to the outer 
angle. Hind wing dark browii. 

Hah. Sikhim ; iSibsagar ; Sjrlhet. Exp. 38 millim. 

525. Soritia leptalina, Koll. HiUjeVs Kaschmir, p. 461 ; C.^S. no. 447. 

Soritia sexpuuctata, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 432 ; C. ^- S. no. 449. 
Heterusia octopunctata, Mosch. Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1872, p. 344; 
C. (§• S. no. 379. 

Heterusia pulcliella, Koll. RilgeVs Kaschmir, p. 461; C. ^ S. no. 380. 
Eterusia triliturata, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 119; C. ^ S. no. 387. 
Beterusia cicada, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 83, fig. 8 ; C. ^ no. 369. 
Heterusia flavomaculata, Mosch. Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1872, p. 343; 
C.(^^. no. 376. 

Soritia olivascens, Moore., Lep. Atk. p. 16 ; C. ^ S. no. 448. 

(5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen black, the last sometimes 
a blue shot; coUar crimson; tegulae yellow. Fore wing dark 
brown, with a greenish tinge ; a yellow triangular patch occupying 
the whole basal area except the margins, this may be reduced to a 
narrow streak and four obliquely placed spots or to any inter- 
mediate state ; a yeUow spot beyond the end of the cell. _ Hind 
wing yellow, with the outer margin black, widest at apex ; this may 
be reduced to spots beyond the cell and the apex alone black,_or 
the darkness of the wing may be increased by a black suiiusion 
along the veins and inner margin. The yellow on both wings may 
be either very pale or bright and dark. 




Fig. 168. — Soritia lejatalina, (S . 

o Head and collar crimson ; thorax yellow, abdomen white 
with metallic blue bands: wings bright yellow, with a Wue spot 
between veins 2 and 3, and another between veins 3 and 4 of the 
fore wing ; hind wing with a blue spot between veins 3 and 4, and 
somedmes one between 4 and 5, these two forms being named 
se^mnctata and octopunctata. In other specimens the ground- 

andTnK^^^^^ there is also a bluish suffusion between 



SOEITIA. 



253 



the nervules and along the inner margin of the fore wing, and the 
outer area of the hind wing is suffused with black, this being 
typical leptalina=pulcheUa=iriUturata. 

Hah. Himalayas; iSylhet ; Bernardmyo, Burma. Exp., 6 
32-40, ? 40-50 millim. 

526. Soritia shahama, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 801 ; C. Sf S. no. 383 ; 
Waterh. Aid, ii, pi. 127, fig. 3. 

(S . Differs from the dark form of leptalina in the collar not 
being crimson; the abdomen with lateral yellow bands ; the post- 
medfal band of four spots is white, as also the spot at end of cell 
of fore and hind wings. Underside : fore wing with white sub- 
marginal streaks ; hind wing with the costal and apical areas 
white. 

$ with the postmedial band of white spots absent ; the one at 
end of cell yellow. Hind wing with the basal area whitish. 
Hab. Sikhim. Kvp. 58 millim. 



527. Soritia viridivena, n. sp. 

$ . Head, thorax, abdomen, and legs black, metallic blue-green 
below. Fore wing black, with a broad yellow outwardly-oblique 
medial band ; the veins green. Hind wing bright golden-yellow ; 
the base black ; the apex with a broad black border, continued as a 
narrowing line to the anal angle. Underside with exterior area 
shot with blue. 

In this and the following species the stalk of veins 4 and 5 of 
the fore wing is short. 

Hab. Sylhet ; Naga Hills, 5000 feet, July (Doherty). Kvp. 44 
millim. Type in B. M. 



528. Soritia nigribasalis, n. sp. 

2 . Differs from viridivena in the band of the fore wing being 
narrow and placed further from the base ; the basal area, of the 
hind wing to near the end of cell and anal angle black, leaving a 
yellow band broadest at the costa, obsolescent towards anal angle. 
Hab. Sikhim (Mdller). Kvp. 44 milHm. Type m coll. Elwes. 



529. Soritia circinata, mrr.-Schiiffer, Samml. aussereur. Schmett. 
p. 67, figs. 156, 157 ; C. Sf S. no. 370. 
Eterusia lasciata, Wlk. Char, undescr. Het. p. 5 ; C. ^- S. no. 375. 

c? . Differs from nigribasalis in the abdomen being shot with 
brilliant blue. Hind win^ black, with an apical yellow band, broad 
at the costa, narrowing to vein 1 6, with four black spots on it 
between the nervules and a narrow marginal black line. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Assam. Exp. 63 millim. 



254 



ZYGJETHIDJE. 



530. Soritia obliquaria, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, p. 194. 
Eterusia tmnsversa, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 118. 
Erasmia eusemoides, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 83, fig. 10. 

Head and thorax brown, the former and antenna) suffused with 
metallic blue ; abdomen ringed brown and white. Fore wing 
brown ; a metallic blue speck at base ; an oblique postraedial 
yellowish-white baud from eosta to vein 1 h. Hind wing brown 
at base and outer margin, the medial half orange ; costa brown, 
expanding into a spot at middle. Underside : fore wing with a 
series of bluish-white marks before the band ; blue streaks on the 
marginal veins : hind wing with some blue at base, on costal spot, 
and marginal nervules. 

Hob. Mergui ; Malacca ; Borneo. Exjp., 6 62-76, $ 80 millim. 

Genus PIDOEUS. 

Pidorus, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 424 (1854). 
Laurion, Wlh. Cat. ii, p. 426 (1854). 

Type, P. glaucopis, Drury. 

Range, japan ; Cbina ; E. Himalayas ; Assam ; Burma ; 
Malacca ; Borneo ; Java. 

The wings broader than in Soritia ; veins 4 and 5 of the fore 
wing not stalked. 

Sect. I. The branches of antennae of female very minute. 

531. Pidorus circunidatus, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 121 ; C. S. no. 371. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen greenish black. Eore wing greenish 
black, with a golden-yellow band from near the base to the middle, 
its outer edge waved. Hind wing golden yellow; a marginal 
greenish-black band narrowing to anal angle. Underside \^ith the 
outer margins shot with greenish blue. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Assam. Exp. 38 millim. 

Sect. II. The branches of antennae in female longer. 

532. Pidorus geminus, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 427 ; C.8f S. no. 433. 

Head and collar crimson ; antennse, thorax, abdomen, and fore 
■wing very dark green, the last with a wide obHque ochi-eous band 
from the costa beyond the middle to the outer angle. Hind w-ing 
deep dark brown. Underside with the costa and outer margins of 
both wings shot with blue. 

In some specimens the head is brown, and the baud on tore wmg 

^^^mih. Hongkong; Sikhim; Sylhet ; Moulmein ; Cambodia; 
Borneo. Exp. 32-40 millim. 



PIDORUS. 



255 



533. Pidorus circe, Boisd., Herr-Schiiffer, Samml. ausserew. Schmett. 
fig. 2 ; C. ^- S. no. 432. 
Laurion metallica, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 426. 

Differs from geminus in the head and collar being green. Fore 
A\ing bronzy green ; hind wing purplish brown, with an ochreous 
spot on the costa below the apex and greenish-blue border. 

Hah. Khasis; Nagas ; Cachar. JSlrp.' 48 millim. 



Fig. 169. — Pidorus circe, J. \. 

534. Pidorus albifascia, Moore, Lap. Ath. p. 19 j C. ^' S. no. 435. 

S ■ Uniform black. Fore wing with the veins greenish ; a 
yellow spot on the costa, with an oblique white band from it' to 
the outer angle. Hind wing ^vith a yellow spot on the costa before 
the apex. Underside with the veins and margins suffused with 
blue. 

Rab. Nagas, 3000 feet ; Sylhet ; Momeit, Burma, 2000 feet. 
Kvp. 48 millim. 

535. Pidoruj glauwpis, Druri/, III. Exot. Ins. ii, p. 11, pi. 6, fig. 4 ; 

- Pidorus atratus, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 401. 

Antennae metallic blue or green ; head crimson ; thorax, abdo- 
men, and legs black-brown ; abdomen shot with blue. Pore wing 
black-brown, with an oblique white band rather variable in width 
from the costa beyond the middle to outer angle. Underside 
suffused with blue. 

^a6. Japan; Sikhim ; Bhutan; Nagas: Cachar; Sylhet. Exn 
6 O0-54, $ 50-60 millim. ^ 

^na m ^' ^""^ 3 5 4' S. 

6 . Dark brown ; a yellow band across the collar and teo-ulte 
lore wmg with a ye low fascia from the base, running below the 
costa to near the end of the cell, then bent down to near middle of 
outer margin ; a yellow apical spot. Hind wing with a broad red 
fascia along the costa expanding into the end of the cell. 
Hab. bikhim; Bhutan. Ecvj>. 32 millim. 



256 



zyg;ekid^. 



Genus HETEROPAN. 

TIeteropan, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 440 (18.'54). 
Birtina, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 125 (1864). 

Type, H. scintillans, "Wlk. 

Eange. Ntigas ; Ceylon ; Burma ; ISTew Guinea ; Piji. 

Palpi rather longer than in the preceding genera. Mid and 
hiud tibite with no spurs. Wings short and quadrate. Pore wing 
with vein 6 given off from the upper angle of the cell ; hind wing 
with veins 6 and 7 from the upper angle of cell. 



Sect. I. The outer margin of fore wng much rounded. 

537. Heteropan scintillans, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 441 ; C, 8r S. no. 437 ; 

Moore, Lep. Cexjl. ii, pi. 96, fig. 3. 

S. Antennae aud frons deep metallic 
blue. Head, thorax, abdomen, and wings 
lavender-blue. Fore wing with bluish 
silvery raised scales on a cupreous band 
along the outer margin, 
j-ig. Heteropan Hah. Ceylon. Exp. 22 millim. 

scintillans, \- 

538. Heteropan cupreatns, Sminn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 157, fig. 10. 

Differs from scintillans in the antennae, head, thorax, and fore 
wings being uniform cupreous brown; the abdomen and bind 
wings deeper blue. 

Bab. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Eccjp. 22 milhin. 




Sect. II. The outer margin of fore wing squarer. 

539. Heteropan flavimacula, n. sp. 

Uniform dark brown, with a large bright yellow patch on the 
fore wing from the costa before the apex to vem 4. 

Hah. Momeit, Burma, 2000 feet, June {Doherty). Exp., 6 22, 
5 26 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

540. Heteropan ochrens, Elw. P. Z. S. 1890, p. 385, pi. xxxiii, fig. 4. 

Antennae purplish black, the tips fulvous. Head black Fore 
wings fulvous ; the cilia black. Hind Mings brighter fulvous, 
except the inner area. Underside bright fulvous. 
^ Bab. Naga Hills, 6000 feet. Exp. 27 millim. 



AEBUDAS. — HEEPA. 



257 



Genus ARBUDAS, 

Arbudas, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 19 (1879). 

Type, A. hicolor, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Shape as in Heteropan ; the palpi shorter. Fore wing with vein 
6 given off below the angle of cell ; vein 11 anastomosing with 12. 

541. Arbudas bicolor, Moore^ Lep. Atk. p. 20, pi. ii, fig. 19 • C S. 
no. 477. ' 

S . Antennae, head, thorax, abdo- 
men, and wings uniform fuscous, with 
a slight purjjle tinge ; collar crimson. 
Underside paler ; a whitish patch on 
disk of fore wing. 

$ . The collar sometimes dark. 
Fore wing rather paler than in ujale, 
the patch on underside pure white 
and extending to the costa. Hind 
wing pure white, with a broad dark 
outer margin; cilia white. 




Fig. 171. 

Arbudas bicolor, J . 



Hah. Sikhim. Exp., ^ 22, $ 32 millim 



Genus HERPA. 
Herpa, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 441 (1854). 
Type, IT. venosa, Wlk. 
Range. Sikhim ; Khasi and Naga Hills. 

The branches of antennsB very long in the male. Mid and hind 
tibue with mmute terminal pairs of spurs. The wings longer • 
fore wing with vein 7 given off further from the cell than 9-11 
not anastomosing with 12. ' 

Sect. I. Fore wing with veins 4 and 5 not stalked. 
542. Herpa venosa, wik. Cat. ii, p. U2; S. no. 439. 

Head and antennae black ; thorax ochreous, marked with black • 
abdomen ochreous, with segmental black bands. Wings primrose^ 
yellow, with the veins and margins black. purarose 

Bah. Khasis. Exp. 46 millim. 



VOL. I. 




Fig. 172.— Herpa venosa, jj". 



258 ZY&M'SIDJE. 

*543. Herpa subhyalina, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 18 ; C. <^ S. no. 438. 

Differs from venosa in the abdomen being greyish ; the wings 
pubhyaline ochreous ; both wings with the costal border blackish 
hind A\'ings with the veins and margins not black. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 60 millim. 

Sect. II. Veins 4 and 5 of the fore wing stalked. 

544. Herpa primulina, Ehces. 

Herpa subhyalina, var. primulina, Eliu. P. Z. S. 1890, p. 382. 

Much brighter yellow than suhhyalina ; the costa of hind wing 
not blackish. 

Hab. Naga Hills, 5000 feet, August. Exp. 58 milhm. 



Genus PINTIA. 
Pintia, Wlk. Cat. ii. p. 280 (1854). 
Type, P. metacliloros, "Wlk., from Java. 

Bange. Hongkong; N.E. and S. India; Burma; Andamans ; 
Nicobars ; Sumatra ; J ava. _ 

Branches of antenna of male not so long as m Herpa. J^rons 
much produced; palpi short. Legs without spurs. Fore wnig 
with the apex pointed, vein 11 anastomosing with 12. Hind wing 
with vein 6 from below the upper angle of cell. 

Sect. I. Veins 6, 7, 8, and 9 of the fore wing stalked together. 

545. Pintia ferrea, Wlk. Cat. ii. p. 431 ; C. 8f S. no. 392 ; Butl. III. 
Bet. V, pi. 83, fig. 7. 
Antenna metallic blue ; head with copper and green tints ; 
thorax copper-red with green markings ; abdomen dark green. 
Fore wing dark coppery red ; the median and submedian nervures 




Fig. 173. — JPintia ferrea, S- 



streaked with green; a short whitish maculate oblique band 
beyond the upper angle of the cell, and two white spots between 
veins 3 4 and 5. Hind wing blackish ; the inner area below the 
ceU suffused with green ; four whitish spots very variable in size. 



PINTIA. — HETEEUSIA. 



259 



and sometimes obsolescent, in the interspaces beyond the cell ; 
ciha white. Underside with the costa of fore wing streaked with 
green ; a white streak in the interno-median interspace : hind wing 
with a white streak in the cell and three below ir ; a submarginal 
series of blue spots on both wings. 

Hah. Hongkong ; Sikhira : Sylhet ; Cachar ; Burma ; Nicobars ; 
Andamans. Exp. 46-56 millim. 

546. Pintia cyanea, Butl. A. M. W. H (5) xii, p. 160. 

Differs from ferrea in the wings being without the whitish spots 
above ; bind wing shot with brilliant metallic blue, abdomen with 
greenish blue. 

Hab. Mergui ; Sumatra. Ea-23. 46 millim. 

Sect, II. Fore wing with vein 6 not stalked with 7. 

547. Pmtia^latipeniiis, Hmpm. HI Het. viii, p. 45, pi. cxxxix, 

S . Differs from ferrea in the antennae being darker blue ; 
thorax and fore wing uniform vinous red, the latter with the 
obhque band and two spots beyond the cell obsolescent ; abdomen 
and hind wing uniform brown, the latter with one white spot 
beyond the cell, the lower spots being obsolete; cilia brown. 
Underside without the costal green streak to fore wint^ or blue 
submarginal spots. The wings broader. 

Hah. Nilgiris, W. slopes, 3000 feet, Aug. Exy. 56 millim. 

Genus HETERUSIA. 

. Eterusia, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii. p. 445 (1841) 
Devanica, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 355. 
Sephisa, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 41 (1883). 

Type, E. tricolor, Hope. 

China; Himalayas; Assam; Sylhet; Burma; S. India; 
Ceylon; Cambodia; Java. 

Fore wing with veins 6, 7, 8, and 9 stalked together; 11 not 
anastomosing with 12. 

Sect. I. The outer margin of the fore wing nearly straight, 
A. The abdomen blue-green above. 
648. Heterusia raja, Moore, Lep. K L Co. p. 320, pi. viii. «, fig. 2; 

$ . Head and thorax green ; collar narrowly crimson ; antennfe 
and abdomen metallic blue, the latter with a green tinge and 
ye low be ow. lore wing bright green, with an outwardly- 
oblique yellow maculate band from the costa beyond the middle to 
near outer ang e ; the spots outwardly edged with black ; the veins 
beWnthem blue. Hind wing yellow ; the veins bordered with 
black ; a curved black band from the lower angle of cell to the 

s2 



260 



outer margin at vein 1 6 ; the outer margin black ; the whole inner 
area from vein 1 6 to the margin blue-green. 
Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 65 millim. 



E. TJie abdomen black, shot with blue. 

549. Heterusia alompra, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 16; C. fyS.no. 368. 
Eterusia urania, Schaus, Ent. Amei: 1890, p. 39. 
Devanica submarginalis, Stoinh. Cat. Het. Mus. Ozon., ined. 

Antennae metallic blue-green ; head and thorax green ; abdomen 
shot with blue. Tore wing dark green, with an oblique yellow 
band from the costa beyond the middle to the inner margin near 
outer angle, some ovate black spots on each side of it, and 
the nervures between it and the black spots metallic blue. Hind 
wing black ; the inner area below the median nervure shot with 
metallic blue ; an apical band of metallic-blue spots decreasing 
from the apex to vein 2. 

In typical alompra there is an oblique series of small yellow 
spots from the end of the cell of the hind wing to the outer 
margin at vein 1 b ; this in submarginalis forms a complete broad 
band, but in the form urania is totally absent on the upperside. _ 

Hab. Sikhim; Bhutan; Assam; Nagas ; Burma; Cambodia. 
Ktp., S 72, $ 62-86 millim. 



C. Abdomen yelloiu ; the first segment black, shot with blue; 
males with segmental black bands above. 

550. Heterusia lativitta, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 15 ; C. fy S. no. 377. 

Eterusia fasciata, 3Jdsch. (nec Walk.), Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1872, p. 340 ; 
C. fy S. no. 375 (part.). 

. Abdomen banded with black above ; the basal yellow patch 

of fore wing wanting. n i t- 

$ . Head, thorax, and first segment of abdomen black. ± ore wmg 
very dark green, with a basal pale yellow patch ; a broad maculate 
band consisting of two irregularly superposed spots just before 
the middle ; a small spot in the end of the cell, and five small sub- 
apical w^hite spots. Hind wing rich blackish brown, with a yellow- 
spot at the end of the cell, and two or three metallic blue spots m 
the interspaces between veins 2 to 5, which are streaked with blue. 
Underside with the veins streaked with blue m places on both 
wings. Abdomen with ventral black bands. ^ 

Hab. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Assam ; Nagas ; Sylhet. Exp. / 0 millim. 

551 Heterusia tricolor, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii. 1841, p. 445, 
pi 31, fif?. 4; C. fyS. no. 380. 
Eterusia sublutea, IVlk. Cat. ii, p. 430 ; C fy S no. 385. 
Eterusia scintiUans, Eerr.-Schliffer, Samml. aussereur. Schmctt. 

Heteriisia"trimacula, Mosch. Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1872, p. 342 ; C. fy S. 
no. 388. 



HETEEUSIA. 



261 



Differs from lativitta in the spots of the medial bands being 
small and well separated ; the spot at the end of the cell and the 
submargmal series larger, the latter complete. Hind wing black 





Pig. 174. — Hetencsia tricolor, § . 



at base ; followed by a j'-ellow band, wide on inner margin, where 
it reaches the anal angle ; apical area black, with a large yellow 
spot at the end of the cell, and two to four blue submarginal spots, 
the two lower with yellow lunules inside them. Underside with the 
black areas largely shot with blue. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Nepal ; Nagas ; E. Pegu. Exp., <$ 6'D, 
$ 75 millim. 



D. The first tiuo segments of abdomen black, no dorsal bands 

in male. 

552. Heterusia edocla, Doubl. Zoologist, ii, p. 468 ; a ^ S. no. 374 
Heterusia dulcis, Butl. III. Hot. v, p. 21, pi. 83, fi- A; C.&- S. no. 373. 
Meterusia signata, Mbsch. Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1872, p. 341 • C &• S 

no. 384. ' > • J • 

Differs from lativitta in the fore wing having the medial band 
broken up into 5 spots ; the submarginal series complete, or 
sometimes almost entirely absent. 

In the form dulcis there is a yellow band from the costa of the 
hind wing across the end of the cell, this being only represented 
m typical erfocZa by a small spot on the underside of costa. 

Bab. i^epal ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Nagas ; Cachar. Exp. 75 millim. 

553. Heterusia magnifica, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1879, p. 5 • id 111 

Bet. V, pi. 83, hg. 2 ; C. S. no. 378. ' 

Differs from edocJu in the fore wing being purple-brown, with a 
slight green tinge, the markings white ; the medial band with blue 

Zl fl 7u'l '^'^ r ^""^ ^"'g in '^'i<^olor, except 
that the basal black patch is larger; the apical area largely sho 

may' be palt b^i^Xt. ''''' '''^'^ ^ ^^^^^ «^ 
$fSmnhm™' ^^''1'" ^ 



262 



ZYGJENIDJE. 



554. Heterusia virescens, Btitl. 111. Jlet. v, p. 21, pi. 83, fig. 3 ; C. ^- S. 

no. 389. 

Differs from magnijtca in the fore wing being dark green ; the 
basal black area of the hind wing larger, reducing the width of the 
yellow band, which is very pale in colour. End of abdomen black 
in male. 

Hah. Khandala ; Nilgiris, 3000-6000 feet. Exp. 76 millim. 

555. Heterusia cingala, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 343 ; 

id. Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 41, pi. 96, fig. 1 ; C. 8f S. no. 391. 

Fore W'ing with the basal white patch and medial band actually 
larger than in virescens, and comparatively much larger, the latter 
placed nearer the base and not broken up into spots ; the submar- 
ginal spots larger. Hind wing with the pale yellow band broader ; 
the subapical spots absent in males. 

Larva brown, with three lateral and two dorsal series of warts ; 
from the former long, from the latter short hairs arise. 

Hob. Ceylon. Ex]3. 55 millim. 

556. Heterusia aedea. Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 767 ; C.^ S. no. 367. 
Differs from virescens va. the spots of the medial band of the fore 

wing being longer ; the cell spot and submarginal spots of both 
wings much larger. Hind wing with the pale yellow band much 
broader. 

iTafe. China; Sylhet. E'.rp. 65 millim. 

Sect. II. The outer margin of the fore wing more excised. 

557. Heterusia drataraja,ilfoore, Lep. E.I.Co. ii,p. 321, pi. viii a, fig. 3. 
S . Frons white. Head, thorax, and abdomen black ; thorax, 

with tlie collar, tegulse, and two longitudinal streaks, fulvous; 
abdomen with fulvous segmental bands. Fore wing fulvous, with 
the following black streaks, two below the costa, one at the be- 
ginning and two at the end of the cell, two in the median 
and two in the interno-median interspace, one along the mner 
margin, and one in each interspace beyond the cell; a mar- 
ginal black band crossed by the fulvous veins and widest at 
the apex. Hind wing fulvous, with the veins broadly edged with 
black ; a broad black band along outer margin. 
iTaS. Java; Mergui. £:rp. 40 millim. 

Genus MILLERIA. 
MiUei-ia, Serr.-Schdffer, Samml. aussereur. Schmett. p. 78 (1858). 
Type, M. virginalis, H.-S. 

lianqe. N.E. India ; Burma ; Malacca ; Singapore; Borneo. 

Erons produced. Mid and hind tibiae with mmute termmal 
pairs of spurs. Fore wing wdth the outer margm not excised ; 
vein 3 from before the end of the cell, 4 and 5 on a long stalk, 7, 8, 
and 9 stalked. Hind wing broad and rounded. 



MILLEEIA. 



263 



558. Milleria virginalis, Herr.-Schdffer, Samml. aussereur. Schmett. 

fig. 4 ; ai^f S. no. 425. 
Cyclosia fuliginosa, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 418 ; C. 8f 8. no. 436 ; Butl. III. 

Het. V, pi. 83, fig. 6. 
Cyclosia subcyanescens, WlJc. Cat. ii, p. 417. 

(S . Head and thorax blackish ; collar crimson ; abdomen pale 
with fuscous bands. Tore wing cupreous brown, with white 




Fig. 176. — Mille7-ia virginalis, J. \. 



streaks in the interspaces,, suffused with fuscous and consisting of 
a series of long streaks towards the base, and short streaks towards 
the outer margin. Hind wing white, with a broad black band 
from the apex to vein 2, enclosing a white spot in each interspace ; 
the median nervure and nervules blue ; the inner area yellow. 
Underside with the veins of both wings blue ; hind wing more 
suffused with yellow. 

$ . Whiter, the fuscous on fore wing reduced to streaks along 
the veins and on the hind wing to a line on the outer margin, and 
a band across the end of the cell, which then bends outwards and 
becomes submarginal. 

The \a,rietj fuUginosa has the abdomen md both wings entirely 
suffused with purplish black, so that only faint traces pf the spots 
and streaks appear. 

ITab. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Burma. Exj>., ^ 62, $ 76 millim. 



559. Milleria cyanivena, n. sp. 

c? . Differs from vm/inalis form fulicjinosa in the veins of both 
wings being shot with greenish blue, the fore wing slightly, the 
hind wmg and underside prominently ; the discal spots of both 
wings absent on upper and under sides ; the submarginal series 
pure white, large, and prominent. 

Hah. Bernardmyo, Burma {Doherixj). Exp. 70 millim. Type 
in coll. Elvves. 



264 



ZYG^NIDiE, 



560. Milleria hamiltoni, Swinh. Trans. JEnt. Soc 1891, p. 475. 

$ . Differs from virginalis in the collar being blue, and only the 
neck crimson ; abdomen blue above. Fore wing green ; pale 
yellow streaks on inner margin, veins 1 h and c, two in middle of 
cell, two above and two below, two in end of cell, a series between 
the nervulos beyond, and a submargiual series. Hind wing pale 
yellow, the inner area bright yellow, the veins beyond the cell and 
apical margin blue. Underside similar, the metallic blue more 
brilliant. 

Hah. Khasi Hills. Exp. 75 millim. 

561. Milleria cardinalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 18; C. ^ S. no. 421. 

c? . Differs from virginalis form fuUginosa in the frons being 
crimson ; fore w^ng with the base and a waved subbasal band 
fuscous ; the apical half white ; the veins and outer margin fuscous. 
Hind wing yellowish, suffused with fuscous, the inner margin 
brighter yellow ; the discocellulars streaked with blue ; outer 
margin broadly white, crossed by the black veins. 
Mab. Sikhim. Exp. 37 millim. 



Genus CHALCOSIA. 
Ohalcosia, Hiibti. Verz. p. 173 (1818). 
Type, G. thallo, Linn. 

Range. China ; throughout India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Malacca ; 
Sumatra ; J ava ; Borneo. 

Fore wing with veins 4 and 5 from cell or on a short stalk. 
Legs without spurs. 

Sect. I. Veins 4 and 5 of the fore wing not stalked; the veinlet 

in the cell not forked. 

562. Chalcosia griseifnsa, n. sp. 

2 . Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing uniform dark blue- 
grey. Hind wing with the basal half yellowish white, suffused 
with blue-grey towards the costa — the Malacca and Singapore 
specimens being more suffused than the one from Pegu ; outer 
area fuscous, widest at apex, narrow at anal angle. Underside 
with a whitish patch on the inner margin of the fore wing below 
the cell: a submarginal series of whitish spots to both A\ings. 
Hind wing with the area below the cell bright yellow, more re- 
stricted in the Singapore specimen than in those from Malacca and 
Pegu. 

AlHed to f eta, Wlk., from Borneo. 

Hah. E. Pegu ; Malacca ; Singapore. Exp. 52 millim. Type 
in B. M. 



OHALCOSIA. 



265 



563, Chalcosia idasoides, Herr.-Schaffer, Samml. aussereur. Schmett. 
p. 78, pi. i, fig. 6. 
Chalcosia albata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 390 ; C. ^ S. no. 408. 
Chalcosia pectiuicornis, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 420 {nec Linn.) ; C. 8f S. 
no. 411 (part.). 

Antennte metallic blue ; frons blue ; vertex of head black ; head 
and collar crimson, the latter with two blue spots ; thorax and ab- 
domen blue-green. Fore wing with the basal half blue-green, 
sometimes white, leaAdng two medial spots, the median vein, and 
veins 1 h aud c where they cross it whitish ; this blue-green area 
terminates in three black spots, one in the cell and two below 
it, and is followed by a broad white band from the centre of the 
costa to near the outer angle ; apical and marginal areas black, the 
veins metallic green ; a subapical band of white spots in the inter- 
spaces. Hind wing pure white, with a black apical marginal band 
crossed by the metallic blue veins. 

Hah. JN'.W. Himalayas; Nepal; Assam. Exp., S 60-68, $ 
68 millim. 



664. Chalcosia argentata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 17; C. &■ S. no. 409. 
Chalcosia diana, Butl. P. Z. 8. 1877, p. 815, 

Differs from idceoides in the hind wing being pale yellow ; the 
marginal band sometimes entirely shot with blue; the fore wing 
sometimes has the basal area blue-green, sometimes white as in 
idceoides. 

Hah. Formosa; N.W. and E. Himalayas; Khasis. Exp., r7 
60, $ 72 millim. ^ ' ° 

565. Chalcosia adalifa, Doubl. A. M. N. H. xix 1847 -a 7Q- C 8c S 

no. 406 ; Butl. III. Het. v, pi. 83. fig. 6. ' ^ • y ■ 

$ . DifEers from argentata in the blue-green patch below the 
cell of the fore wing being absent and replaced by three blue spots 
nearer the outer margin, two in the interno-median interspace 
and one between veins 2 and 3. Underside of hind wing bright 
yellow, except the costa, apex, and apical part of margin 

Hah. Khasi Hills. Exp. 64 milHm. 

566, Chalcosia myrrhina, mnpm. Ill Het. ix, ined., pi. 157, 

6. Differs from argentata in the white of the fore wing not 
being silvery ; the streak from the base being along the costa ; the 
patches in and below the cell being joined and shot with copper ■ 
the apical area purplish coppery, with the spots of the subiiical 
band small. Hmd wing uniform pale yellow, with two black sub- 
apical spots. 

Hah. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exx^. 40 millim. 



266 



ZYGiENID^. 



Sect. 11. The fore wing longer ; veins 4 and 5 stalked ; and 
the veinlet in the cell generally forked. 

567. Chalcosia aflBnis, Gufy-. Voy. Deless. Hist. Nat. p. 86, pi. 24, 
lig. 2 ; C. ^ 8. no. 407 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 98, fig. 2. 

Differs from myrrldna in the whole basal half of the fore wing 
being metallic gx-een, sometimes with a bronzy tint, and with black 
marks before the pale band ; black streaks in the interspaces of 
the apical area. Hind wing with the apex black shot with blue. 

Hah. Western Ghats ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exp. 50 millim. 



568. Chalcosia COrusca, Boisd. Herr.-Schdffer, Samml. aussereur. 
Sckmett. pi. i, fig. 1 ; C. Sf S. no. 410. 
Chalcosia zuleika, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 423 ; C. ^- S. no. 416. 

Differs from affinis in the basal area of the fore wing being 
golden green, traversed by an orange band bordered by blue-black 
on each side, this basal area terminating in a blue-black edge ; the 
subapical spots obsolete. Hind wing with a larger apical blue- 
black patch. 

The hind wing is sometimes pure white. 

Hab. Sikhim; Khasis ; Assam. Exjp., S 50, $ 60 millim. 



569. Chalcosia thallo, Lmn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 756. 

Chalcosia pectinicomis. Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 807 ; C. 8r S. no. 411. 
Chalcosia tiberina, Cram. Pap. Exot. i, p. 52, pi. 32 c, d. 
Chalcosia quadrifasciata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 45, pi. 96, fig. 5 ; 

C. ^ S. no. 413. .. 
Chalcosia venosa, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 422 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. u, pi. 97, 

figs. 2,2a; C. 8f S. no. 405. 
Chalcosia similata, Moore, Lep. Cexjl. ii, p. 45, pi. 97, figs. 3, 3 a ; 

C. k S. no. 414. 

Milleria zehma, Boisd. Herr.-Schaffer, Samml. aussereur. Schmett. 
p. 78, pi. i, fig. 3 ; C.^S. no. 415. 

Differs from affinis in being bluer. The fore wing may have 
the basal area entirely blue-green with black spots, or there may 
be a large white or pale yellow patch below the cell and along the 
inner margin ; the median band is white or pale yellow, and broad 
and irregular, or reduced to a series of irregularly placed spots ; 
the veins of the apical area are more narrowly green than in affnis ; 
the subapical spots are sometimes prominent, sometimes completely 
obsolete. Hind wing white or pale yellow, with a black irregular 
marginal border shot with blue, which colour sometimes extends up 
below the cell to the base, reducing the white area to a patch 
bevond the cell ; sometimes the blue-black colour is entirely 
wanting, except for a small subapical spot, and all the intermediate 
stages seem to occur irrespective of locality. 

FecHnicornis is the darkest form, with the base of fore wing 



CHALCOSIA. 



207 



and most of hind wing dark, in tMllo the hind wing is white 
with a black marginal band, in tiherina the marginal band of the 
hind wing is narrower — these being the Chinese and N. Indian 
forms ; in the Ceylon form quadrifasciata, from sea-level, the 




Y\g.\lQ,—ChalcosiathaUo, c?. \, 



white basal patch to the fore wing appears in combination with a 
dark bind wing ; in venosa, from the hills, the hind wing also is 
mostly pale ; in similata the pale band of the fore wing is wider, 
and the dark area of the hind wing further reduced. 
Hah. China; N.India; Ceylon. £1^^. 50-60 millim. 



570. Chalcosia pretiosa, wik. Cat. xxxi, p. 116 ; C. <S- no 412 • 

Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 96, fig, 4. ' ' 

Chalcosia pretiosa, var. albina, JSmpan. III. Het. ix, ined. pi 157 
fig. 5, } tf ' } 

6. Pore wing as in afinis, except that the white band is 
usually narrower and the subapical spots smaller ; the abdomen 
and hind wing brilliant metallic blue. 

In the form alhina there is sometimes a white basal patch to 
the tore wmg, and the hind wing is white, with the base and outer 
margin only metallic blue. 

Hah. Ceylon. Ecep. 42 millim. 



571. ^isti^cta^^ Voy. Deless. Hist. Nat p. 85, pi. 24, 

AntennsB blue; head and abdomen orange ; thorax grey, striped 
with blue Fore wmg grey, with the following series of blue- 
black spots in the interspaces— one series antemedial, three of the 
spots running back as streaks to the base; the others postmedial 
and submarginal, which join below the cell and are continued as 
one series ; a marginal series. Hind wing white, with a black 
::Zft^Tt^^^^^ costa, and 

4l2:5o3iL''"^^^ ^ 



268 



Genus CORMA. 

Corma, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 124 (1864), 
Oodane, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 17 (1879). 

Type, C ohscurata, Wlk., from Cambodia. 

Range. N.E. India; Burma; Cambodia; Sumatra. 

Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked ; fore wing with the 
veinlet in the cell of fore wing not forked, 4 and 5, and 7, 8, and 9 
stalked, or 9 from cell. 

572. Coma zenotea, Wlk. Cat. ii. p. 425 ; C.^S. no. 444. 
Corma spoliata, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 125. 

Antennae, head, and thorax dark greenish black ; abdomen 
yellow, with black lateral spots and the tip black. Eore wing with 




Fig. 177. — Corma zenotea, $ . \. 



a fuscous band along the basal half of the costa ; a spot at middle of 
cell and one on vein 1 c ; postmedial and margLual maculate bands 
which join towards outer angle. Hind wiug white, with a fuscous 
spot on the costa at end of cell, and a maculate apical band. 

Hah. Kbasis ; Karen Hills; Moulmein; Siam. Exp., <S 40, 
$ 46 millim. 

573. Corma maculata, n. sp. 

§ . Differs from zenotea in the collar being yellow. Tore mng 
with the basal area fuscous, except at inner margin ; the spot in 
the cell much larger ; the spots below the cell four in number and 
much larger, as are the apical and marginal markmgs. Hind ^ang 
with the fuscous spot in the cell obsolescent, but large on under- 
side, on which side also a streak from the costa near the end of 
cell is present ; a large patch below vein 2 ; spots between veins 2 
and 3, and 3 and 4 ; marginal markings large. 

Hab. Chin Hills, W. Burma ( Watson). Exp. 56 millim. Type 
in B. M. 

574. Corma zelica, DouU. A. M. N. H. (1) xix, p. 76, pi. 7, fig. 3 ; 

C. S. no. 44.3. 
Codaue neoterica, Sioinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 177. 
Codane leucomelas, Moore, J. A. S. B. Iv. pt. 2, p. 97 ; C. 4' S. 

no. 442. 

S . Differs from zenotea in the abdomen having segmental blue 
bands above. Tore wing with an oblique broad medial bluish- 



CORMA. — CTCLOSIA. 



269 



black baud followed by a white one ; the apical and marginal areas 
bhiish black, with a series of white subapical spots and, in some 
specimens, the apex white. Hind wing white, with the base 
suffused with fuscous and a broad marginal fuscous band narrow- 
ing to anal angle. 

$ with the base of the hind wing not suffused with fuscous ; 
the abdomen whitish yellow, with the lateral spots, but no bands. 
In one specimen from E. Pegu the median dark band of the fore 
wing is reduced to a series of spots. 

The spots forming the medial black band vary much in size. 

Hah. Sylhet; E. Pegu; Moulmein. Exp., d" 48, $ 54 millim. 



Genus CYCLOSIA. 

Cvclosia, Hiihn. Verz. p. 177 (1818).- 
Klabonua, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 393. 

Tj'^pe, 0. 'panthona, Cram. 

Range. China; N.E. and S. India; Burma; Andamans ; Nico- 
bars ; Java. 

Tore wings with veins 4 and 5 from the angle of the cell, 6 from 
angle of cell or stalked with 7, 8, and 9 ; 11 anastomosing with 
12 ; the veinlet in the cell forked. 



A. Tlie abdomen handed hlue and ivhite. 

575. Cyclosia nigrescens, Moore, P. z. S. 1S77, p. 600 : a &• S. 

no. 422. 

Antenna, head, and thorax metallic blue, the last two marked 
with white. Eore wing black, with the costa blue ; a pale yel- 
low streak below the costa, two in the cell, three below it, 'and 
foiir beyond the cell, the upper one trifid. Hind wiug yellow, 
with a broad black marginal band ; the median nervure and ner- 
VLiles streaked with black. Underside with a submarginal series 
of blue spots to both wings. 

ITab. Andamans; Burma. -Etp. 74 millim. 

576. Cyclopia parvula, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) xii, p. 160; C. ^ S. 

Differs from mc/rescens in having a submarginal series of small 
yellow spots to both wings. 

l/ah. Burma; Andamans; Nicobars. £1^;^. 52 millim. 

6-7. Cyolo^.^m^ I>my, lU. ^ ii, p. 4, p,. 2, 

Phakeua venana, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii, 2. p. 156. 

Differs from iku-vuU in the black markings of tlie fore winff 
being more extensive, so that the streaks and spots are reduced if 



270 



ZYRJENIDjE. 



size. Hind wing with the margiual black border wider, and iu 
some specimens of the same width at anal angle as at apex ; in a 
Javan specimen all the veins are bordered with black. In some 
specimens the colour of the markings is almost white. 

Hah. China ; Sikhim ; Khasis ; Burma ; Mergui ; Java. Exp. 
70 millim. 




Fig. 178. — Cyclosia pajnlionaris, $. \. 



B. The abdomen blue above. 

578. Cyclosia anstralinda, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 45, pi. cxxxix, 
fig. 23. 

2 . Differs from papilionaris in the veins crossing the black 
band of the hind wing being streaked with metallic blue. 
Hab. Nilgiris ; Travancore. E.vp. 70 millim. 



0. The abdomen entirely blue-green. 

579. Cyclosia panthona, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv, p. 68, pi. 322 c ; C.^- S. 
no. 423 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 44, pi. 97, figs. 1, 1 «, 1 h. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen without any white markings. Fore 
wing dull brown, with a greenish tinge. Hind wing purplish 
brown ; both wings with a submarginal series of large white spots 
in the interspaces, which are furthest from the margin at the apex 
of the fore wing; in some Burmese specimens those towards 
the anal angle of the hind wing are wanting. 

Larva pale greenish yellow, the first tw-o and last two somites 
reddish ; three lateral and three dorsal series of warts, which are 
black centred with white ; from the former arise long hairs, from 
the latter short. 

Pmxi in a pale reddish cocoon. 

Hab Hong Kong; Sikhim; Assam; Cacbar; Khasis ; Burma; 
Mergui; Malacca; Siam ; Ceylon. Exp. 6 -AO-GO, $ 60 milhm. 



POMPELOlf. 



271 



Genus POMPELON. 
Pompelon, TVIk. Cat. ii, p. 413 (1854). 

Type, P. marginata, H.-S., from Java. 
Range. Burma ; Penang ; Java ; Celebes. 

Mid and hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. 
Wings broad, with the apex of the fore wing very much rounded. 
Vein 6 from below angle of cell, 7, 8, and 9 stalked ; vein 11 of 
the fore wing anastomosing with 12. 

This genus mimics the blue Euploeas. 



580. Pompelon valentula, S%dnh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 401. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen black-brown ; pectus and abdo- 
men below crimson, the latter with a pair of lateral segmental 
spots. Wings black-brown ; fore wing with the costa and apex 
narrowly metallic blue : hind wing with a large metallic-blue apical 
patch ; the outer margin greyish, which last is the only character 
in which it differs from marginata, Guer., from Penang. Under- 
side of fore wing with a large yellow spot in the upper end of the 
cell, and the veins enclosing the cell streaked with metallic blue. 
Hab. Burma. Exp. 78 millim. 



581. Pompelon subcyanea, Stvinh. Cat. Het. Mus. O.von. p. 72. 

Differs from valentula in the collar being blue, the apical blue 
patch to the fore wing being much larger, and extending down the 



Fig. 119.— Pompelon stibcyanea, \, 

outer margin nearly to the outer angle, and inwards along all the 
nervules and median nervure ; the costal blue streak wide?. Hind 
wnig without the grey margin. Underside with the veins and 
apices of both wings more or less suffused with blue 

^^",6tT84S&.'""° ''''' 



272 



ZYGiENIDJE. 



Genus AMESIA. 
Amesia, Duncan, Nat. Lihr., Eat. vii. p. 93 (1841), 

Type, A. saiigui/lua, Drury. 

Range. N.E. India ; Burma ; Malacca ; Borneo ; Java. 

Claspers in male very much enlarged ; branches of antennse 
short ; frons very much produced, i^ore wing with the apex and 
outer margin rather square ; veins 7, 8, and 9 stalked. 

582. Amesia sanguiflua, Brunj, III. Rvot. Ins. ii, p. 35, pi. 20, 
figs. 1, 2; C.^ S. no. 402. 

Antennfe blue ; head, thorax, and abdomen black, mai'ked with 
metallic blue or green. Fore wing black, with some bluish subbas^al 
marks ; five irregularly placed yellow spots near the base ; the 
veins broadly edged with vinous red from just before the middle of 
the wing to near outer margin ; four small white spots below the 




Fig. 180. — Amesia sanguifliia, . \. 



costa, two in the cell and five beyond ; a submarginal series of white 
spots. Hind wing black, with a broad brilliant blue apical marginal 
band narrowing to anal angle ; two small white spots in the cell on a 
brilliant blue ground and four beyond. Underside with the white 
spots larger, more numerous, and all on blue grounds : a yellow 
spot in cell of hind wing in addition to those on fore wing. 

Hab. Sikhim; Khasis ; Sylhet; Shillong ; Burma. Exp. 100- 
110 millim. 

583. Amesia aliris, Doubl. A. M. N. H. (1) xix. p. 74 ; C. Sf S. no. 400. 

Differs from mnguifiua in the fore wdng being without the 
vinous edges to the veins, and the spots being reddish orange instead 
of yellow. 



AMESIA. EEASMIA. 



273 



A female from the Karen Hills has the anal area of hind wing 
white. 

Hah. Sikhim : Assam; Nagas; Sylhet ; Karen Hills. Exp., 
d 2 , 86-92 millim. 

584. Amesia hyala, Druce, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 518: TVaterk. Aid, ii, 
pi. 172, %. 3. 

Differs from aliris in the thorax having four white instead of blue 
dots ; wings uniform brown, with the veins towards outer margin 
more or less outlined with white. Fore wing with a white dot at 
base; eight white dots beyond the cell between the nervules 
arranged in three series. Hind wing with two blue spots in the cell, 
one below it ; four dots beyond the cell, the two upper ones white. 
Underside with the blue and white spots larger ; additional blue 
spots below the costa and in and below the cell of the fore wing 

ffab. Sikhim ; Borneo. Bxp. 102 millim. 



Genus ERASMIA. 
Ei-asmia, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 446 (1841). 

Type, E. pulchella, Hope. . 

Range. China ; Formosa ; N.E. India. 

Fore \ving with veins 4 and 5 stalked and much curved • 7 8 
and 9 stalked. ' ' ' 

585. Erasmia pulchella, Hoiye, Trans. Unn. Soc. xviii, p 446 
pi. XXXI, fig. 5; C.^S. no. 454. ' ^" ' 

Antennae, head, and thorax metallic blue-green; abdomen 
whitish, more or less suffused with green. Fore wing black; the 
base- suffused with metallic blue-green ; an orange-red irregular 
obhque antemedial band ; a similar metallic blue-green medial baud • 




Fig. I81.~^asmia pulchella, ^ • 



VOL. I. 



274 



ZTQjENIDiE. 



The Tibet race has less blue on the fore wing, and the marginal 
band of hind wing wider. 

llah. Sikhim; Assam; Nagas; Sylhet. Exp., S 80, $ 90 
millim. 



Genus CAMPYLOTES. 

Campylotes, Westw. Hoyle's III. Himal. p. liii (1839). 

Type, C. Jiistrionicus, Westw. 

Range. Tibet ; Himalayas ; Assam Hills. 

Legs with the spurs extremely minute. Frons hardly produced. 
Fore wing with veins 3, 4, and 5 stalked together ; 10 stalked with 
7, 8, and 9 ; veins 2 to 10 all much curved. Hind wing with veins 
4 and 5 stalked ; ^ eins 2 to 5 much curved. 



586. Campylotes Mstrionicus, Westw. Royk's III. Ilimal.^.\m,^\.\0, 
fig. 1 ; C.8f S. no. 456. 
Campylotes histrionicus, var. altissima, Elw. P. Z. 8. 1890, p. 384, 
pi. xxxiii, fig. 1 . 

Campylotes sikkimensis, P. Z. 8. 1890, p. 384, pi. xxxiii, fig. 2. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen blue-black ; tegulse yellow ; pectus 
spotted with yellow ; abdomen banded with yellow below. Fore 
wing blue-black, with two long red streaks below the costa ; two in 
the cell, the upper red, the lower red and yellow ; three yellow 
streaks below the cell ; a red spot between veins 2 and 3 ; a white 
spot in the end of the cell ; a series of six beyond and two sub- 
apical spots. Hind wing blue-black, with a red streak below the. 




Fig. 182. — Campylotes histrionicus, S • \- 

costa • two in the cell, and four below, of which the upper one is 
red, the next red and yellow, and the other two yellow ; a series 
of five red and yellow streaks beyond the cell, and a red and yellow 

spot between veins 4 and 5. , „ n ^, r • „„j 

In the form altissima the spot m the cell of the fore wmg and 
the one on the costa above are yellow, also the spots between veins 
3 and 4, and 4 and 5. Exp., 51-56 millim. 



OAMPYLOTES. — OADPHISES. 



275 



In the form sikTcimensis (e.vp., d 44, 2 62 millim.) all the 
spots towards the apex of the fore wing are yellow, and the collar 
is yellow in the female. These differences are perfectly constant 
in a large number of specimens. 

In a var. of histrionicus from the Khasis the whole of the red 
markings are turned to orange. 

Hah. Throughout the Himalayas ; Khasis. Ex_p. 80 millim. 

587. Campylotes desgodinsi, oherth. Et. Ent. Hvr. ix, p. 18 pi ii 

fig. 10. > r > r • > 

Campylotes desgodinsi, var. splendida, Eho. P. Z. S. 1890 p 384 
pL xxxiii, fig. 3. > t- > 

$ . Differs from the form sikkimensis of histrionicus in having 
the tegulas and collar black. ^ 

In the form splendida, from the Naga Hills, besides the size bein<r 
greater, the coloration is much brighter and the ground-colou? 
blue-black not greenish. 

^t^tsSm ^^r- spT'endida. Hah. Nagas. 

588. Campylotes atkinsoni, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 17 ; C. & S no 455 • 

Waterh. Aid, ii, pi. 92. . . , 

With no yellow on thorax or abdomen. Wings shot with 
green Fore wiug with two red streaks below the costa ; two in 
the cell and three obsolescent streaks below; a red streak between 
veins 2 and 3 ; a series of four white spots beyond the cell and 
two subapical white spots. Hind wing shot with green ; all the 
red markings obsolescent except the spots in the interspaces between 

VGIUS ^ to 

Underside with the red streaks of the hind wing well develoned 
Hob. Sikhim. Exjp. 72 millim. 



Genus CADPHISES. 
Cadphises, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 800. 

Type, C. macidata, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim; Khasis; Nagas 

.Jil''^^'''^^- tibiae with short terminal pairs of 

=d - — i^^ 

589. Ca^dp^l^jes mac^^^^^^ Moore, P Z S. 1865, p. 801, pi. 42, fig. 7 ; 

Antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen purplish black, spotted with 

I 2 



276 



ZTGjENIDJE. 



white. Wings purplish black, with numerous small white spots. 
Hind wing bright yellow from the inner margin to vein 1 b. 
Hah. Sikhim ; Khasis. Exp. 70-90 millim. 




Fig. 183.— Cadphises maculata, 2 • \- 

590. Cadphises moorei, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 392 ; C. 4' S. no. 362. 

9 Differs from maculata in the inner margin of the hind 
wing being purplish black, spotted with white, similar to the rest ot 

^^Thirmay prove to be a variety of maculata, as some specimens 
have a tendency to be intermediate. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Nagas. Exp. 70-88 millim. 



Genus ISBARTA. 
Isbarta, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1672 (1856). 
Type, I. glauca, Wlk., from Sumatra. 

llmge. Bhutan; Assam Hills; Burma; Borneo; Sumatra; 

^'pore'wing with vein 6 stalked with 7, 8, and 9, aU being much 
curved • 10 bent upwards and touching 12 ; 11 anastomosing with 
12; numerous veinlets from 12 to the costa. 

591. Isbarta binghami, £utl A. M. N. R. (5) x, 1882, p. 374; 
C. 8f S. no. 417. 

o Antennae metallic blue; head, thorax, and abdomen black 
f ' W Fore wine white : the costa, subcostals, and median 
""""^ fhlne alUhe nrrvures bordered with black; black spots 
nervures blue ; aii tne neivuic submareinal series of 

hUok- cilia of both wrings white. 

This species is probably a mimic of nana^s crocea. 



ISBAETA. — OALLAMESIA. 



277 



In Coll. B. M. is a specimen of /. pieridoides, H.-S., labelled Dar- 
jiling, but as it is a Bornean species and an excellent mimic of 
Idiopsis daos, which does not occur in Sikhim, and as the specimen 
was bought at an auction, the locality is almost certainly wrong. 

Hab. Tenasserim. E.vp. 74 millim. 




Fig, 184. — Isbarta binghami, {. 



592. Isbarta imitans, Butl. 111. Het. v, p. 24, pi. 84, fi^^. 1 ; C. &■ S. 

no. 418. o • 

S . Antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen metallic blue or green, 
with white markings. Wings cupreous brown, with yellowish- 
white spots and streaks in the interspaces ; fore wing with one streak 
below the cell, two in the cell, and three longer streaks below it, six 
spots beyond the cell and a submarginal series of six spots. Hind 
wmg with the inner area shot with green ; two streaks in the cell 
and three belovy it, and a series of five streaks beyond the cell. 

$ with the inner area of hind wing not shot with green. 

An excellent ' mimic ' of Danais acjlea. 

Hah. Bhutan ; Karen Hills. Exp., ^ 72, $ 84 millim. 

593. Isbarta cuprea, Sioinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 475. 

2 - Fore wing brown, shot with purplish cupreous ; a smaU basal 
white spot ; a submarginal obsolescent series of spots. Hind wino- 
brown ; two pale streaks in the cell ; a series of streaks betweeS 
the nervules beyond the cell. Cilia of both Mnngs whHe. Under- 
side with the costa of both wings blue. 

Hab. Khasis ; E. Pegu. Kvp. 80 millim. 

Genus CALLAMESIA. 

Callamesia, Butl. A.M.N. H. (5) xvi, p. 345 (1853). 
Type, C. mtrfama, H.-S. 
Range. N.E. India ; Burma ; Malacca ; Nias. 

7 lCZTS\^^\^'^''^ Vn^"''^ a bar to 1 6 ; veins 6, 

7^ 8 and 9 stalked, vein 10 not quite touching 12, 11 anastomosing 
with 12 ; numerous vemlets between 12 and the costa 



278 



zYGJEmnJE. 



594. Callamesia midami, Ilerr.-Schaffh; Samml. aussereur. ScJiniett. 

pi. 2, fig. 7 ( d ) ; C.^S. no. 401." 
Cyclosia venusta, Wlk. Cat. ii. p. 416 ; C. ^ S. no. 424. 
Epyrgis liormenia, Herr.-Schdffer, Samml. aussereur. Schmett. pi. 2, 

fig. 8 ( 2 ) ; C.SfS. no. 404. 
Amesla stelligera, Butl. III. Het. v. p. 23, pi. 83, figs. 8, 9 ; C. 8f S. 

no. 403. 

S . Antennae metallic blue ; head, thorax, and abdomen black, 
the last banded with white below ; the collar spotted with 
blue ; abdomen and hind wing shot with purple. Fore wing 
with two series of small white spots ; the apex and outer margin 




Pig. 185. — Callamesia midama, . \. 

brilliant blue. Hind wing with the apex brilliant blue ; the two 
series of spots sometimes more or less reproduced. Underside 
with two white spots in the cell of the fore wing and two beyond ; 
the two series of submarginal spots larger and present on both 
wings ; the costa and outer margin of both wings brilliant blue ; 
the inner area purplish, 

9 with the fore wing less shot with blue ; two spots m the cell, 
two oeyond, and two below the cell in addition to those of the 
male. Hind wing with two series of spots well represented, and 
also with two spots in the cell. 

In the form stelligera the inner submarginal series ot spots on 
the hind wing is small ; in midama those towards the inner margin 
become streaks; whilst in liormenia these streaks occupy the 
greater part of the cell and the interspaces below it. One Sikhim 
female is browner, with scarcely any blue shot on upperside. These 
variations occur irrespective of locality and only m the female. 
The species is a beautiful ' mimic ' of the blue Euplcea^. 

Eah. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Nagas ; Sylhet ; Burma : Siam. 
Exp., S 74, $ Se^millim. 

Genus GYNAUTOCERA. 

Gynautocera, Gu^r. Mag. Zool. 1831, Ins. pi. 12. 

Type, 0. papilionaria, Gruer. 

Range. Himalayas ; N.E. India : Calcutta ; Burma. 



G YN A UTOCERA . — HISTl A . 



279 



The fore wing very much produced at apex, so that the outer 
margin becomes very oblique ; veins 7, 8, and 9 stalked ; numerous 
veinlets between vein 12 and the costa. Hind wing rounded; mid 
and hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. 

595. Gynautocera papilionaria, Gucr. Mag. Zool. 18^]1, pi. 12: 
C. 8f S. no. y99. 
Chalcosia selene, Koll. Hiiqers Kaschmir, iv. p. 463. 
Histia iv&ievwA, Moore, P.' Z. S. 1883, p. 15 ; C. ^ S. no. 397. 
Gynautocera rara, Sioinh. Trans. JSnt. Soc. 1891, p. 476. 

Antennae metallic blue; head, thorax, and abdomen black; 
vertex of head crimson ; pectus and segmental bands on abdomen 
below and end ot abdomen crimson. Wings black; fore wing with 
a greenish tinge, and the veins of the outer half bordered with 
greenish fuscous; hind wing shot with deep blue; a large white 




Fig. 18(5. — Gynautocera papilionaria, ^. \ 



patch between veins 2 and 5, extending slightly into the cell and 
with its edges and the veins crossing it metallic blue. Base of 
wings below crimson. 

In the form fraterna the white patch of the hind wing extends 
to the costa and nearly to anal angle, whilst in mm it is small and 
suffused with blue and there is a little crimson on the metathorax 
•^"^i The Himalayas ; Calcutta; Assam; Ndgas ; SylhetrBas- 
sein (Pegu) ; Tenasserim. E.vp. 84-96 millim. 



Genus HISTIA. 
Histia, Hiibn. Verz. p. 198 (1818). 
Type, H. JlabeUicornis, Fabr. 
Bange. N.E. & S. India ; China ; Burma ; Java. 
Fore wing with shape and venation as in Gynautocera, except 
that vein 11 anastomoses with 12. Hind wing with the outer 
margin produced into a long tail, and the cell lengthened and 
narrowed. ° 



280 



596. Histia flabellicornis, Fabr. 8p. Ina. i\, p. 363 ; C. Sr S. no. 39(5. 
Papilio rhodope, Cram. Pap. E.vot. i. pi. 30 k. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore M'ing coloured as in Gynautocera 
ixipilionaris, except that the abdomen is marked with blue. Hind 



wing brilliant metallic blue or green to near the end of cell, the 
distal portion black, with a slight blue shot. Underside with the 
bases of the wings crimson, the basal half with a blue spot. 

Hah. Hong Kong: Sikhim ; Assam; Khasis ; jNagas ; Burma. 
Exp. 70-80 millim. 

597. Histia nilgira, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 18 : C. ^ S. no. 398. 

Differs from flabellicornis in the metallic-green colour of the 
hind wing extending to beyond the cell in the male ; female mth 
a broad whitish band aci'oss the hind wing beyond the cell includ- 
ing the extremity of the cell and widest on the disk. 

Hah. Slopes of Nilgiris, 3000 feet. Exp. d 68, ? 78 millim. 

598. Histia albimacnla, n. sp. 

Histia selene, Wlk. (nec Koll.) Cat. ii, p. 413. 

(S from Burma differs from that sex of flabellicornis and 
nilgira in having a white patch below the end of the cell of the 
hind wing between veins 2 to 4. The $ from Java has the white 
band as in nilfjira. 

Hab. Moraeit, Burma, 2000 feet {Doherty), and Java. Kvp. 
68 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



599. Histia cometaris, ButL A. M. N. H. (6) x, 1882, p. 374; C. Sf S- 
no. 396. 

S . The basal half of the hind wing black, A\ith a very slight blue 
suffusion towards the inner margin ; the white band extends from 
the inner margin to the cell, but does not reach the costa. 

Hab. Tenasserim ; E. Pegu, 3000 feet. Exp. 76 miUim. 




Fig. 187. — Histia flabellicornis, (S . \. 



CANEBOES. — PHILOPATOB. 



281 



G-enns CANERCES. 
Canerkes, Moore, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 802. 

Type, G. euscTiemoides, Moore. 

Range. Eastern Pega ; Sylhet ; Sikhim. 

Palpi very minute. Legs without spurs. Pore wing with the 
outer margin excised ; vein 3 from the end of the cell ; 4 and 5 
stalked ; 6, 7, 8, and 9 stalked together, and not curved. Hind 
A^dng broad and square ; vein 6 absent. 

600. Canerces euschemoides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 802, pi. 42, 
fig. 8 ; C. ^ S. no. 349. 

c? . Antennae blue-black ; head and thorax yellow, with black 
markings ; abdomen yellow, with black segmental bands. Pore 
wing with the basal half yellow ; two blue-black spots near the 




Fig. 188. — Canerces euschemoides, . 



base, one in the cell, and a larger blue-black spot on inner margin ; 
distal half of wings deep blue-black, with black streaks in the inter- 
spaces; a white spot in the end of the cell, five beyond, and two 
in the interno-median interspace. Hind wing yellow, with an 
irregular black patch on the apex and outer margin, extending 
round below the cell and enclosing three yellow spots between 
veins 2 to 5; vein 16 streaked with black. ' Underside with the 
apical half of fore wing brilliant blue. 

A beautiful ' mimic ' of the Buschemas of the hellona group 
Eab. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; E. Pegu, 1000 feet. Exp. 62 millim. 

Genus PHILOPATOR. 

Philopator, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 800. 

Type, P. hasimaculata, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim to Manipur. 

Wings rounded. Pore wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked, 7, 8 
and 9 stalked ; 11 anastomosing with 12. Hind wing with vein 6 
present. 



282 



601. Philopator basimaculata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 800, pi. 42, 
fig. 0 ; C.Sf S. no. 360. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow. Fore wing with the 
base yellow, edged with black and with two series of black spots on 




Fig. 189. — Philopator basimaculata, !• 

it ; the rest of the wing milky white, the veins and margins fus- 
cous : two fuscous spots at the end of the cell and fuscous streaks 
in each of the marginal interspaces. Hind wing similar to the 
fore wing, except that tbere is only one black spot on the yellow 
basal patch and one in the end of the cell. 

S . Tbe wings narrower ; the outer half of botb wings suffused 
with fuscous. 

Hah. Sikbim ; Nagas ; Manipur. Exp., S 50, $ 44-58 millim. 

Genus AGALOPE. 
Agalope, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 437 (1854). 

Type, A. Tiyalina, Koll. 
Range. Himalayas ; Burma. 

Wings shorter than in Philopator; the outer margin of fore 
wing more erect ; vein 11 not anastomosing with 12 ; veins 4 and 
5 rarely from tbe cell. 

602. Agalope hyalina, Koll. HUgets Kaschmir, iv, p. 462. 

Agalope basalis, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 438 ; Butl. III. Het. v, pi. 84, fig. 5 ; 
C. 8f 8. no. 429. 

Ao-alope primularis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 392 ; id. III. Het. v, 
pi. 84,% 7; C. -S. no. 431. ^ „ ^ 

Agalope glacialis, Butl. III. Het. v, p. 26, pi. 84, fig. 6; C. ^ S. 
no. 430. 

Antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen black. Wings yelloMdsh 
hyaline ; fore wing with tbe base orange ; a fuscous baud across 
the cell,' which is sometimes continued as a waved line to near the 
outer angle ; the apical marginal area fuscous ; tbe veins crossing 
it dark ; a pale spot between veins 7 and 8, and a larger one 
between veins 3 and 4. Hind wing uniform yellowish hyahne. 

In the var. primularis the basal orange patch to the fore wing 
is generally absent ; the area below tbe cell is brighter yellow, and 
the transverse band and apical fuscous area are more extensive. 



AGALOPE. — CHELXJEA. 



283 



in glacialis the wings are whitish hyaline ; the cell of the fore 
wing from the orange basal patch to near the end suffused with 
fuscous. 




Fig. 190. — Agalope hyalina, \. 



Hah. Himalayas, from Simla to Sikhim : Manipur ; Burma. 
Exp., (S 42, $ 50 millim. 



Genus CHELURA. 
Chelura, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 444 (1841). 

Type, C. bifasciata, Hope. 
Range. The Himalayas ; Burma. 

Tore wing with the apex more produced than in Agalope ; the 
outer margin more oblique and excised ; veins 4 and 5 on a longer 
stalk ; veins 10 and 11 given off closer together. 

Sect. I. Veins 4 to 9 of fore wing not much curved ; vein 6 
from below the angle of cell. 

603. Chelura hifasciata, Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii, p. 444 • C & S 
no. 451. ,^ , ^.or >^>. 



Antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen black, the terminal seg- 
ments of the last consisting of red-brown horny plates. Wings 




"Pig. 191.— Chelura bifasciaia, . j. 



uscous hyahne, the veins blackish; fore wing with the base black. 



284 



then a aubbasal orange band edged with black ; an orange medial 
band edged with black. 

Hah. NainiTal; Nepal; Sikhim ; Assam. Exp. 90 millini. 

Sect. II. Veins 4 to 9 of the fore wing much curved ; vein 
6 given off close to 7. 

604. Chelura eronioides, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 16 ; C. 8f S. no. 452. 

Differs from hifasciata in the fore wing having a small white spot 
on the basal black patch ; the subbasal orange band present, but 
not the medial orange or fuscous bands ; the marginal area with 
the pale patches between the fuscous-edged veins reduced to spots. 
In one abnormal specimen vein 6 of the hind wing forks before the 
margin. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 64 millim. 

605. Chelnra basiflava, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 391 ; C.S^S. no. 450 ; 

Waterh. Aid, ii, pi. 131, fig. 3. 

Differs from eronioides in the collar, tegulse, and end of abdomen 
being chestnut ; the whole base of fore wing chestnut ; two fuscous 
antemedial bands on a pale ground ; the outer half fuscous, with 
four pale spots in the cell and a series between the nervules beyond 
the cell. Hind wing with the base pale ; the outer area fuscous, 
with a series of pale spots beyond the cell. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 68 milbm. 

606. Chelura glacialis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 570; C. Sf S. no. 453. 

S . Collar and thorax oHve-brown ; the first and last segments of 
abdomen olive-brown, the medial segments whitish, with a lateral 
white stripe. Pore wdng with the base olive-brown, followed by a 
whitish-hyahne area, then an irregular fuscous band ; the apical 
marginal area fuscous, with pale spots in the interspaces. Hind 
wing whitish hyaline, with a fuscous spot at the end of the cell, and 
the outer margin fuscous. 

5 with the fuscous markings on the wings much reduced. 

Appears to " mimic" Abraxas leopardina. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Burma. Exp. 57 millim. 

Genus ELCYSMA. 

Elcysma, Btitl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1881, p. 4. 

Type, E. westwoodi, Voll., from Japan. 
Eange. Japan ; Naga Hills. 

Fore wing as in Ghelura Sect. I. Hind wing with the outer 
margin produced into a long tail between veins 3 and 7 ; veins 4 
and 5 stalked. 



EI.CYSMA. 



285 



607. Elcysma dohertyi, Mto. P. Z. S. 1890, p. 386, pi. xxxiv, fig. 4. 

J . Antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen black. Wings fuscous 
hyaline, with the veins darker. Pore wing with a small basal black 




Fig. 192. — Elcysma dohertyi, J. }. 



patch, followed by a broad subbasal orange band, edged with fuscous. 
On the left fore wing of the type veins 7 and 8 anastomose before 
the margin. 

Differs from weslwoocli in vein 10 of fore wing being given off 
much closer to the end of the cell ; veins 4 and 5 of hind wing 
being on a shorter footstalk, and 7 being given off from 6 just 
before the margin instead of from the cell. 

Hah. Nagas, 5000 feet. Exp. 72 miUim. 



Subfamily PHAUDIN.'E. 

The mouthparts wanting ; branches of antemiEe not dilated at 
extremities ; antennae not flabellate at tips. 



Key to the Genera, 

a. Hind wing broad and rounded. 

a'. Fore wing with vein 1 c present, 3 and 4 
stalked ; 11 not anastomosing with 12 . 
Fore wing with vein 1 c absent, 3 and 4 
from the cell; 11 anastomosing with 12. 

b. Hind wing long and narrow. 

a'. Abdomen without tufts of hair 

h'. Abdomen with short lateral and long 
anal paired tufts of hair ° 



1. BORADIA, p. 286. 

2. Anomceotes, p. 286. 

3. Alophogasteb, 

[p. 287. 

4. Phauda, p. 287. 



286 



ZIGiENID^E. 



Hind winf^ with the outer margin produced 
into a long tail, or in some females the 

whole wing filamentous ; frenulum [ p. 288. 

^^Sent 5_ HiMANTOPTEEUS, 



Genus BOEADIA. 

Boradia, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 391. 

Type, B. carneola, Moore. 
Range. N.W. Himalayas. 

Pore wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked ; 6 from the upper angle 
of the cell ; 7 and 8 stalked ; 9 and 11 absent. Hind wing with 
all the veins from tli« cell, or 3 and 4 abnormally stalked. Mid 
and hind tibiae without spurs. 




Fig. 193. 
Boradia carneola, . \. 



608. Boradia carneola, Moore, P. Z. S. 
1879, p. 392 ; C. ^ S. no. 366. 

Antennae, head, and thorax grey ; 
abdomen black. Wings uniform yel- 
lowish hyaline. 

Hab. kangra. Exp. 36 millim. 



Genus ANOMffiOTES. 

Anomceotes, Feld. Iteis. Nov. pi. C, fig. 5, JErkl. Set. p. 1 (1874). 
Akesina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 395. 

Type, A. levis, Eeld., from Natal. 
Range. Kangra ; Natal ; Angola. 

Antennae bipectinated. Mid and hind tibiae without spurs. 
Pore wing with vein 1 c absent, 6 from near the middle of cell, 7 
and 8 stalked, 9 and 10 absent, 11 anastomosing mth 12. 

609. Anomceotes basalis, Moore, P. Z. S. 
1888, p. 396; Butl. III. Het. 
vii, p. 28, pi. cxxi, fig. 9 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 491 B, 

. Antennae fuscous ; head, thorax, 
and abdomen pale fulvous. Base of 
wings fulvous, the remainder semidia- 
phanous, fuscous. 

Hah. Kangra. Exp. 28 millim. 




Fig. 194. 
Anomceotes basalis, <J . t- 



ALOPHOGASTBR, — PHAUDA. 



287 



Genua ALOPHOGASTER, nov. 

Type, A. rubribasis, Hmpsn. 
llange. Naga Hills. 

Antennae bipecfcinated, with short branches. Fore wiiig with 
all the veins from the cell. Hind wing long and narrow. Ab- 
domen without tufts of hair. Tibise without spurs. 



GIO. Alophogaster rubribasis, 




Fig. 195. 
Alophogaster rubribasis, . \. 

Hob. Naga Hills. Exp. 27 



u. sp. 

(S . .Antennae black; head, 
thorax, and abdomen scarlet, the 
last with black bands on the 
segments above. Wings semi- 
diaphanous fuscous ; fore wings 
with the base scarlet ; the rest of 
the wing with purple tints in a 
side light, 
aillim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



Genus PHAUDA. 
Phauda, Wlk. Cat. \, p. 2o6 (1854). 

Type, P. jlammans, Wlk. 

Range. China; Norfch Indi i ; Java; Sumatra. 

Antennae with short bipectinations in the male, simple in the 
female. Wings very long and narrow ; fore wing with the apex 
rounded and outer margin very oblique ; hind wing with vein 6 
from near the middle of discocellulars. Mid and hind tibi^ with 
minute terminal pairs of spurs. Abdomen with lateral tufts of 
hair on all except the first two segments, and a pair of long anal 
tufts in the male. 



Sect. I. Fore wing with veins 

CU. Phauda flammans, Wlk. 
Butl. III. Het. i, p. 20, pi. 9, 




Fig. 196. 
Phauda Jlammans, . \, 

Ilab. Simla; Sikhim; Burma. 



1 7 and 8 arising from the cell. 

Cat. i, p. 257; C. ^ S. no. 284: 
fig. 2. 

Antennae black, with white 
tips ; head and thorax scarlet : 
abdomen black, sparsely covered 
with scarlet hairs and with thick 
scarlet lateral tufts, a pair of 
loug, black, anal tufts in the 
male. Pore wing scarlet; a 
large, rounded, black patch on 
outer margin. Hiud wing semi- 
dia )hanous ; the basal area 
led lish, the outer area blackish 
E^W-, 6 34, $ 30 millim. 



288 



ZTGjENlDjE. 



Sect. II. Fore wing wiili veins 7 and 8 stalked. 

612. Phauda fuscalis, Sioinh. Cat. Ret. Mm. Oa.'on., ined. 

$ - The wings fuscous, with only the base of fore wing red. 
Ea^. 43 millim. 



Ilab. Assam. 



Genus HIMANTOPTERUS. 



Iliraantopterus, Westmael, Bull. Acad. Brux. in, p. 
Thymara, Doubleday, Zoologist, i, p. 197 (1843). 



162 (1836). 




Fig. 197. — Himantopterus 
zaida, . \. 



Type, H. fuscinervis, "Westm., from Java. 
Range. Africa ; Assam ; S. India ; Burma ; Java. 
The antennae bipectinated in the male, serrated in the female. 
Mid and hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. Frenu- 
lum absent. Wings covered with hair-like scales ; the neuration 

varies so much that a genus might be made 
for each species ; the hind wing narrow 
and terminating in a long tail, in the 
females of some of the species filiform 
throughout. The neuration of hind wing 
much aborted ; the costal and internal 
veins, when present, anastomose for some 
distance with the subcostal and median, 
which meet toward the end of the broad 
part of the wing to form the cell. 

They are degraded forms which have 
arisen from an ancestral type ; the veinlet 
in the cell and vein 1 c of fore wing being 
more or less developed, show that they belong to the Zygcenidce, 
and the absence of mouthparts places them in the subfamily 
Phaudince near Pryeria, while on the other hand they are allied to 
the Psyehidce. 

613. Himantopterns dohertyi, Ehoes, Trans. Ent. Sac. 1890, p. 332, 

pi. X, figs. 1-7. 

(S . Fuscous ; the collar and end of abdomen orange. Fore wing 
with the disk diaphanous ; veins 4 and 5 from the lower angle of 
the cell, 10 and 11 absent. Hind wing with the basal part orange, 
the distal portion and tail black, with a few yellowish hairs at tip ; 
neuration less aborted than the other members of the genus, 8 
veins being present. 

5 . The thorax ochreous : the w^hole of fore wing diaphanous ; 
hind wing filiform throughout, but with the neuration as in male. 
Ifah. Naga Hills, 5000 feet. Uxp., d 24, ? 34 millim. 

614. Himantopterns candatus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 3945 ^ -S- 

no. 458; Mwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, pi. x, figs. 9, 11. 

Differs from dohertyi in the disk of the fore wing being red- 
dish ; veins 4 and 5 stalked and 10 present. Hind wing broader 
and orange, with a round black spot below the cosla and another 
near the anal angle ; the tail black ; veins 1 and 3 absent. 

Hah. Nilgiris and Wynaad, 3000 feet ; Burma. Exp. S 
20 millim. 



PSYCHIDiE. 



289 



615. Himantopterus zaida, DouhUday, Zoohrjist, \, p. 197 ; Ehoes, 
Trans. JSnt. Soc. 1890, pi. x, figs. 8, 10 ; C. ^ S. no. 459. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous. Fore wing ochreous, 
with the veins and margins black. Hind wing broader than in 
caudatus and ochreous, with two similar black spots and the tail 
black ; veins 1, 3, and 4 absent. 
Ilab. Khasi Hills. Exp. 20 millim. 



The foUoiving species formerly recorded as Indian are omitted. 

Dehos iratus, Swinh., C. & S. no. 277, is probably a Tinea. 
Dioptis perdica, Cram., C. & S. no. 350, Geometer from Amboina. 
Oodane leiicomelas, Moore, C. & S. no. 442, is from Siam. 
The genus Chaiamla, Moore, C. & S. nos. 426, 427, 428, belongs 

to the Epiplemidce. 
Atossa nelcinna, Moore, C. & S. no. 457, belongs to the Uraniidce. 
C. & S. nos. 351-359 form the family Epicopiidce. 



Family PSYCHIDiE. 

The larvce feed in a case composed of a 
silk lining with twigs, grass, and bits of 
leaves or vegetable matter attached to the 
outside. The pupa is formed inside the 
larva-case. The perfect female also lives in 
the case and is devoid of legs,wings, antennae, 
and mouth-parts (being thus merely a 
vermiform egg-sac) ; the three thoracic 
segments bear corneous dorsal plates. In 
the genera Bijugis and Fumea, however, 
the antennae are articulated. Copulation 
takes place by the male alighting on the 
case and inserting his protrusible abdomen 
between the case and the ventral surface of 
the female ; in Fumea the female comes out 
of the case for copulation. Parthenogenesis 
is known to be the normal method of re- 
production in Apterona helix, but it is ex- 
tremely doubtful if it often occurs in other 
species of Psychidce. 

The males have the antennae bipectinated 
(or serrate in the genus Apterona); the 
proboscis, palpi, and ocelli absent. Pore wing 
with two internal nervures, 1 6 being forked 
TT- J ' . , 5 a single or forked veinlet in the 

ceil. Hind wmg with a frenulum and three internal nervures.* 

VOL. I. 

V 




Fig. 198.— LaiTa of 
Clania crameri. \ . 



290 PSYCHID^. 



Key to the Subfamilies. 

a. VoYB wing Math veins 1 b and c anastomosing. 
a. Fore wing with vein 1 h sending several 

branches to inner margin 1. CEceticince. 

v. Fore wing witli vein 1 h sending no branch 

to inner margin 3. Ghaliince. 

b. Fore wing with veins 1 b and c anastomosing 

or separate. 
a'. Fore wing with vein 1 b sending one 

branch to inner margin 2. Psychhu^. 

c. Fore wing with veins 1 b and c separate ; 1 b 

sending no branch to inner margin. 

a. Hind tibiae with one pair of spurs 5. Psychoidince. 

v. Hind tibise with two pairs of spurs 4. Canephorince. 



Subfamily (ECETICIN^, H.-S. 

Fore wing with vein 1 c anastomosing with 1 b, which emits 
several branches to the inner margin ; a forked veinlet in the cell 
of both wings. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Antennae bipectinate to two-thirds length; 

abdomen long; wings long and narrow .... 1. CEceticus, p. 290. 

b. Antennae bipectinate to tip ; abdomen shorter j 

wings broader and shorter. 

a'. Fore tibia with a spine 2. Clania, p. 291. 

b'. Fore tibia without a spine 3. Amatissa, p. 292. 

Genus (ECETICUS. 

Oiketicus, Lands. Guild. Trans. Linn. Soc. XV; p. 375 (1827). 
Dappula, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 103 (1883). 

Type, 0. Mrbyi, L. Guild., from Central America. 

Bange. Central and S. America; China; Ceylon; Australia. 
. Antenna bipectinated to two-thirds length ; the wings long 
and straight; the abdomen extending far beyond the anal angle. 
Fore tibia with a very long spine. 

616. (Eceticus tertius, Tempi. Trans. Ent. Soc. v, 1847, p. 39, pi. v, 
figs. 1-5 (larva-case). 
OiSticus templetonii, Westto. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 234 ;C.^S. no. 492. 



Fig. 199. — CEceticus tertius, \- 
cJ . Head and thorax greyish black ; abdomen fuscous. Fore 



CECETICUS . — CLANI A. 



291 



wing greyish fuscous ; the veins streaked with brown ; a black 
patch at end of cell ; a black streak beyond the end of cell ; a dark 
patch at base of inner margin. Hind wing greyish fuscous ; the 
veins streaked with brown. 

Larva-case covered with minute comminuted fragments of 
vegetable matter. 

Hah. Hongkong ; Ceylon. Exp. 36 millim. 



Genus CLANIA. 

Clania, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 963 (1855). 

Eiuneta, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 964 (1855). 

Cryptothelea, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 970 (1855), 

Lansdownia, Heyl Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxv, 1881, p. 66. 

Type, G. leivini, Westw., from Australia. 

Range. Centr. America; Africa; Japan; Formosa: India and 
Ceylon; Borneo; Java; Celebes; Australia; Duke of York Island. 

AntennjB bipectinated to tips; abdomen shorter than in 
(Eceticus. Wings large and broad : fore wing with veins 4 and 5 
stalked, 6 present, 8 and 9 stalked ; hind wing with vein 8 sending 
branches to the costa. Fore tarsus with the terminal joint long ; 
tibia with a long spine. ' 

617. Clania crameri, Westw. P. Z. 8. 1854, p. 236; Moore, Lep. Ceyl ii, 

pi. 118, figs. 1, 1 a (larva-case) ; C. ^ S. no. 490. 

c?. Head, thorax, and abdomen clothed with light and dark 
brown hair. Fore wing red- brown, the veins streaked with black ; 
the interspaces with pale streaks ; more or less fuscous suffusion 
on outer area. Hind wing smoky brown. Wings rather short 
and broad. 

Larva-case formed of longitudinally arranged twigs 
Hob. Ceylon. Ewp. 30 milHm. 

618. Clania variegata, Snell Tijd. Ent. xxii, 1879, p 114 

^^''^'f ii, p. 102, pi. 118, figs. 2, 2a (larva- 

casej ; C. cf IS. no. 491. 

Eumeta pryeri, Leech, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 598. 

Eumeta sikkima,ijf core, Indian Museum Notes, ii, no. 1, p. 67 (1891). 




'^'^g-^^.— Clania mriegata, \. 
6 . Differs from crameri in the wings being longer, the apex of 
fore wing more produced and pointed; fore^inf ^ith the paL 



292 



PBYCHID^, 



streaks in the interspacee inore prominent. The form sihJcima is 

darker. -tic 
The number and position of the branches between vein 1 b ot 
the fore wing and the inner margin, and also between vein 8 of 
the hind wing and the costa, are very variable ; a bar between 
veins 7 and 8 of the hind wing towards the apex is sometimes 
developed in addition to the one at centre of cell ; these variations 
occurring in specimens from the same locahty. 

Hah. Shanghai; Cauara; Nilgiris; Ceylon; Borneo; Celebes. 
E(v]y. 40-42 millim. 

Genus AMATISSA. 

Amatissa, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 138 (1862). 
Bambalina, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. n, p. 103 (188d). 
Kopliene, Moore, Lep. Atlt. p. 72 (1879). 

Type, A. consorta, Tempi. 

Range. Calcutta; Ceylon; Borneo. . , . . ^ , , , „ 
Fore tibia without a spine; the terminal 30int of tarsus long. 
AntemiiB plumose. Fore wing with vein 1 6 «endmg ^J^^, «P;"\« *° 
inner margin and anastomosing with 1 c; veins 8 and 9 stalked, a 
forked veinlet in the cell, the lower branch sending a spur to 
median nervure. Hind wing with vein 6 absent; 8 connected 
with 7 by a bar and not sending spurs. to the costa; a toiked 
veinlet in cell. 

619 Amatissa consorta, Tempi. Trans. Ent. Soc. V, 1847, p. 40, pi. v, 
figg. 6, 7, (larva-case) ; C. 8r & no. 489. 
Amatissa inornata, Wlk. Joum. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 138. 

^. Head, thorax, abdomen, and 
f\ fore wing uniform dark brown. 
I ^ Larva-case covered with minute 
comminuted fragments of vegetable 
matter. 

_ Hab. Colombo, Ceylon ; Borneo. 

Fig. 20\.—Amatissaconsorta,(^. \. Exp. 28 milhm. 

320 Amatissa cuprea, Moore, U,. Ath. p. 72 , C. ^ S. no. 497. 
<j Uniform bright brown with a slight golden tmge. 
Uah. Calcutta. 2* 




Subfamily PSYCHINJ?, H.-S. 

Fore wing with veins. U and « S^^^ 
separate; if emitting a -■gJ^J^^fi.l^XrwT^'or "without a 

lie'; tjt^^ ^\oJZ-, »° °" 

with a minute terminal pair. 



ACANTHOPSYCHE. 



293 



Key to Genera and Subgenera. 

A. Fore tibia with a long spine I. Acanthopsyche, p. 293. 

a. Fore wing with veins lb and c 

anastomosing. 
a'. Hind wing with the cell closed. 

a'-. Vein 6 absent in both wings . . (1) CEceticoides, p. 293. 
b'-. Fore wing vein 6 present; 

hind wing vein 6 absent (2) Dasaratha, p. 294. 

c^. Fore wing vein 6 absent; 

hind wing vein 6 present (3) Biiachycyttartts,p. 295. 

d'. Vein 6 present in both wings . (5) IMetisa, p. 296. 

b'. Hind wing with the eel] open . , (4) Pteroma, p. 296. 

b. Fore wing with veins 1 b and c 

separate (6) Amicta, p. 297. 

B. Fore tibia without a spine II. Psyche, p. 297. 

a. Fore wing with veins lb and c 

anastomosing. 

a'. Vein 6 present in both wings . . (1) Manatha, p. 298. 
b'. Fore wing vein 6 present ; hind 

wing vein 6 absent (2) Heylaebtsia, p. 298. 

c'. Fore wing vein 6 absent; hind 

wing vein 6 present (3) Chalioides, p. 299. 

d'. Vein 6 absent in both wings . , (4) Eurycyttabus, p. 299. 

b. Fore wing with veins 1 b and c not 

anastomosing (5) Barandba, p. 300. 



Genus ACANTHOPSYCHE. 

Acanthopsyche, ITeyl. Ami. Soe. Ent, Belg. 1881, p. 66. 

cJ . Antennae bipectinated to tips, the branches diminishing in 
length from the middle. Fore tibiae with a very long spine. 

ubgenus CECETICOIDES. 
Oiketicoides, Heyl. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1881, p. 66. 
Type, (E. inquinata, Led., from Europe. 
Range. Europe; Japan; India; Ceylon; Australia, 
c? . Fore wing with vein 1 c anastomosing with 1 h ; vein 6 
absent in both wings. Hind wing with a bar between veins 7 
and 8. 

Sect. I. Veins 4 and 5 of both wings stalked. Eore 
wing with vein 7 from cell. 

621. Acanthopsyche {(Eceticoides) bipars, Wlk. Cat xxxii n 406 
C. 8f S. no. 86G, ' ^' 

6 • Head, thorax, and abdomen 

black, clothed with white hairs. 

Fore wing hyaline, the basal area 

smoky black; veins and margins 

narrowly black. Hind wing with 

the basal two-thirds smoky black ; 

Y\g. 202.— (Eceticoides bipars, (S .\. marginal area hyaline; the 

^o^®!?,^ margins narrowly black. 
Hah. Bombay. Exp. 18-28 millim. 




294 



*622. Acanthopsyche ((Eceticoides) elwesi, Ileul. Ann. Soc. Ent Belg. 
1890, p. xi. 

S ' Head, thorax, and abdomen clothed with greyish-black hair ; 
legs black, the tarsi yellowish. Wings uniform greyish black; 
fore wing with apex rounded ; veinlet in cell single. Hind wing 
rounded, the upper part of the cell much shorter than the lower. 

Hah. Ganjam. iilr'p. 18 millim. 

Sect. II. Veins 4 and 5 of both wings from the cell. Fore 
wing with vein 7 stalked with 8 and 9. 

623. Acanthopsyche (fficeiico?cZes) cana, Hmpm. III. Ret. ix, ined., 
pi. 19, fig. 21, pi. 176, fig. 8 (larva-case). 

c? . Head white ; thorax and abdomen pale ochreous brown ; 
wings greyish fuscous. 

Larva-case rather smooth, covered with comminuted vegetable 
scales and fibres. 

Hah. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Ex^. 24 millim. 

Sect. III. Eore wing with veins 4 and 5 from cell, 
7 from below angle of cell. 

*624. Acanthopsyclie {(Eceticoides) minor, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 73 ; 
a (§• S. no. 498. 

. Head, thorax, and abdomen pilose. Wings covered with 
minute scales ; pale cupreous brown, palest below. 
Hah. Calcutta. Exp. 15 millim. 

Subgenus DASARA TEA. 
Dasaratha, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 396. 

Type, Z>. Jiimalayana, Moore. 
Range. Punjab. 

S . Fore wing with veins 1 h and c anastomosing ; vein 6 
present ; hind wing with vein 6 absent ; a bar between veins 7 
and 8. The veinlet in the cell of both wings forked. 

625. Acanthopsyche {Dasaratha) himalayana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, 

p. 397 ; C. Sf S. no. 497 A. 

(S . Nearly uniform dark brown ; the head and thorax rather 
darkest. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked ; 4 and 5 from cell 
in both wings. 

Hah. Dharmsdla, Punjab. Exj). 18 millim. 

626. Acanthopsyche {Dasaratha) longicauda, TFa/ren, P. Z.S. 1888, 

p. 299; C. \ S. no. 491 a. 
cJ. Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous grey; antennaB 



295 



ACANTHOPSYOHE. 



brownish ; terminal segments of abdomen with a very long tuft of 
brownish hair. Wings hyaline, with a few ochreous and fuscous 




Pig. 203. 

1. Acanthopsyche (Dasaratha) himalayana. 

2. A. (Pteroma) plagiophleps. 

A. {Brachycyttams) stcbteralbata. 

4. A. (Metisa) plana. 

5. A, {Amicta) rhabdophora. 

scales ; fore wing with the costa brown ; vein 7 from the cell ; both 
wings with veins 4 and 5 stalked. 

Larva-case covered with pieces of straw placed longitudinally. 

Hah. Campbellpur. Exp. 31 millim. 



Subgenus BRACHYCYTTARUS. 

Brachycyttarus, Hmpsn. Ill, Het. ix, ined. 

Type, B. suhteralbatus, Hmpsn. 
Range. Ceylon. 

c? . Fore wing with veins 1 h and c anastomosing ; the cell very 
short; veins 4 and 5 stalked; 6 absent; 8 and 9 stalked. Hind 
wing somewhat triangular in shape, with the upper part of the cell 
short ; a bar between veins 7 and 8. 



627. Acanthopsyche (BracJnjcyttarus) subteralbata, Hmpsn III 
Set. IX, med., pi. 159, fig. 23, pi. 176, fig. 12 (larva-case). 

d. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Wings dark 
brown; the underside of hind wing shining bluish white. 
^ Larva-ease covered by comminuted leaves and suspended by a 
silken thread. 

flah. Colombo, Ceylon. Exj). 15 millim. 



296 



rSYCHIDjE. 



Subgenus PTEROMA. 

Pteroma, Rm^'isn. III. Ilet. ix, ined. 

Type, P. plagioplileps., Hmpsn. 
Bange. Ceylon. 

c? . The branches of antennas long. Fore wing wfch veins 1 b 
and c anastomosing; veins 6 and 7 absent; 8 and 9 stalked; 11 
anastomosing shortly with 12. Hind wing more rounded than in 
BracJiycyttanis ; the cell open ; vein 6 absent ; a bar between 7 
and 8. 

628. Acanthopsyche (Pteroma) plagiophleps, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, 

ined., pi. 169, fig. 19, pi. 176, fig. 13 (larva-case). 

S . Uniform pale brown ; the underside of hind wing bluish 
white. 

Lar-va-case suspended by a long silken thread ; both case and 
thread covered with comminuted fragments of leaves. 
Hab. Nawala-pittia, Ceylon. Exp. 16 raillim. 

Subgenus METISA. 

Metisa, Wlk. Cat. iv. p. 957 (1855). 

Babula, Moore, J. A. 8. B. lix, pt. 2, p. 262 (1890). 

Type, M. plana, Wlk. 
Bange. India and Ceylon. 

S . Fore wing with veins 1 b and c anastomosing ; vein 6 
present. Hind wing with vein 6 present, 8 coincident with 7 to 
end of cell. 

629. Acanthopsyche (Metisa) plana, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 968 ; C. Sr S. 

no. 494 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. pi. 118, fig. 9. 

cJ . Head pale brown ; thorax and abdomen black-brown, almost 
bare of scales. "Wings very pale brown. 
Hab. Colombo, Ceylon. Ex;p. 16 millim. 

630. Acanthopsyche (Metisa) moorei, Heyl. Bull. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1890, 

BaEula grotei, Moore, J. A. S. B. Ux, pt. 2, p. 262. 

c?. Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown; wings coppery 
brown. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, and 9 stalked. 
Hab. Calcutta; Bangalore, ^a^^^. 16-20 millim. 

*631. Acanthopsyche (Metisa^) snelleni, Heijl. Bull. Soc. Ent. Belg. 
1890, p. 3. 

cJ . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown ; wings yellowish 
brown, the veins darker; fore wing with the apex produced; 

veins 8 and 9 stalked. , i . . 

Larva-case grey, formed of comminuted vegetable matter. 
Hab. Assam. " Exp. 22 miUim. 



AOANTHOPSYOHB. — PSTOHB. 



297 



Subgenus AMICTA. 
Amicta, Heyl. Ann, Soc. JEnt. Belg. 1881, p. 66. 

Type, A. quadrangularis, Christ., from Europe. 
Eange. Europe; Tui'kestan ; Ceylon; Java. 
Eore vviug with veins 1 h and c separate. Tlie typical section 
has vein 6 of both wings absent. 

Sect. 11. The cell of both wings short ; fore wing with vein 6 
present ; veins 7, 8, 9, and 10 stalked, 

632. Acanthopsyche {Amicta) rhabdophora, Hmpm. III. Het. ix, 
ined., pi. 159, fig. 22, pi. 176, figs. 10, 10 «, b, c, d (larva-case). 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen black. Fore wing smoky black, 
the base whitish. Hind wing pure white. 

Larva-case formed of comminuted fragments of vegetable matter, 
that of the male rougher and suspended by a long thread, whilst the 
case of the female is smoother and without a thread. 

Hah. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exp. 14 millim. 



Genus PSYCHE. 

Psyche, Schranh, Fauna Boica, ii, 2 Abth. p. 87 (1802). 

c? . AntennaB bipectinated to tips, the branches short or long. 
Fore tibia with no spine. Fore wing with 10 to 12 veins ; veins 
1 and c anastomosing or separate. Hind wing with 7 or 8 veins. 




Fig. 204. 

2. P. (aalmdes) vztrea. 5, p. (Barandra) fimata. 



298 



Subgenus MANATHA. 
Manatha, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 346 (1877). 

Type, M. albipes, Moore. 
Range. Ceylon. 

cJ . FoxQ wing with veins 1 h and c anastomosing, 4 and 5 and 
8 and 9 stalked; vein 6 from near upper angle of cell. Hind 
wing with vein 6 present ; a bar between veins 7 and 8. 

In the subgenus Megaloijlianes, Heyl.j type viciella, Den. and 
Schiff., vein 6 of the fore wing arises from near the lower angle of 
cell. 

633. Psyche (Manatha) albipes, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 347 ; 

id. Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 118, figs. 4, 4 a (larva-case) : C. 8^ S. no. 493. 

S . Uniform dark brown ; the tarsi pure white. 
Larva-case covered with comminuted vegetable matter. 
Hob. Colombo, Ceylon. Exp. 20 millim. 

Subgenus HEYLAERTSIA, nov. 

Type, H. griseata, Hmpsn. 
Range. Ceylon. 

S . Fore wing with veins 1 h and c anastomosing ; vein 6 present, 
8 and 9 stallied ; a forked veinlet in cell. Hind wing with vein 6 
absent ; a bar between veins 7 and 8 ; veinlet in cell single. 

634. Psyche {Heylaertsia) griseata, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 159, 

fig. 13. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Fore wing dark 
brown, with a bluish-grey patch powdered with brown scales 
between the lower angle of the cell and outer angle. Hind wmg 
blue-grey, powdered with brown scales ; the apex and cilia brown. 

Hah. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exp. 26 millim. 

635. Psyche [Heylaertsia) fusca, Hmpsn. Ill Het. ix, ined., pi. 159, 

fig. 14, pi. 176, fig. 16 (larva-case). 

(5* . Head, thorax, abdomen, and wings uniform dark brown. 
Larva-case rather short and formed of short pieces of stick 
arranged transversely in a quadrangle. 

Hah. Hewahetta, Ceylon. Exp. 24 millim. 

636. Psyche (Heylaertsia) niidilineata, Hmpsn. 111. Het. ix, ined., 

pi. 159, fig. 4. 

cJ . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Fore wing pale 
brown, with three indistinct oblique bands, devoid of scales— medial, 



PSYCHE. 299 

postmedial, and siibmarginal. Hind wing still paler, with traces of 
similar bands. 

Hah, Nawala-pittia, Ceylon. Exp. 20 millim. 

Subffenus CHALIOIDES. 
Chalioides, Rmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined. 

Type, G. vitrea, Hmpsn. 
Range. Ceylon. 

Fore wing with veins 1 b and c anastomosing ; 4 and 5 stalked ; 
6 absent; 8 and 9 stalked. Hind wing with vein 6 present; a 
bar between veins 7 and 8. forked veinlets in the cell of each 
Ming. Wings rather long and acute. 

637. Psyche (CJialioicles) vitrea, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 159, 

fig. 15. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen covered with grey-brown pile. 
Wings perfectly hyaline, the margins very narrowly black. 
Hab. Kandy, Ceylon. Exp. 28 millim. 

Subffenus EURYCYTTARUS. 
Eurukuttarus, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 66 (1891). 

Type, E. pileatus, Hmpsn. 

Range. Kashmir ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. 

Vein 6 of both wings absent. Tore wing with veins 1 b and c 
anastomosing. Hind wing with a bar between veins 7 and 8. 
Veinlets in the cell of both wings single. 

Sect. I. Pore wing with veins 7, 8, and 9 from angle of cell ; 

8 and 9 stalked. 

638. Psyche (Eurycyttarus) pileata, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii. p. 66, 

pi. 144, fig. 13. 

S . Uniform brownish fuscous ; the thorax, abdomen, and base 
of wings rather paler. 

Bab. Nilgiris, S. slopes, 3000 ft. Evj>. 20 millim. 

639. Psyche (Eurycyttarus) nigra, u. sp. 

c? . Uniform deep black-brown ; apex of fore wing rounded. 
Hab. Kala, Kashmir {Mc Arthur). Exp. 17 millim. Typo in 
coll. Leech. 

Sect. II. Pore wing with veins 7 and 8 from angle of cell ; 
9 from before the angle. 

640. Psyche (Emjcyttarus) rotunda, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined 

pi. 159, fig. 16, pi. 176, fig. 11 (larva-case). 

c? . Differs from pileata in the wings being broader and more 
rounded. 



300 



PBYOHID^. 



Larva-case rough and covered with scales of bark on the upper 
part, with stalks and fibres on the lower, overlapping each other 
like tiles. 

Hah. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exi^. 18 millim. 

Sect. III. Fore \vmg with vein 8 absent. 

641. Psyche {Eunjcyttarus) decemvena, n. sp. 

S . Uniform darlj brown ; fore wing with the outer margin 
rather straight and erect. 

Hah. Kiris and Gurais Valley, Kashmir, 8000 ft. {Leech). 
Exp. 17 millim. Type in coll. Leech. 

Subgenus BARANDRA. 

Barandra, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1888, p. 396. 

Type, B. fumata, Moore. 
Range. N.W. Himalayas. 

(S . Fore wing with veins 1 h and c not anastomosing ; vein 6 
absent ; 8 and 9 stalked. Hind wing with vein 6 absent ; a bar 
between 7 and 8. Veinlets in tlie cell of both wings single. 

642. Psyche {Barandra) fumata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 396 ; C.^S. 

no. 491 c. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen bro\^Ti ; the pro- and meso- 
thorax dark ; metathorax with two dark posterior spots. Wings 
uniform pale brown. 

Hah. Dharmsala. Exp. 22 millim. 



Subfamily CHALIIN^E, nov. 

Fore wing with veins 1 h and c anastomosing and not sending 
any branches to inner margin. Veinlets in cell of both wings 
single or forked. Hind tibiaa with no spurs. . 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Fore tibia with a long spine. 

a'. Hind wing with veins 5 and 8 absent 1. Chalia, p. 301. 

b'. Hind wing with veins 5 and 8 present . . 2. Mahasena, p. 301. 

b. Fore tibia without a spine 3. Ptehoxys, p. 302. 



OHALIA. — MAHASENA. 301 

Genus CHALIA. 
Chalia, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx,' p. 345 (1877). 
Type, C. doubleclayi, Westw. 

Eanc/e. Ceylon. , ... 

c? Antenna with the branches decreasing to tip. Fore tibia 
with 'a very long spine. Wings broad and rounded; fore wing 
with 12 veins ; hind wing with veins 5 and 8 absent ; veinlets m 
cell single. 

643 Chalia doubledayi, Westw. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 235 ; C. 8,- S. no. 495 ; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 118, figs. 5, 5« (larva-case). 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen covered with gi-ey .pile. Wings 

perfectly hyaline. 

Larva-case formed of longitudinally arranged twigs. 
Hob. Colombo, Ceylon. Exp. 20 millim. 




1. Chalia dovhledayi. 



Fig. 205. 

2. Pteroxys goniatiis. 



3. Mahasena hockingi. 



Genus MAHASENA. 
Mahasena, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 601. 

Type, M. andamana, Moore. 

Range. N.W. Himalayas ; Andamans. 

(S . Antennae with the branches decreasing to tip. Fore tibia 
with a very long spine. Wings longer than in Chalia ; fore wing 
Mdth 12 veins ; hind wing with 8 veins ; the veinlets in the cell 
forked. 

644. Mahasena andamana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 602, pi. 59, fig. 4 ; 
C. ^ S. no. 496. 

cJ . Antenna? and legs brownish fuscous ; head, thorax, and 
abdomen deep fuscous. Wings smoky brown, deep fuscous 
towards base ; hind wing with veins 4 and 5 from cell ; the fork of 
veinlets in the cell of both wings long. 

Hab. Andamans. Exjp. 26 millim. 



302 



PSYOHIBjE. 



645. Mahasena hockin^^ p. ^. ^ iggg, 

jye<. vii, pi. 121, fig. 5', a^S. no. 496 a. 

u • 7®?- ''f''''- ; the hairs on thorax and abdomen 

blackish ; hind wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked ; the fork of the 
veinlets in the cell of both wings short. 
Bab. Kaugra. Exjj. 32 millim. 



Genus PTEROXYS. 
Pteroxys, Hmpsn. III. Set. ix, med. 

Type, P. goniatus, Hmpsn. 
Range. Ceylon. 

_ . Antenpse with the branches long and plumose. Eore tibia 
A^dthout a spine. Wings long and narrow. Tore wing with veins 
1 5 and c anastomosing ; 8 and 9 stalked. Hind wing with a bar 
between veins 7 and 8. Veinlets in the cell of both wings forked. 

Sect. I. Vein 6 absent in both wings. 

646. Pteroxys goniatus, Hmpsn. III. Ret. ix, ined., pi. 150 fie 20, 
pi. 176, fig. 14 (larva-case). ^ » 

S. Uniform brownish fuscous; the apices of both win^s 
pointed. ^ 
Larva-case formed of comminuted fragments of vegetable matter. 
Hah. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exp. 12 millim. 

Sect. II. Vein 6 present in both wings. 

617. Pteroxys uniformis, ^m^sn. J//. Het. ix, ined., pi. 169, fig. 17, 
pi. 176, fig. 15 (larva-case). 

S . Uniform dark brown ; the apices of the Mangs less acute. 
Larva-case very short and formed of small pieces of twigs 
arranged transversely in a quadrangle. 

Hah. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exp. 14 millim. 



Subfamily CANEPHORIN^, Heyl. 

S . Pore wing with veins 1 b and c not anastomosing ; 1 6 not 
giving off a branch. Hind tibiae with two pair of spurs. 



Genus MOFFATIA. 

MofFatia, Moore, J. A.S. B. lix, pt. 2, p. 263 (1890). 

Type, M. plumicauda, Moore. 
Mange. Kunawar. 

Antennae plumose; abdomen Mdth very long lateral tufts of 
hair from base to apex. Fore wing Math vein 1 c not anastomosing 
with 1 b ; veins 4 and 5 on a short stalk; 8 and 9 stalked. Hind 
wing with vein 6 absent ; 8 co nnected with 7 by a bar ; veinlet 
in cell of both wings single. 



MOFFATIA . — APB ATA. 



303 




648. Moffatia plumicauda, Moore, J. A. S. B. lix, pt. 2, p. 264. 

S. Dark greyish black, the tufts 
on abdomen black. Wings hyaline, 
with scattered hair-like scales ; mar- 
gins rather broadly black ; veins black. 

Hah. Upper Kunawar. Exi^. 24 
millim. 

Fig. 206. — Moffatia plumi- 
cauda, c?' T« 

Subfamily PSYCHOIDIN^, Heyl 

(S . Pore wing with veins 1 b and c not anastomosing, 1 c very- 
slight ; 1 6 not giving oS a branch. Hind tibiae with a single 
pair of spurs. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. AntennEe bipectinated : tibiee with the spurs 

long 1- DiABASis, p. 303. 

b. Antennae not pectinated but roughly scaled: 

tibiee with the spurs minute 2. Aprata, p. 303. 

Genus DIABASIS. 

Diabasis, Heyl. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1881, p. 67. 

Type, D. helicinoides, Heyl., from Europe. 
Range. Europe ; Nilgiris. 

cS . Antennse bipectinated, the branches very far apart and 
shghtly swollen at extremities. Wings elongated. Hind legs 
longer than fore legs, the tibiae with a pair of long terminal spurs. 

649. Diabasis nilgirensis. 

Bijugis sikkimensis, Seyl. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1890, p. 2 (nom. 
inept.). 

S . ^ovQ wing with veins 6 and 10 
absent ; 8 and 9 stalked. Hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 stalked, 8 absent ; veinlets in 
cell in both wings forked. Head, thorax, 
and fore wing pale reddish brown ; abdomen 
and hind wing brownish ochreous. Eore 
. ^^rr T^. , . . . tibia with a long spine. 

7;«llf ^.'''T^'" NHgiri plateau, 7000 ft. Exp. 16 

' ' ^' miUim. 

Genus APRATA. 

Aprata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 106 (1883). 

Type, A. macJcwoodi, Moore. 
Range. Ceylon. 

Antennae covered with rough scales ; fore tibia without a spur ; 
hind tibia with one pair of minute spurs. Fore wing broad and 




304 



COSSID^. 



rounded ; all the veins present. ; veins 8 and 9 stalked ; a forked 
veinlet in cell of both wings. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 on a 
short stalk ; all the veins present ; 8 connected with 7 by a bar. 

650. Aprata mackwoodi, Moore, Zep. Ceyl. W, 
p. 107, pi. 118, fig. 8 ; aSfS. no. 487. 

(S . Uniform bright dark brown ; abdo- 
men covered with yellow hair, the terminal 
segment with a silky grey tuft. 
Fig. 2dd>.— Aprata mack- jjah. Ceylon. Rvjp. 20 raillim. 
woodi, (?. T- 



Species formerly recorded as Indian which are omitted. 
Aprata thiuaiiesi, Moore, C. & S. no. 488, is a Tinea probably allied 

Easicota albescens, Moore, J. A. S. B. 1890, lix, pt. 2, p. 263. 

Type lost ; description unrecognizable. 
Fumea ? limulus, Rogenh. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. xxxix, Sitzungsb. 

p. 60, is a Tinea. 




Family COSSID^. 

Proboscis absent; palpi usually minute or absent; antennae 
bipectinated to tip or with distal half simple m both sexes, or 
wholly simple in female. Tibiae with spurs absent or minute. 
Eore wing with vein 1 h forked at base ; 1 c present ; an areole 
formed by veins 7 and 10 ; veins 7 and 8 forking after the areole ; 
the inner margin usually more or less lobed. Hind wmg with three 
internal veins; vein 8 free from the base or connected with 7 
by an erect bar at end of cell. Both wangs with forked vemlets 
in cell. The female may have as many as nine bristles to the 

'""^^riT" Smooth, with a few hairs ; internal feeders, boring gal- 
leries in wood or the pith of reeds &c. and often domg considerable 

in a cocoon formed of silk and chips of wood.* 
Key to the Genera, 
a. Hind wing with no bar between veins 

a' ^Win|s broad ; tibi^ with spm-3 . . 1. Cossxis, p. 305. 
6'.' Wings long and narrow ; tibiae 
without spm-s. 
fl«. Palpi present. . 

a3. ifind wing with veins 4 and 5 



Heterocera could be arranged in a linear series. 



cossus. 



305 



given oft separately; antennae 

simple in $ 

Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 
from a point. 



2. DuoMiTus, p. 307. 



Palpi minute ; an ten use with 
proximal half bipectinated in 

both sexes 3. Azygophleps, p. 309. 

b^. Palpi with 3rd joint large. 
Hind wing with veins 6 and 
7 stalked ; antennae of S 

bipectinated to tips 6. 

R Palpi absent 6. 

Hind wing with a bar between veins 
7 and 8 4 Zeuzera, p. 310, 



Ebemocossus, p. 313. 
Phragmat^cia, p. 312. 



Genus COSSUS. 
Cossus, Fair. Ent. Syst. iii, pt. ii, p. 3 (1794). 

Brachylia; Feld. Reis. Nov. Lep. Atl. pi. 82, fig. 7, Erk. p. 2 (1867). 

Type, C. ligniperda, Fabr., from Europe. 
Range. Universally distributed. 

Palpi slight and flattened in front of face ; antennae of male with 
the branches short, of female simple ; mid tibiae with one, hind tibiae 
with two pairs of minute spurs. 

Fore wing with vein 11 given off from the subcostal nervure. 
Hind wing with vein 8 free from the base ; the wings broad ; the 
veinlets in cell with a short fork. 



Secw. I. Fore wing with vein 6 from angle of cell ; the 
antennae of male bipectinate to tip. 

651. Cossus acronyctoides, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 411, pi. 34 fio-. 4 
a ^ /S. no. 1584. >t ,^ , 

Cossus cashmirensis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 86 ; C. ^ S. no. 1583. 

-c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Fore wing brown, 
the outer half evenly striated with fine hues over its whole surface. 
Hind wing with faint reticulations. 

The form cashmirensis has some of the strife of the fore wing 
coalescing into somewhat prominent lines, the best marked being 
one across end of cell, one beyond the cell from veins 6 to 3, and 
one from the costa before the apex, but these are somewhat 
variable. 

$ . Greyer ; the base of fore wing fuscous. 

o.^"?' Ganjam; Bombay; Mhow; Nilgiris. Exp. 

36-53 miUim. 



652. Cossus nigromaculatus, n. sp. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen blackish brown. Fore wiug with 
the inner margin deeply angled near the base ; colour brown 
greyish towards the costa ; a black blotch on the costa near the base • 

YOL. I. ^. ' 



306 



OOSSIDiE. 



a smal blotch above centre of cell ; a large, very irregular, black 
blotch beyond the cell from the costa to vein 1 c extending along 
vein 3 towards outer margin; an apical black blotch; the outer 
halt of wing reticulated with fine black lines. Hind wing pale. 

Hah. Nilgiris, 8000 ft. {MincUn). Exp. 66 millim. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 



Sbct. II. Vein 6 of fore wing given ofp above the angle of cell. 

653. Cossiis cadambae, 3Ioore, P. Z. S. 1805, p. 822 ; C. 8,- S. no. 1582. 

S . Head, thorax, and fore 
wing dull brown ; the last with 
two indistinct dark lines across 
the end of the cell, and two from 
near the base of vein 2 to inner 
margin ; a dark postmedial line 
from costa to vein 2, with some 
indistinct strigse beyond it ; a 
'Fig.2m.—CossuscadamhcB,(S. \. similar submarginal line with 

indistinct strigse beyond it. 
Abdomen and hind wing paler ; the latter with some faint strigse 
towards outer margin. 

Hah, Calcutta. Exp. 52 millim. 

Sect. III. Male with the antennae serrated at tip, the branches of 
the proximal half longer. Fore wing with the areole much 
larger. 

654. Cossus parvipunctus, n. sp. 

c5' . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown. Fore wing brown, with 
a few indistinct dark specks round the end of cell, and three more 
prominent specks above the centre of vein 1 b. Hind wing paler 
brown. 

Hah. Naga Hills, 1500 ft., Oct. (Z)o;ie)'^?/). 52 millim. Type 
in coll. Elwes. 

655. Cossus pallidalae, n. sp. 

. Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous white. Yore wing 
white, slightly suffused with rufous, especially in the cell ; numer- 
ous wavy rufous striae in the cell and between vein 2 and the inner 
margin ; a few rufous striffi on the outer area ; marginal line 
rufous. Hind wing white. 

The distal portions of the antennae are broken, but the species 
appears to belong to the 3rd section. 

Hah. Sikhim (MoUer). Exp. 38 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

*656. Cossus stigmaticus, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 86 ; C. 8) S. no. 1598. 

c? . Pale ochreous brown. Eore wing striated with pale brown ; 
pale brown blotches at end of cell, apex, and below apex ; tw o 




COSSUS. — D UJOMITUS. 



307 



large red spots below the origin of vein 2, the upper tinged with 
black. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exj). 52 millim. 



Genus DUOMITUS. 

Duomitus, Butl Ann. N. H. (5) vi, p. 68 (1880). 
Xyleutes, Hiibn. Verz. p. 195 (1818), gen. non descr. 
Chalcidica, Iliibn. Verz. p. 197 (1818), gen. non descr. 
Hinnseya, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 153 (1883). 

Type, D. ceramicus, "Wlk. 

Iian(/e. S. America; S. Africa; India; Ceylon; Amboiua- 
Australia ; New Britain, ' 

Palpi minute ; antennae of male with proximal half bipectiuated, 
the distal half simple, wholly simple in female. Legs without 
spars. "Wings long and narrow ; fore wing with the areole very 
large ;^vein 11 given off from 10. Hind wing ^\ith no bar between 
veins 7 and 8 ; veins 4 and 5 given off separately ; the fork of the 
veiolets in the cell of both wings broad. 

657. Duomitus niger, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, 1877, p. 848 • id Lep 

Ceyl. 11, pi. 143, figs. 2, 2 a (larva) ; C. ^ S, no. 1694. 

$ . Head and thorax black, thickly irrorated with grey scales • 
abdomen black. Eore w ing black, thickly irrorated with grey scales' 
leaving a black patch beyoud end of cell. Hind win^ black' 
irrorated with grey scales towards centre of outer area. 

Larva ochreous white ; pvpa red- brown. The " Black Borer" 
ot Ooiiee-planters, 

Hah. Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exp. 60 miUim. 

658. Duomitus ceramicus, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p 587 

Head thorax and abdomen pale ochreous brown, more or less 
suffused witn black ; patches of black scales at each side of meta- 
thorax. Tore wing pale ochreous brown ; costa with some black 
striae ; some black streaks in and below the ceU; outer area 
marbled with black ; a large irregular whitish patch at outer angle 
ex ending toAvards apex as a series of decreasing spots suffused 
Witt black; some black streaks beyond the cell towards apel 
H md wing fuscous, shghtly marbled with black ; some diffused 
pale marks at centre of outer margin, i^i^usea 

Hah. Sikhim; Mas; Ceram. 104mimm. 

659. Duomitus strix, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii, p. 77, pi. 145 a 

Zeuzera signata W/k. Cat. vii, p. 1637; C. ^ S. no. 1597. 
Zenzera bubo, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) x, 1882, p. 228. 

6 . Head, thorax, and abdomen black, grizzled with grey scales • 

x2 



308 



COSSID^E. 



some white at base of abdomen and each segment slightly fringed 
with white. Pore wing pale brownish white, closely reticulated 
with black markings ; some black spots along costa, the most 
pj ominent being one at the base, one antemedial, and one post- 
medial ; a spot on inner margin near base; one beyond end of cell; 
one above the centre of vein 1 ft ; a marginal series, the subapical 
spot expanding into a large blotch. Hind wing pale clouded with 
fuscous and w^th black reticulations, obsolescent on the part 
covered by the fore wing ; a marginal series of spots. 

5 paler ; the colour of thorax and ground-colour of fore wing 
whitish. 

The Sikhim specimen is less heavily marked, the black blotches 
on fore wing smaller. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Java ; Nias ; New Ireland ; New Britain, 
Exp., S 110-130," $ 170-188 miUim. 



660. Duomitus leuconotus, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1537 ; C. 8,- S. no. 1691 ; 
Moore, Zep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 142, figs. 3, 3 a. 

S . Differs from strix in the head and abdomen being black ; the 
thorax covered with erect white scales. Fore wing blackish ; the 
reticulations not so close ; the inner marginal area with irregular 
white conjoined patches ; white patches on the costa towards the 
apex ; a black streak beyond the cell. Hind wing blackish with 
black reticulations ; a white patch on outer margin towards anal 
angle. 




Fig. 210. — Duomitus leuconotus, S' x- 

0 with a large white patch sometimes developed at centre of 
costa of fore wing and those towards apex more developed 

Hah. Simla; Sikhim; Calcutta; Ceylon. At;/.., 6 ys-i^», 
? 180 millira. 



DUOMITTJS. — AZYGOPHLEPS. 



309 



661. Duomitus mineus, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii, p. 52, pi. 131 d ; C. ^ *S'. 

no. 1592. 

Antenn£e, head, thorax, and abdomen dark metallic blue- 
green. Fore wing yellow with a pinkish tinge ; base blue-green ; 
spots of the same colour along the costa, the largest being beyond 
the end of the cell and just before the apex ; small spots at centre 
and end of cell ; a large transverse oval spot from median nervure 
to inner margin ; a large longitudinal spot from below the end 
of the cell at vein 1 6 to near the apex at vein 7 ; a marginal 
series of spots increasing in size to outer angle and continued along 
the inner margin. Hind wing yellow, with some black down on 
inner area, and blue-black streaks in the interspaces beyond the cell ; 
two spots on the costa near apex ; a series of marginal spots. 

Hah. Sikhim; Sylhet; Calcutta; Ganjam ; Manilla; Java. 
Exp., 6 68-93, $ 108-132 millim. 

662. Duomitus fiiscipars, n. sp. 

S . Head and thorax dark brown, grizzled with grej; abdomen 
fuscous. Pore wing with the costal half very deep red-brown ; 
the inner area more or less thickly suffused with white scales, 
the inner margin being white tessellated with black marks. Hind 
wing paler red-brown ; a large white triangular patch tessellated 
with black on the outer margin between veins 1 h and 4. 

Hah. Sikhim {Moller). Exp. 44 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



Genus AZYGOPHLEPS, nov. 

Type, A. scalaris, Pabr. 

liange. Africa ; China ; throughout India and Burma ; Cam- 
bodia. 

Palpi minute ; antennae bipectinated to half the length in both 
sexes, the branches longest at the middle of pectinated portion and 
rapidly diminishing towards base and apex ; shorter in female than 
in male. Legs without spurs. Wings long and narrow; the 
neuration as in Duomitus except that veins 4 and 5 of hind wdng 
arise from a point. 

663. Azygophleps albofasciata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 87 ; C. S,- S. 
no. 1585. 

S . Antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen black ; collar white. 
Pore wing brown, with numerous fine black striae ; a broad white 
band below the subcostal nervure from the base to the apex. 
Hind wing pale, with numerous faint brown striae. 

Hah. Kashmir ; Sikhim. Exp. 54-57 millim. 



310 



cossid;e. 



664. Azygophleps scalaris, Fah: Syst. Ent iii, pt. 2, p. 5; C & S 
no. 1586, part. ^ > ^ - y 

Zeuzera bivittata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 686; C. 8f S.no. 1587. 
AntennsD black ; head white ; thorax white, with a black line 
on collar and a broad yellow stripe on the vertex ; abdomen white. 




Fig. 211. — Azygophleps scalaris, . \. 



Fore wing white, with numerous black strigae forming reticulations ; 
the interno-median interspace having hardly any strigje ; yellow 
streaks from the base to the end of cell and along the basal two 
thirds of inner margin. Hind wing white. 

Hah. Angola; Karachi; Bengal; Burma; Cambodia. Exp., 
d 40, $ 56 miUim. 

665. Azygophleps pusilla, WlJc. Cat. vii, p. 1538: C. &■ S. no. 1596; 

Butl. III. Met. vi, pi. 107, fig. 9. 

d" . Differs from scalaris in the thorax being without the yellow 
stripe. Fore wing without yellow stripes ; the striae very much 
finer ; a white band from the base below the subcostal nervure to 
the apex. Some specimens are more or less suffused with pale 
brown on inner and outer areas, and some have a black streak 
below the cell and a series of marginal spots developed. 

Hah. Bengal ; Deccan ; Bangalore ; Mlgiris. Exp. 26-40 
millim. 

Genus ZEUZERA. 

Zeuzera, Latr. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxiv, p. 186 (1804). 
Zenzera, Latr. Hist. Nat. Ins. xiv, p. 175 (1805). 
Latagia, Hilbn. Verz. p. 196 (1818). 

Type, Z. cesculi, Latr., from Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Japan ; throughout India and Ceylon ; Burma. 

Palpi absent ; antennae as in Duomitus. Legs without spurs. 
Wiugs long and narrow ; the neuration as in Duomitus except 
that there is an erect bar between veins 7 and 8 of hind wing at 
end of cell. 

Sect. I. Fore wing with vein 6 from angle of cell. 
A. Hind wing with outer margin evenly rounded. 

666. Zeuzera conferta, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1536 ; C.^S, no. 1589 ; Hutl 

III. Ilet. vi, pi. 107, fig. 10. 



ZEUZEBA. 



311 



(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish; pro-, meso-, and meta- 
thorax with paired black spots ; abdomen with dorsal and paired 
lateral black spots and ventral bands. Wings white, evenly, but 
rather sparsely, spotted with blue-black spots, leaving a small 
space at end of and beyond cell of fore wing unspotted. 

Hab. Sylhet. Kvp. 70 millim, 

667. Zeuzera indica, Herr.-ScJuifer, Samml. aussereur. Schmett. no. 

166; C. ^ S. no. 1690. 
Zeuzera paucipunctata, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1537. 

(S . Differs from conferta in the thorax being unmarked ; the 
basal and terminal segments of abdomen each with three dorsal 
blue-black streaks ; each of the other segments with one dorsal 
streak, those on the second and third segments triangular. Fore 
wing with the spots fewer and large, the most conspicuous being a 
spot at centre of cell, one near the apex, and those on each side of 
vein 1 h. Hind wing with three large spots below the end of the cell ; 
one between veins 1 6 and c, the largest between veins 1 c and 2, 
the smallest between veins 2 and 3 ; a marginal series of spots, 
the one nearest anal angle large. 

Hah. Simla; Sikhim; Sylhet. ^ajp. 96-114 millim. 

B. Hind wing with the outer margin deeply excised 
near anal angle. 

668. Zeuzera postexcisa, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 159, fig. 18. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen white ; collar with paired blue- 
black marks ; tegulae with a blue-black spot ; pro-, meso-, and meta- 
thorax with paired blue-black blotches, the last with an additional 
spot on the vertex ; abdomen with blue-black marks at sides and on 
vertex. Pore wing white, with numerous small round blue-black 
spots ; the cell with few spots and those beyond it obsolescent ; the 
marginal series prominent. Hind wing white, with some small obso- 
lescent spots beyond the cell and some prominent blue-black spots 
on outer margin, those at the excision conjoined into a prominent 
band. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp. 52 millim. 

Sect. II. Fore wing with vein 6 from below angle of cell ; outer 
margin of hind wing evenly rounded. 

669. Zeuzera multistrigata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 327 ; C. & S. 

no. 1693. 

Diflters from postexcisa in the collar, tegulae, and prothorax being 
without marks, meso- and metathorax with paired blue-black lateral 
spots; metathorax and each segment of abdomen fringed with 
black but without spots. Fore wing with the veins tinged with 
ochreous, the spots much more numerous ; those beyond the cell 



312 



OOSSID^. 



; obsolescent ; the clusters at middle and end of cell and a 
rginal series being the most prominent. Hind wing white, with 
ck spots in the cell and in the interspaces below and beyond it 




Fig. 212. — Zeuzera rrndtistrigata, . \. 

but none on inner area ; three blue-black spots on outer margin 
between veins 1 c and 2. 

Hab. Dharrasala; Sikhim ; Nagas. Exp., (S 50-62, 2 64-98 
millim. 

Sect, III. Fore wing with vein 6 from above angle of cell. 

670. Zeuzera coffeaB, Niet?!. Edin. Neio Phil. Joum. xv, 1862, p. 36; 
C. ^ 8. no. 1588; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 143, figs. 1, la,b 
(larva). 

Zeuzera oblita, Stcinh. Trans. Eiit. Soc. 1890, p. 198. 
Zeuzera roricyanea, Wlk. Joum. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 177 (1862;. 

c? . Differs from multistrigata in the pro-, meso-, and metathorax 
each having a pair of small black spots ; abdomen black, clothed 
with vs hite hairs. Fore wing with the spots small, black, and all 
obsolescent except those along the costa, outer and inner margins. 
Hind wing with a few obsolescent small spots and a prominent 
marginal series from the apex to vein 2, where they are sometimes 
conjoined. 

$ . With the spots of the fore wing fewer in number, but 
more prominent and tinged with metallic blue. 

Larva and pupa red-brown. This is the " "White Borer " of 
Coffee-planters. 

Hah. Naga Hills ; Rangoon ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Borneo. Exp., 
(S 40, 2 46 millim. 

Genus PHRAGMAT^ffiCIA. 

Pbragmatsecia, Neiom. Zoologist, viii, p. 2931 (1850). 
Type, P. castanece, Hiibn. 

Range. Europe ; Africa ; Asia ; Java ; S. America. 

Palpi absent ; a tuft of hair on frons ; antennae of male bipec- 
tinated to two-thirds length, the branches short. Legs without 
spurs. Wings long and narrow ; neuration as in Azygopldeps. 



PHRAOM AT mClA . — EEEMOOOSSUS . 



313 



671. Phragmataecia castanesB, HUbn. Beitr. ii. i. i. c. p. 9 (1790). 
Bombyx arundinis, Hillm. Eur. Schmett, Bomb. figs. 200, 201. 
Zeuzerainnotata, ?r/7o. xxxii,p. 687. _ -.r.^^ 
Phrag-matoecia saccharum, Moore, Lep. Atk.^. 87 ; C "O- j^"^- 
Phragmatcecia minor, Moore, Lei), ^t^^- P- f i . 

Phragmat£ecia minima, Smpm. III. Set. vm, p. 66, pi. 144, lig. 14. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish white. Eore wing brownish 
white irrorated with dark specks. Hind wing white or brownish 
white. 




Fig. 213. — PhragmatcBcia castanea, . 



In some specimens the striations of the fore wing are absent. 
Sab. Europe ; Africa ; Madagascar ; China ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. 
Uxp., d" 22-38, $ 54 milhm. 



672. PhragmatsBGia impnra, Smjjsn. SI. Set. viii, p. 66, pi. 144, 
fig. 7. 

2 • Head, thorax, and fore wing smoky black ; abdomen and 
hind wing pale fuscous. 

Sab. Nilgiris, S. slopes, 3000 feet. Ex2y. 36 millim. 



Genus EREMOCOSSUS, nov. 

Type, E. foedus, Swinh. 
Range. Karachi. 

Palpi with the third joint large and rounded ; antennae of male 
bipectinated to tips, the branches short. Legs without spurs, 




Fig. 214. — Ermnocossus foedus, . }. 



the femora hairy. Wings long and narrow ; fore wing with inner 
margin evenly curved; vein 11 given off from the subcostal 



^^'^ AEBELIB-E. 



iieryure. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 from a point; 6 and 7 
stalked ; 8 free. 



673. Eremocossus fcedus, Swinh. p. z. S. 1884, p. 516, pi. 47, fif?. 1 • 
C. S. no. 1600. ^ b- ^, 

6 . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous white. Fore wing 
pale brownish ochreous, with ill-defined white longitudinal bands 
in and below the cell; a similar submargiual transverse band. 
Hind wmg white. 

Hab. Karachi. Exp. 28 millim. 



Species formerly recorded as Indian vJiich are omitted. 
Zeuzera asylas, Cram., C. & S. no. 1586, is from S. Africa. 
Buomitus caj)ensis,Wlk. Cat. vii. p. 1533. In coll. B. M. are two 

specimens labeDed 'India,' but the 'Eecord' shows the 

locality to be doubtful. 



Family ARBELID^. 

Allied to the Cossidce. Proboscis absent; palpi slight and 
porrect ; antennae of male bipectinated to tips ; the branches 
short ; legs with the spurs minute or absent. Frenulum absent. 
Fore wing with vein 16 forked at the base ; Ic absent; no areole. 
Hind wing with three internal veins ; a simple veinlet in the cell 
of each wing. 

Larvce borers in wood. 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Hind wing with a bar between veins 7 and 8 . . 1. Arbrla, p. 314. 

b. Hind wing vrith no bar between veins 7 and 8 ; [p. 315. 

the cell short 2. Encaumaptera, 



Grenus ARBELA. 
Arhela, Moore, P.Z. S. 1879, p. 411. 

Type, A. tetraonis, Moore. 

Range. Peninsular India and Ceylon ; Burma. 

Palpi minute ; antennae bipectinated to tips in male, the branches 
short, simple in female. Mid and hind tibiae slightly hairy, with 
minute terminal pairs of spurs. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked 
together. Hind wing with the cell of normal length ; vein 6 given 
off below the angle ; vein 8 connected with the subcostal nervure 
by an oblique bar near centre of cell. 

674. Arbela quadrinotata, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1521; C. ^ S.no. 1603; 
Moore, Lep. Cexjl. ii, pi. 143, fig. 3. 
Cossus abruptus, Wlk, Cat. xxxii, p. 584 ; C.^ S. no. 1581. 



AEBELA. — ENCAUMAPTEEA. 



315 



Oossus tesselatus, Moore, Lep. AtJc. p. 85 ; C. ^' S. no. 1604. 
Zenzera pardicolor, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 86 ; C.S; S. no. 1595. 

S . Head and thorax rufous. Fore wing pale rufous, with 
numerous dark rufous bands of strigae ; a spot at end of cell and 




Fig. 215. — Arbela quadrinotata, . {. 



those between the median nervure and vein 1 b being most promi- 
nent. Abdomen and hind wing fuscous. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous white. Fore wing 
ochreous white, with the markings as in male. Hind wing pale, 
slightly suffused with fuscous, with numerous obsolescent brown 
strigae. 

Hab. Calcutta ; Granjam ; Ceylon. Eny., c? 38, $ 40 millim. 

675. Arhela tetraonis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 411, pi. 34, fig. 3;C.^S. 

no. 1605. 

2 . Differs from quadrinotata in the ground-colour being paler, 
the markings not so rufous; fore wing with a prominent submarginal 
series of conjoined spots ; a marginal series of spots ; hind wing 
whitish, with some brown spots and streaks below and beyond the 
cell ; a marginal series of spots ; abdomen with brown tufts. 

Hab. Poena ; Bombay ; Eaipur. -Eij^p. 36-50 millim. 

676. Arbela dea, Stvinh. Tram. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 199, pi. vi, fig. 7. 

S . Head whitish ; antennae, thorax, and abdomen brown. 
Fore wing irrorated with a few dark scales ; some pale strigae along 
the costa. Hind wing black-brown. 

$ . Paler, with a dark spot at end of cell of fore wing. 
Hab. Eaugoon. Exjp.., S 24, $ 29 millim. 

Genus ENCAUMAPTERA, nov. 

Type, E. stigmata, Hmpsn. 
Raruje. Nilgiris. 

Palpi porrect ; antennae of male bipectinated to tips, the branches 
short. Legs hairy ; tibiae without spurs. Fore wing with veins 
7, 8, 9, 10 stalked together. Hind wing with no bar between veins 
7 and 8 ; vein 8 short ; the cell short ; veins 6 and 7 given off 
from the angle, 7 curved upwards aud almost touching 8. 



316 



iiepialid;e. 



677. Encaiimaptera stigmata, Ilmjjsn. lU. Ilet. viii, p. 66, pi. 144, 
fig. 1. 

S . Mouse-grey. Pore wing with a patch of short scales below 
the end of the cell, with a copper-coloured lougitudinal streak 
below it from which two black bauds run to inner margin, the 
inner one oblique, the outer erect ; a patch of short black scales 




Fig. 216. — Encaumaptera stigmata, J . \. 



beyond the end of the cell, with a small copper spot at its lower 
extremity ; and a dark band from the costa to its upper extremity; 
a dark band from the costa near the apex ; outer area with some 
dark striae. Hind wing paler. 

Hab. Nilgiris, 3500 feet. Exp. 40 millim. 

Family HEPIALID^. 

Proboscis absent; palpi usually absent. Antennae very short 
and filiform. Legs short and without spurs. Pore wing with 
vein 1 a forming a fork with h or separate ; a bar from vein 12 to 
the costa near the base. Hind wing with 12 veins ; 3 internal 
veins ; a bar from vein 12 to the costa near the base ; veinlets in 
•the cell of both wings forked. Prenulum absent. 

Larvce internal feeders in wood or the roots of grasses &c.* 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Palpi present. Fore wino;' with no bar 

between vein 1 h and median nervure . . 1. Palpifeb, p. 316. 
h. Palpi absent. Fore wing with a bar 
between vein 1 b and median nervure. 

a. Veins 8, 9, 10 of both wings stalked . . 2. Hepialiscus, p. 317. 
b' . Vein 10 of both wings not stalked with 

8 and 9 3. Phassus, p. 318. 

Genus PALPIFER, nov. 

Type, P. sexnotatus, Moore. 

Range. Himalayas; Ceylon; Tenasserim. 

Palpi large, rounded, and ascending. Antennae short and seti- 
ferous. Legs hairy ; tibiae without spurs. Pore wing without a 



* Next to the HepialidcB would come the Micropterygida, if the Heterocera 
could be arranged-in a linear series. 



PALPIFEE. — HEPIALISCUS. 



317 




bar between vein 1 b and the median nervure ; veins 7 and 8 and 
9 and 10 stalked in both wings, and the veinlets in cell forked. 

678. Palpifer sexnotatus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 413; C. 8r S. 
161 1 

H^pMus murinus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 413 • C. 8f S. no. 1608. 
Hepialus taprobanus, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ni, p. 645. 

2 . Head, pro- and mesothorax dark 
brown ; metuthorax fulvous yellow ; 
abdomen black-brown. Fore wing 
dark red-brown ; two white subbasal 
spots below the median nervure ; a 
round white spot at centre of cell; 
traces of a postmedial dark line ; some 
ochreous specks on costa near apex ; 
a black speck at centre of inner margin. 
Hind wing— the basal area fulvous 
yellow, extending along the costa nearly to apex ; the outer area 
dark red-brown. 

Hah. Dharmsala ; Sikhim ; Ceylon. Ex]^. 34 millim. 

*679, Palpifer tavoyanus, Moore, J. A. S. B. Iv, pt. 2, 1886, p. 98 ; 
C. ^ S. no 1612. 

S . Pale vinous brown ; hind part of thorax and 1st segment of 
abdomen clothed with ochreous hairs. Fore wing with some dark 
quadrate costal marks, others in and below the cell ; an irregular 
medial band with dentate margin ; a series of small marginal 
lunules and a black spot above outer angle ; all these markhigs 
with narrow ochreous edges. Hind wing dark vinous brown, 
ochreous at base ; cilia ochreous from anal angle to vein 4. 

Hab. Tavoy. Exp, 77 miUiiu. 



Fig. 217. — Palpifer sex- 
notat'tis, (5 . \. 



Genus HEPIALISCUS, nov. 

Type, H. nejpcdemis, Wlk. 
Range. Himalayas. 

Palpi absent. Antennae short and filiform. Fore wino with veins 
1 a and c short and slender ; a bar between veins 1 b and c and the 
median nervure ; both wings with veins 8, 9, 10 stalked, and two 
veinlets in the cell which are bent down and meet near centre of 
median nervure. Legs short and hairy ; tibiae without spurs. 

In Hepialus, Fabr., type humuli, vein 8 is given off from the cell 
in both wings. 

Larva feeding in the roots of grasses &c. 

680. Hepialiscus nepalensis, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1557 ; C. c^- S. no. 160D. 
IlepiaUis indiciis, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1558 ; C. S. no. 1006. 
Hepialas pauperatus, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 593 ; C. S. no. 1610 ; 

Butl. III. Het. vi, pi. 108, figs. 6, 7. 
Hepiakis marcidus, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, p. 69-; C. ^ S. no. 1607. 



318 



HEPIALID/E. 



Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish or reddish brown. Fore 
wing greysh or oehreous brown, with four indistinct series of 
sma l ilarlv si)ecks or small ring-spots on indistinct pale oblique 
Dau(ls ; a submarginal series of specks or ring-spots on pale spots. 
Hind wing pale fuscous. 




■Fig. 218. — Hepialiscus nepalensis, . j. 

In the form indicus=zmarcidus black blotches are developed in 
beyond, and below the cell of the fore wing. ' 
Hah. Simla; Kulu; Nepal; Sikhim. Exjp., <s 44, $ 56 milhm. 



Genus PHASSUS. 
Phassus, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1566 (1855). 

Endoclyta, Feld. Reis. Nov., Lep., Atl. pi. 81, fig. 3, Evk. p. 4 (1867). 
Type, P. huhneri, Geyer, from Mexico. 

Sange. Mexico; S.America; Africa; Japan ; China ; through- 
out India, Ceylon, and Burma; Perak ; Borneo. 

Palpi absent. Antennae short and filiform. Pore and mid leo-s 
fringed with hair on both sides ; hind legs aborted in male, the 
femur and tibia short, the latter with a curved tuft of long hairs, 
the tarsus more or less aborted, in some species only represented 
by a bristle. Both wings with veins 9 and 10 stalked; a forked 
veinlet m the cell, and vein 12 fringed with hair. Pore wmg with 
a bar between vein 1 b and median nervure. 

The pro thorax, consisting of two pieces, is ankylosed to the 
mesothorax consisting of three pieces, the metatliorax, consisting of 
one large piece, being freely moveable on the mesothorax. 

Larvce borers in trunks of trees. 

681. Phassus aboe, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 437; C. 8: S. no. 1615- 
Butl III. Het. vi, pi. 109, fig. 1. 
Phassus salsettensis, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1879, p. 412, pi 34. fio- 5 • 
a 8f S. 110. 1621. > , 

Head, thorax, and abdomen dull brown. Pore wing dull 
brown ; seven indistinct dark quadrate marks on the costa ; a 
triangular dark mark at centre of cell extending downwards along 
vein 2 ; two large dark marks in upper end of cell, two small 
marks in the lower end ; four oblique bands of irregulai* ring-marks 
across the marginal area, the innermost bent below the costa, with 
a white spot at the bend ; a number of irregular ring-marks 



PHASSITS. 



319 



below the cell. Hind wiug dark brown ; two very indistinct 
quadrate marks at apex. The tuft on hind tibia ochreous, 

2 . The first postmedial band of fore wing straighter and with- 
out the white spot inside it. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Bombay. Exp., S 70, $ 88 millim. 

682. PhassTis punctimargo, n. sp. 

S . Head and thorax dark red-brown ; abdomen duller brown. 
Fore wing dark red-brown ; the inner area, two obhque bands on 
the outer area, and the outer angle with a glossy leaden tinge ; 
some very indistinct yellowish quadrate marks on the costa ; two 
indistinct postmedial lines, the inner with a white spot inside it 
beyond the cell, the outer curved at middle ; between these two 
lines is a series of irregular ring-marks ; a similar submarginal 
series; traces of white specks on the outer margin; some indis- 
tinct irregular ring-marks on inner area. Hind wing pale brown, 
with two very indistinct dark marks near the apex ; the outer 
margin dark. 

$. Paler red-brown; fore wing with the white spot absent; 
the outer postmedial line nearly straight ; a series of prominent 
white spots and streaks on outer margin of both wings more or 
less conjoined in places and diflferently developed in the several 
individuals. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exj>., d 54, ? 90-108 millim. Type in 
coll. B. M. 



683. Phassus damor, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 437 ; C. Sf 8. no. 1618 ; 

Bull. III. Het. vi, pi. 109, fig. 3. 
Endoclyta similis, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 81, fig. 3 ; C. 8f 8. no. 1522. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown. Fore wing grey-brown ; 
some dark brown quadrate marks along the costa ; a triangular 
brown mark at centre of cell joined below the cell to an oblique 
irregular brown mark which extends to vein 1 and nearly fills the 
end of the cell and an area beyond and below it, leaving a curved 
pale streak from the middle to" upper augle of cell ; a small spot on 
vein 1 just before the brown band ; a streak beyond the end of the 
cell ; three double obhque bands of more or less coalesced spots, 
one at end of cell, the second postmedial, the third submarginal. 
Hind wing fuscous ; some brown spots on costa and outer margin 
near the apex. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp., ^ 66, $ 88 millim. 

684. Phassus purpurascens, Moore, Lep. Ceijl. ii, p. 156, pi. 143, fi"-. 4 • 

C. ^ 8. no. 1620. ^ ' 1 >v ; D > 

$ . Differs from damor in the ground-colour of the wings being 
purplish. Fore wing with a white " comma " mark in the cell 
before the middle, another at upper end, with from one to four 
white specks just outside the cell ; a black subbasal speck between 



320 



HEPIALIDjE. 



veins 1 b and c ; no brown spot on vein 16; the triangle in the 
cell smaller ; the oblique streak more diffused. Hind wing with- 
out markings. Hind tarsus of male represented by a bristle. 

In some specimens the ground-colour of the fore wing is redder 
brown ; a number of white specks are scattered about the wing 
and incomplete circular black marks appear on the costa and on 
each side of vein 1 h. 

Hah. Ceylon and ? Perak. Exp. 114-136 millim. 



685. Phassus signifer, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1568 ; C. 8f S. no. 1622 ; 
Butl. III. Het. V, pi. 109, fig. 2. 
Phassus undulifer, Wlk. Char, undescr. Het. p. 102 ; C. Sc S. 
no. 1623. 

Phassus chalybeatus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 412 ; C. ^ S. no. 1617. 

c? . Head, thorax, abdomen, and ground-colour of fore wing 
yellowish flesh-colouror pale grey-brown. Differs irom. imrjmrascens 
in the costal marks of the fore wing being larger and fewer ; the 
conjoined triangle and diffused streak terminating at vein 2 ; a 




Fig. 219. — Phassus signifer, , 



number of obscure ring-marks on inner ai'ea ; the postmedial band 
better defined, and the submarginal spots larger and more con- 
joined. Hind wing flesh-coloured. 

2 . Darker ; fore wing w-ith the costal marks larger ; the hind 
wing suffused with fuscous and with obscure marks at apex. 

In a Burmese specimen the ground-colour of the fore wing is 
pale brownish yellow, with no white spots in the cell ; the hind 
wing ochreous brown. The species is thus extremely variable, but 
may chiefly be known by the darker discal markings of fore wmg 
terminating along vein 2. ^ ^ -r. 

Hah. Sylhet; Bernardmyo, Burma; E. Pegu; Borneo. Kx-p., 

S 100, $ 154 millim. 



PHASSUS. 



321 



686. Phassus malabaricus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 412 ; C. Sr S. 

no. 1619. 

c? . Differs from signifer in the markings of the fore wing being 
pale chestnut in colour ; the costal markings small ; the yeUowish- 
white mark before the middle of the cell triangular or a longi- 
tudinal not transverse streak ; the spots of the postmedial and sub- 
marginal bands rounded not elongated. Hind wing reddish fuscous. 
$ . The fore wing greyish or reddish brown. 
Hab. Canara ; Nilgiri plateau, 6000-8000 feet. Kvp., S 102, 
2 126 millim. 

687. Phassus auratuSj n.sp. 

c? . Head and thorax black-brown. Fore wing very dark brown ; 
the basal half of the costa and cell brassy yellow, with some brown 
marks on the costa ; a brassy-yellow patch at apex ; an indistinct 
yellowish mark near centre of outer margin ; a faint postmedial 
oblique line with a yellowish- white spot on it at veins 5 and 6. 
Abdomen and hind wing fuscous, the latter slightly red-brown at 
apex. Tuft on hind tibia ochreous. 

Hah. Bernardmyo, Burma {Doherty). Exp. 42 millim. Type 
in coll. Elwes. 

688. Phassus albofasciatus, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 413, pi. 34, 

fig. 8 ; C. 4- S. no. 1616. 

2 . Head and thorax grey-brown. Fore wing grey-brown; an 
ill-defined greyish-white fascia from the base to the apex ; the 
inner area reddish brown ; the whole wing closely covered by 
waved black striae and obscure spots and ring-marks. Abdomen 
and hind wing fuscous. 

Eab. Nilgiri plateau, 7000-8000 feet. E;iy. 64-84 millim. 

689. Phassus viridis, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, fore and mid legs, and fore wing pale sap- 
green ; the last with a small white spot at end of cell and a white 
speck beyond it. Abdomen, hind wing, and hind legs dark fuscous ; 
the hind wing with the costal edge green. Tibial tuft fuscous. 

Hab. Nilgiris. Ex^y. 86 millim. Type in Mus. Oxon. 



Species formerly recoi'cled as Indian wliicli are omitted. 

Gorgopis vilis, "Wlk., C. & S. no. 1614, is a Tineid of the genus 
Alavona. 



VOL. I. 



Y 



322 



CA.LLIDOLIDjE. 



Family CALLIDULID^. 



A family of day-liying moths of medium size. Antennje simple, 
the palpi long, with the third joint well developed. Mid tibia 
with one pair of long spurs, bind tibia with two pairs. Hind wing 
with two internal veiDs ; 3, 4, 5 arising close together ; the cell 
open ; 6 and 7 arising not far from the base of the wing ; 8 bent 
down and nearly touching 7 near origin of 6 ; a minute precostal 
spur. 

Larva unknown. 



Key to the Genera. 



1. Cleosiris, p. 322. 



a. Frenulum absent 

b. Frenulum present but minute ; the retina- 

culuoi arising from below the median 
nervure of fore wing. 
a . Fore wing with veins 8, 9, 10 stalked ; 
male with a patch of raised scales below 

the costa of hind wing 

h'. Fore wing with veins 8, 9, 10 arising from 

an areole 3. Ptebodecta, p. 324. 

c. Frenulum long ; male with the retinaculum 

from the subcostal nervure of fore wing : 
vein 6 from tbe middle of discocellulars ; 

7 and 8 from close to angle of cell 4. Hebimba, p. 325. 



2. Callidula, p. 323. 



Genus CLEOSIRIS. 

Tetragonus, Geyer, Hiibn. Zutr. 4, p. 17 (1832), nom. praeocc. 
Cleosiris, Boisd. Sjyec. Gen. Lep. i, pi. 23, fig. 3 (1836). 

Type, G. catamita, Hiibn. 

Range. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma; Penang; Java; 
Borneo. 

Frenulum absent. Palpi with the third joint long and obliquely 
porrect. Fore wing with vein 1 h forked at the base ; veins 8 and 
9 stalked, the apex acute. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 arising 
very near the base ; outer margin angled at vein 4. 



690. Cleosiris catamita, Geyer, Hiibn. Zutr. pi. iv, p. 17; C.SfS. 
no. 482 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 99, figs. 4, 4 a. 
Cleosiris major, ModriiyP. Z. S. 1883, p. 15 ; C. 8f S. no. 483. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen dark yellowish red-brown. Fore 
wing yellowish red-brown; traces of fulvous postmedia spots. 
Plind wing uniform red-brown. Underside : tbe ground-colour 
yellowish, greenish, or brownish, with numerous dark striae ; tore 
wing with three grey spots tinged with rufous in the ceU, near 



CLEOSIEIS. — OALLIDULA. 



323 



base, at middle and end ; an indistinct rufous oblique band from 
apex to vein 2 ; two submarginal very iadistinct maculate lines ; 
hind wing with three grey rufous-ringed spots in the cell, one 
near base and two near the end ; four very indistinct rufous bands. 



one medial, two postmedial, and one submarginal and maculate 
the two postmedial bands may coalesce, forming a more prominent 
irregular band; the marking of the underside may be brown 
instead of rufous. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Andamans ; 
Nicobars ; Tenasserim ; Penang ; Java. Exp. 40-48 millim. 



Callidula, Suhn. Verz. p. 66 (1818). 
Datanga, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 21 (1879). 

Type, G. jpetavia, Cram. 

Range. Afghanistan ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma ; Malacca ; Philip- 
pines ; Borneo ; Sumatra ; Java. 

Prenulum present but minute; the retinaculum arising from 
below the median nervure of fore wing. Palpi with the third 
joint somewhat long and upturned. Fore wing with vein 1 h not 
forked at the base. Veins 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing with veins 
6 and 7 arising not so near the base as in Gleosiris ; male with 
a large patch of raised scales below the middle of vein 8. 

691. Callidula minor, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 21; C. ^ S. no. 486. 

(S . Dark red-brown. Pore wing with an oblique nearly regular 
orange band from the costa beyond the middle to vein 2 near 
outer margin; some specimens with traces of a submarginal 
orange band. Underside yellowish, with numerous dark strise ; fore 
wing with a grey dark-ringed spot at centre of cell and two at its 
end which are sometimes conjoined ; some red at end and beyond 
the cell ; hind wing with a grey dark-ringed spot at centre of 'cell ; 
a larger one at end of cell ; an indistinct waved red and grey post- 
medial line. Cilia orange. 

Settles on the upperside of leaves, with the wings raised over 

y2 




Fig. 220. — Cleosiris cafamita, . \. 



Genus CALLIDULA. 



324 



CALLIDULlDiE. 



the back, just as does the llespericl Astictoptems xanites, from which 
it is difficult to distinguish the present species. 
Uab. Karen Hills ; Moulmein. E.vp. 34 milliin. 

92. Callidula erycinoides, Wlk. Char, undescr. Ilet. p. 3; C. ^ S. 
no. 481. 

Differs from minor in the band of the fore wing being pale 
yellow and nearly reaching the outer angle, near which it is curved 
and attenuated. Underside : fore wing dusky yellow, suffused with 
fuscous on outer half and rufous at apex, the costa with dark 




Fig. 221. — Callidida erycinoides, (S ■ \. 



striffi, or wholly suffused with rufous with dark striae ; the band 
as on upperside ; a white black- ringed spot in cell near the base 
and transverse streaks at middle and end. Hind wing yellowish, 
suffused and striated with rufous ; two grey spots at end of cell ; 
a waved black postmedial line. Both wings with a marginal 
series of white specks ; the cilia pale near apex of each wing. 
Hah. Sikhim ; Buxar ; Nagas. Exp. 46 millim. 

693. Callidula attenuata, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 21 ; C ^ S. no. 485. 

Differs from erycinoides in the band of the fore wing being 
red, and from minor in its narrowing towards outer margin and 
being present on the underside ; the ciha pale red. 

Hab. Sikhim; Margharita, S.E. of Sadiya, Assam; Khasis ; 
E. Pegu. Exp. 40 milUm. 

Genus PTEEODECTA. 

Pterodecta, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 399 (1877). 
Type, P. anchora, Moore. 

Range. Japan ; Himalayas from Kangra to Bhutan. 

Palpi with the third joint porrect and long. Frenulum present, 
but minute, the retinaculum from below the median nervure of fore 
wing Pore wing with vein 1 b forked at the base ; 9 arismg 
from 10 and anastomosing with 8 to form an areole; the apex 
acute ; the outer margin angled at vein 6. Hind Ming mth veins 
6 and 7 arising near the base; the outer margin angled at vein 2. 



PTEEODEOT A. — HERIMB A . 



325 



694 Pterodecta anchora, Moore, Pac/enst. JB. Nassau. Ver. 1887, 
p. 238, pi. ii, fig. 24 ; C. ^ S. no. 480. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and wings dark brown. Eore wing 

with an orange-yellow spot 
below the cell between veins 2 
and 3 ; an orange-yellow post- 
medial curved band from the 
costa to vein 2, sending a pro- 
jection inwards along vein 3 
so as nearly to join the spot. 
Cilia fulvous. Underside yel- 
lowish brown, striated with 
black ; the fore wing yellow, 
except the outer area ; two 
small white black-ringed spots in the cell, a larger one on a black 
patch at end, and a black patch below the end of cell. Hind wing 
with a grey spot at end of cell. 

Eab. Himalayas from Kulu to Bhutan, 5000-10,000 feet. -Eajp. 
40 millim. 




Fig. 222. — Pterodecta anchora, c?. 



Genus HERIMBA. 

Herimba, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 20 (1879). 

Type, H. atMnsoni, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim ; Burma. 

Palpi upturned, with the third joint of moderate length and 
somewhat porrect. Pore wing with vein 1 h forked at the base, 
6 from the middle of the discocellulars ; 7 and 8 from close to 
the u])per angle of cell ; 9 and 10 arising close together before the 
end of cell and anastomosing shortly. Hind wing with veins 6 
and 7 arising not very near the base, 8 almost touching them close 
to their origin. Frenulum long ; retinaculum in male arising from 
the subcostal nervure of fore wing. 



695. Herimba atkinsoni, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 21, pi. 2, fig. 3 ; C.^S. 
no. 484. 

(S . Glossy black- brown, with a golden-brown tinge. Fore wing 

with golden-brown specks along 
the costa ; an oblique white medial 
band consisting of a spot at end of 
cell, a trifid spot below it, and 
small spot above vein 1 6 ; a small 
white subapical spot. Hind wing 
speckled with golden brown ; a 
^. minute white spot between veins 

Herimba lt]dn8ovi, ^. \. 5 and 6. Underside with nume- 
rous golden-brown strigae. 
Huh. Sikhim ; Burma. Exp. 33 millim. 




326 



i)iiBPANurji);E. 



Family DREPANULID^. 

Small or moderate-sized moths of somewhat slender build, 
generally with the apex of fore wing falcate. 

Palpi slender and slightly scaled, often very minute. Pore 
M'ing with vein 1 h forked at the base ; 1 c absent ; 5 from close 
to the lower angle of cell. Hind wing with one or two internal 

veins ; 1 a short when present ; 5 
from near lower angle of cell; the 
discocellulars angled ; the origin of 
veins 6 and 7 before the angle of 
cell ; 8 bent down and nearly or 
quite touching 7. 

Larva smooth, with the anal 
prolegs absent * ; the anal somite 
usually with a long process, the 
others often humped. Spins a cocoon amongst leaves. 




Fig. 224. — Larva of Teldenia ves- 
tigiata. \. (From Moore, Lep. 
Oeyl. ii, pi. 124, fig. 1 /;.) 



Key to the Genera. 



a. Proboscis present. 



a . Frenulum present. 

d^. Fore wing with the apex rounded. 
V^. Fore wing with the apex acute. 



2. Machocilix, p. 329. 



'. Fore wing with the apex pro- 
duced upwards 16. 

'. Fore wing with the apex not 

produced upwards. 
«*. Fore wing with vein 10 stalked 
with 7, 8, 9 ; no areole. 
Hind wing with the outer 
margin rounded. 



a". Both wings with the disco- 
cellulars nearly straight, 
i^. Both wings with the dis- 
cocellulars much angled. 
b^. Hind wing with the outer 
margin angled at vein 3 . . 
. Fore wing with veins 9 and 
10 anastomosing with 7 and 8 
to form an areole. 
fl^ Palpi slight and porrect. 

Hind wing with the anal 
angle produced and lobed 



1. 
3. 



CAMPTOCHILtrS, p. 361 . 



EtrcHERA, p. 327. 
Macrauzata, p. 330 
AUZATA, p. 331. 



DiTRIGONA, p. 331 . 



* Except in Eiichera, 



EUCHERA. 



827 



b^. Hind wing -with the anal 
angle rounded. 
a'. Antennae not thickened 

and flattened 8._Dbepana, p. 333. 

i^. AntenniB thickened and 

flattened 7. Leucodbepana, p. 333. 

b\ Palpi upturned, reaching 
vertex of head, 
a". Hind wing with the anal 

angle rounded 6. Teldenia, p. 332. 

6". Hind wing with the anal 

angle highly excised . . 10. Thymistada, p. 343. 
c". Palpi long, porrect, and 
thickly scaled. Fore wung 
with veins 8 and 9 from 

end of areola 9. Spica, p. 342. 

b'. Frenulum absent. 

a^. Fore wing with an areole. 

a^. Hind wing with the outer mar- 
gin rounded 11. Deroca, p. 344. 

b^. Hind wing with the outer mar- 
gin angled at vein 6 12. Phalacra, p. 345. 

Fore wing with no areole 13. Drapetodes, p. 346. 

b. Proboscis and frenulum absent. 

a'. Fore wing with veins 9, 10, 11 stalked, 
9 anastomosing with 7 and 8 to 

form the areole 15. Oreta, p. 347. 

b'. Fore wing with veins 8,9,10 stalked. 14. CiLix, p. 347. 



Genus EUCHERA. 

Euchera, Siibn. Zutr. 3, p. 29, no. 260 (1825). 
Cyclidia, Guen. Sp. Gin. Up. Phal. i, p. 62 (1857). 

Type, E. substigmaria, Hiibn. 

Range. Japan ; China ; Himalayas ; Assam ; Burma ; Sumatra. 

Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head. Antennae thickened 
and laminate. Mid tibiae with one pair of short spurs ; hind tibiae 
with two pairs. Fore wing broad ; the eosta arched ; the apex 
slightly acute ; vein 1 a forming a fork with 1 h, and then leaving 
it again as a spur ; 5 from some way above the angle of cell ; 6 
from below the upper angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing with 
the costa slightly excised before the apex ; the discocellulars 
nearly straight ; 5 from some way above lower angle of cell. 

696. Euchera substigmaria, mibn. Zutr. 3, p. 29, no. 260, figs. 519, 
520; .S.no. 3119. 

Head black ; thorax white ; abdomen brownish white. Fore 
wing pale grey ; traces of two antemedial, one medial, and two 
postmedial pale Avaved lines ; an oblique line from the apex cross- 
ing the postmedial lines to centre of inner margin, beyond which 
tiie area is whiter ; two pale brown blotches above inner margin 
near outer angle ; a waved submarginal line formed of dark specks 



328 



BBBPANULIDiE. 



with two black specks inside it at outer angle. Hind wing white ; 
a large round black spot at end of cell; indistiuct medial and 
postiuedial brown bands; a submarginal waved line of black 
specks. 




Fig. 225. — Euchera suhstigmaria, ^ . \. 



Larva with 10 prolegs : black with head and anal segment 
ringed with black ; a sublateral white line ; series of white and 
yellow lateral transverse streaks. 

Hah. Dharmsala ; Nepal ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma. Exp. 82 
millim. 

697. Euchera rectificata, Wlk. Cat. xxiv, p. 1142; C. Sf 8. no. 3128. 
Cyclidia patulata, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1537. 

Cyclidia niiiricolaria, Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1483 ; C. Sf 8. no. 3124. 

Head and thorax greyish brown. Fore wing greyish brown ; 
two antemedial waved white lines, with traces of another between 
them ; a similar postmedial set of lines, but doubly curved ; a 
pale submarginal line, with a series of large brown spots beyond 
it connected by a waved line ; a white spot at end of cell. Hind 
wing grey, irrorated with brown scales : medial and postmedial 
brown bands obsolete towards the costa ; a submarginal series of 
brown spots connected by a waved hne. 

Ilab. Sikhim; Nagas. -feoTp. 76-84 millim. 

698. Euchera pitmani, Moore, J. A. 8. B. Iv, pt. 2, 1886, p. 99 ; C.8f S. 

no. 3118. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white ; frons black ; antennae 
ochreous. Wings white ; fore wing with some fuscous marks on 
basal half of costa ; a subbasal narrow line ; a broad medial fuscous 
band, the discocellulars and veins crossing it white ; a postmedial 
curved line and submarginal series of spots, beyond which is a 



EUOHEBA. — MAOEOOILIX. 



329 



series of smaller black spots and fuscous series on margin. Hind 
wing white, with postmedial and submarginal series of fuscous 
spots ; a series of black spots before the margin. 
Hah. Tavoy. Exp., S 66, $ 74 millim. 

Genus MACROCILIX. 

MacrociHx, Butl. III. Set. vi, p. 18 (1886). 

Type, M. onysticata, Wlk. 

Range. Himalayas ; Khasi Hills ; Borneo. 

Palpi very minute; proboscis present. Mid tibia with one 
pair of spurs; hind tibia with two pairs. Fore wing with the 
apex rounded ; the discocellulars highly angled ; vein 6 from some 
way below the angle of cell ; 7, 8, 9 stalked. 

Sect. I. Antennae with the branches long in male, short in female. 
Fore wins with veins 10 and 11 stalked and not forming an 
areole with 9. 

699. Macrocilix mysticata, Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1617 ; Butl. 111. Set. 
vi, pi. 106, fig. 4 ; C.SfS. no. 1258. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white ; vertex of thorax and 
abdomen fulvous. Wings semitransparent white. Fore wing 
with a broad somewhat irregular golden-brown postmedial band 
from the subcostal s to inner margin, with a white streak on the 
discocellulars and short streaks on veins 3 and 4 ; two pale lines 
on the band from the cell to inner margin ; two submarginal 




Fig. 226. — Macrocilix mysticata, (S- !• 



lunulate fuscous interrupted bands. Hind wing similar ; the 
band sending a tooth outwards near inner margin, and another 
along the inner margin halfway to the base with a silvery line on 
it ; some silvery scales on the outer edge of the band near inner 
margin ; a yellow patch on the outer margin near anal angle with 
three black specks on it. 

Hah. Dharmsiila; Sikhim. -E^rjo. 42 millim. 



DREPANULIDjE. 



Sect. 11. Antenna) of male thickened and flattened by appressed 
serrations. Pore wing with veins 10 and 11 from cell • 10 
anastomosing with 8 and 9 to form an areole. 

700. Macrocilix orhiferata, Wlk. Cat. xxiv, p. 1126 

Argyris iiisignata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 645 ; C. <^ S. no. 1262. 

d. Head, thorax, and abdomen white; antennje ochreous 
lore wmg white; a broad fuscous streak on basal half of costa; 
an antemedial irregular indistinct fuscous band ; a similar post^ 
medial broader band, its median portion traversed by a Avhite line : 
a maculate submarginal band. Hind wing white; a postmedial 
band obsolescent towards costa, broad towards inner margin, and 
traversed by a white line ; a yellow patch at anal angle, with sub- 
marginal and marginal series of dark spots and strigae on it. 
Mab. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Khasis ; Borneo, ^a;^. 27 millim. 



Genus MACEAUZATA. 

Macrauzata, Butl III. Het. vii, p. 43 (1889). 

Type, M. fenestraria, Moore. 

Range. Japan ; N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim. 

Palpi very minute; proboscis present. Antennae with short 
pectinations in female ; mid and hind tibiae wdth very short ter- 
minal pairs of spurs. Erenulum present. Fore wing with the 
apex falcate and acute, the discocellulars highly angled ; vein 6 
from angle of cell ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked and from some way before 
the angle. 

701. Macrauzata fenestraria, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 639: C. &• S 
no. 3504. 

2 . Yellowish white. Fore wing with a very large irregular 
hyaline patch occupying the end of the cell and the area beyond 




Fig. 227. — Macrauzata fenestraria, ^, \. 
and below it, the veins crossing it yellowish ; two fulvous lines 



MACRAUZATA. DITEiaONA. 



331 



crossing tbe M'ing on the inner edge of the hyaline area and two 
running round its outer edge, then bent before the inner margin, 
some dark ferruginous on the upper edge of the patch ; a waved 
submarginal pale line. Hind wing similar ; the hyaline patch 
much more irregular. 

Hah. Japan; Kangra ; Sikhim. Exp. 60-66 millira. 

Genus AUZATA. 
Auzata., Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1620 (1862). 

Type, A. semipavonaria, Wlk. 
Range. Himalayas. 

Palpi slight and upturned ; proboscis present. Antennae slightly 
thickened and flattened, frenulum present. Fore wing with the 
apex acute ; outer margin angled slightly at vein 3 ; vein 6 from 
just below the angle of cell ; veins 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked and from the 
angle. Hind wing angled at vein 3 and crenulate from thence 
to anal angle. 



702. Auzata semipavonaria, Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1620 ; Butl. III. Ilet. 
vi, pi. 106, fig. 1 ; C.^S. no. 1257. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white. Pore wing white ; two 
waved and curved indistinct antemedial brownish-fuscous lines 
interrupted at the veins ; two similar postmedial lines with a large 
" comma" -shaped yellow-brown mark on them from veins 1 to 5, 




Fig. 228. — Auzata semipavonaria, c? . \. 



with a black spot centred with silvery blue on it at the beginning 
of the "tail"; submarginal and marginal similar lines. Hind 
wmg white, with three similar pairs of lines, but without the spot ; 
traces of^a third line outside the postmedial pair. 

Hah. Simla; Kulu ; Sikhim. Exp., s 42, $ 50 millim. 

Genus DITRIGONA. 
Ditrigona, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 58 (1879). 

Type, D. triangularia, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi minute, proboscis present. Antennae with the branches 
rather short ; mid tibia with one pair of long spurs, hind tibia 



332 



DBEPANULID^. 



with two pairs. Frenulum present. Fore wing with the apex 
produced and acute ; vein 6 i'rom the areole, which is large aud 
formed by vein 10 anastomosing with 8 and 9. Hind wing with 
the anal angle much produced and slightly lobed. 

703. Ditrigona triangularia, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 612; C. ^ S. 
no. 4024. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white. 
Fore wing white ; two waved, shghtly 
oblique, antemedial fuscous lines ; a 
straight medial line and two waved 
postmedial lines ; costa ochreous. 
Hind M'ing with an antemedial nearly 
straight hne ; a medial straight line 
and two postmedial slightly waved 
lines, all meeting near anal angle ; a 
black spot on the anal lobe. Cilia of 
both wiugs fuscous. 
?p., d 36, 2 38 miUim. 




Fig. 229. — lyitrigona trian- 
gularis, S' T- 



Hah. Sikhim. Ex 



Genus TELDENIA. 
Teldenia, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. p. 119 (1882). 

Type, T. vestigiata, Butl. 

Bange. Sikhim ; Naga Hills ; Ceylon. 

Palpi slender, reaching the vertex of head ; proboscis present. 
Antennae with the branches long in male, ciliate in female. Mid 
and hind tibiae with terminal pairs of spurs. Frenulum present. 
Fore wing with the apex very shghtly produced and acute ; veins 
6, 7, and 10 from the areole, which is long and formed by vein 9 
anastomosing with 8. Hind wing rounded. 

704. Teldenia vestigiata, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, 1880, p. 222 ; id. 
III. Bet. vi, pi. 118, fig. 10 ; C. ^ S. no. 3601. 
Teldenia alba, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. p. 120; C. Sf S. no. 3600. 

d" . Pure white ; fore wings with a postmedial series of ochreous 

spots, inwardly bordered by dark lunules, 
the four upper spots placed in pairs, 
the three lower recurved towards the 
base ; two indistinct interrupted waved 
hues beyond the spots, the inner hne 
recurved towards base near inner mar- 
gin ; a series of marginal black specks. 

Larva green, with subdor.<al series of 
purple spots and a lateral series of 
black spots : dorsal tubercles on 1st 
and 11th somites, and a slender process 
on 3rd somite ; a long slender process projecting backwards from 
11th somite. 




Fig. 230.— Teldenia ves- 
tigiata, . T- 



Hah. Sikhim ; Nagas ; Ceylon. E.rp. 25 milHm. 



LEUCODRBPANA. DEEP ANA. 



333 



Genus LEITCODEEPANA, nov. 

Type, L. idceoicles, Hmpsn. 
Range. Sikhim ; IS aga Hills. 

Proboscis present ; palpi porrect, slender, and reaching beyond 
the frons ; antennae thickened and flattened in both sexes. Mid 
tibite with one pair of long spurs, hind tibiae with two pairs. 
Frenulum present. Fore wing with the apex somewhat acute ; 
vein 6 given off after the angle of cell ; 7 from end of areola, 
which is long, and formed by 9 and 10 anastomosing strongly 
with 8 ; 11 from the cell. 

705. Leucodrepana idaeoides, n. sp. 

Pure shining white ; fore wing 
with an indistinct subbasal fuscous 
line ; both wings wdth two oblique 
antemedial waved lines and two 
postmedial, angled below the costa 
of fore wing and bent towards inner 
margin of hind wing ; a waved sub- 
marginal and fine marginal line. 

Rab. Sikhim, 10,000 feet (MoUer, 
Mwes). Exp. 33 millim. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 




Fig. 231. — Leucodrepana 
idceoicles, <S . \. 



706. Leucodrepana nivea, n. sp. 

$ . Differs from idceoicles in being of a less shining white ; fore 
wing with no subbasal line ; the first pair of lines more oblique ; 
the outer area with three waved lines at even distances apart. 

Hah. Sikhim {Elives). Exp. 31 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

707. Leucodrepana ohliquilinea, n. sp. 

Differs from the two preceding species in having the first pair 
of lines exceedingly oblique, arising from near the apex, and 
almost straight ; the three outer lines disposed as in idceoides, but 
almost straight. 

Hah. Sikhim (Mdller) • Naga Hills, 6000 feet (Doherty). Exp., 
S 30, $ 34 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

Genus DREPANA. 

J)repana, Schr. Faun. Boica, ii, 2, p. 155 (1802). 
Albai-a, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1566 (1866). 
Agnidra, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 618. 
Peridrepana, Butl. III. Het. vii, p. 43 (1889). 

Callidrepana, Fekl. Reis. Nov. Lep. pi. 83, fig. 11, Erkl. p. 2 (1867). 
Type, D. falcataria, Linn., from Europe. 

Range. N. America ; Europe ; Japan ; Himalayas ; Nilgiris ; 
Ceylon; Assam Hills; Burma; Sumatra; Borneo; Solomon Islands. 
Palpi slight and upturned; proboscis present. Frenulum present. 



334 



DRBPANULIDiE. 



i ore Wing with the apex generally produced and acute ; veins 6 and 
11 may be given off from the cell or from the areole, which maybe 
tormed by the anastomosis of veins 8, 9, and 10, or 8 and 9 only. 

Sect. I. (Drepana). Fore wing with vein 10 given off after the 
areole; 11 from the cell. Antennae bipectinate in male, 
ciliated in female ; mid tibia with one pair of spurs, hind 
tibia with two pairs. 

A. Fo)-e ivinc/ ivith the apex falcate, the areole long. 
708. Drepana pallida, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 84 ; C. <§• S. no. 1239. 



Pale brown. "Fore wing with traces of several antemedial lines ; 
a dark spot at end of cell ; an oblique fulvous band from near 
apex to inner margin beyond the middle, slightly bent near inner 
margin ; a series of indistinct snbmarginal dark specks. Hind 
wing similar, the fulvous band curved. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp., c? 44, $ 60 millim. 

709. Drepana hyalina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 401 ; Butl. III. Het. 

vii, pi. 125, fig. 1. 

White, with a slight fuscous tinge. Fore wing crossed by two 
waved fuscous antemedial lines ; a dark speck at lower angle of 
cell ; two waved lines beyond the cell, the outer Hne expanding 
into a band towards inner margin ; submarginal and marginal series 
of indistinct specks. Hind wing with one antemedial, two post- 
medial, and one submarginal indistinct waved lines. 

In a Kulu specimen the markings are almost obsolete. 

Hab. Dharmsala; Kulu. Eap. 43 miUim. 

710. Drepana rufofasciata, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown. Fore wing pale brown, 
with a broad median rufous band occupying half the wing, and 
bearing two white spots on the costa, from which indistinct pale 
waved lines proceed to inner margin ; a round grey-centred dark 
spot at lower angle of cell ; a submarginal series of black specks. 
Hind wing pale brown, with traces of two antemedial pale lines; 
a black speck at end of cell ; three postmcdial waved lines. 

Bab. Sikhim (Elwes). Exp. 43 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 




Fig. 232. — Drepana pallida, c? • 



DBEPANA. 



335 



711. Drepana ochreipennis, n. sp. 

Reddish ochreous, clouded with reddish brown. Fore wing 
crossed by ante- and postmedial whitish narrow bands or series of 
small spots ; a darlc speck at end of cell. Hind wing with a 
speck at end oE cell, and a postmedial white band or series of 
spots. 

Hah. Sikhim (Moller). Exp., S 28, $ 30 millim. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 

B. Foreiuiiig with the apex not falcate. 

712. Drepana quinaria, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 618 ; C.Sj-S. no. 3142. 

^ . White, with a very slight ochreous tinge ; the branches of 
antennse ochreous ; fore wing crossed by about seven very indis- 
tinct pale waved lines ; hind wing by one medial and three post- 
medial similar lines. 

5 . Purer white, with the lines slightly better marked. 

Hah. Sikhim, 7000-10,000 feet. Exp., S 38, $ 36 millim. 

713. Drepana innotata, n. ap. 

§ . Head, thorax, and abdomen white. Wings hyaHne, with a 
few scattered white scales and absolutely without markings. 

Hab. Kulu {Graham- Young). Exp. 36 milHm. Type in coll. 
Elvves. 

C. Fore iving falcate ; the areole short ; vein 6 from angle of cell. 

714. Drepana fasciata, n. sp. 

2 . Head, antenna3, and legs brown ; thorax and abdomen white. 
Wings silvery white, crossed by ante- and postmedial straight 
ferruginous Hnes ; a waved submarginal indistinct line ; cilia and 
costa of fore wing ferruginous. 

Bab. Sikhim {Moller). Exp. 48 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



Sect. II. {Albara). Eore wing with vein 10 from end of areole ; 

11 from the cell. ' 

A. Antenn(B simple in female ; the distal portion serrate in male. 

715. Drepana specularia, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1553: Bidl. III. Het 
VI, pi. 106, tig. 3 ; C.^ 8. no. 1255. 

Eed-brown ; the head chestnut. Eore wing with traces of two 
antemedial and two postmedial waved lines ; a pale spot in the 
cell, two below the origin of vein 2, a large patch in and beyond 
the end of cell, the discocellulars and veins 3 and 4 where thev 
cross it dark ; postmedial and submarginal indistinct waved lines 



336 



DBBPANULIBiE. 



Hind wing with a semih valine patch in and beyond the end of cell, 
the veins crossing it dark ; traces of two antemedial, two post- 
medial, and a submarginal dark waved line. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 46 millim. 

716. Drepana discispilaria, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 619 ; C. &■ S. 

no. 1253. 

Agnidra iista, Butl. III. Ilet. vi, p. 17, pi. 106, fig. 2 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 1256, 

(S . DiflFers from specularia in the head being dark brown ; the 
pale patches at end of cell of both wings replaced by a round dark 
spot with grey centre. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 44 millim. 

717. Drepana perhamata, n. sp. 

2 . Fore wing with the apex extremely produced. Head, 
thorax, and legs dull red-brown. Eore wing with a broad purplish- 
fuscous medial band with waved edges ; an indistinct waved post- 
medial line ; the outer area suffused with fuscous, the nervules 
crossing it pale. Hind wing with the basal area fuscous, its outer 
edge waved ; two pale specks at end of cell ; an indistinct post- 
medial \^'aved line. 

S . Much more uniform purple ; some brown appearing near 
the postmedial waved lines of both wings. 

Hah. Naga and Jaintia Hills. Exp., 6 38, $ 42 millim. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 



718. Drepana muscularia, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1554; C. Sf S. no. 1254. 

c? . Dark purple-grey ; the vertex of head fulvous. Fore wing 
with the costa fulvous ; antemedial, postmedial, and submarginal 
waved dark lines ; a large patch of vinous red occupying the lower 
half of outer area. Hind wing similar, the whole outer area 
vinous. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 42 millim. 

719. Drepana violacea, Butl. Ill Het. vii, p. 42, pi. 124, fig. 7. 

^ . Pale purplish grey ; the head brown. Fore wing with the 
costa fulvous ; both wings with traces of a faint antemedial line 
and an oblique well-defined fulvous postmedial line, which becomes 
medial on the hind wing ; cilia pale brown at tips. 

Hah. Dharmsala. Exp. 38 millim. 

720 Drepana lilacina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 401 ; Butl. III. Het. 
vii T)l 124, fiffs. 8, 9 ; C. ^ S. no. 1238 B. 
Drep^Ja simillima, Moore, P 7^ 8. 1888, p. 402 ; C. ^ S. no. 1242 a. 

Pale brownish grey ; the antenna) darker. Fore wing mth an 
indistinct oblique antemedial chestnut line; a chestnut postmedial 
line from apex to inner margin beyond the middle; some dark 



DEEP ANA. 



337 



submarginal specks. Hind wing with subbasaL and medial straight 
chestnut hnes. 

One specimen from Sikhim has the chestnut lines very broad 
and prominent, and a chestnut band at middle of abdomen. 
Hah, Dharmsala; Kangra ; Sikhim. JKrp. 40 millim. 

721. Drepana orphnina, n. sp. 

S . Uniform dark purplish grey. Fore wing with traces of a 
dark line on discocellulars, and two antemedial, three postmedial, 
and one submarginal line. Hind wing with traces of one antemedial, 
three postmedial, and one submarginal line. Underside pale, the 
costa of fore wing tinged with red. 

Hah. Naga HUls, 6000 feet (Doherty). Exp. 32 millim. Type 
in coll. Elwes. 

722. Drepana prunicolor, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 288. 

d*. Dark purplish grey. Fore wing with an acutely angled 
yellowish antemedial line ; a similar postmedial line met at the 
angle by a yellow line from the apex ; a pale submarginal line. 
Hind wing with slightly curved subbasal, medial, and submarginal 
yellowish lines. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 36 millim. 

*723. Drepana postica, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 84, pi. 2, fig. 8 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 1241. 

cJ . Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing purplish brown, the 
last with the base and outer angle yellowish ; an indistinct ante- 
medial line ; an oblique dark line from near the apex to centre of 
inner margin ; a submarginal series of specks. Hind wing pale 
yellow, with ante- and postmedial curved darker lines ; some sub- 
marginal specks ; both wings with a white speck at end of cell. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 37 millim. 

724. Drepana vinacea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 85 ; C.^ S. no. 1244. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark purplish grey. Fore wing 
reddish brown, suffused with purplish on inner and outer areas ; 
a double oblique line from near the apex to inner margin beyond 
the middle ; an indistinct waved submarginal line. Hind wing 
entirely suffused with purplish ; the double line medial ; traces of 
two submarginal lines. Underside ochreous, with a speck at end 
of cell of each wing ; purplish blotches beyond the oblique line of 
the fore wing ; hind wing with a curved medial line. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 42 millim. 

725. Drepana fenestraria, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 618: C. 8c S. 

no. 3141, 



$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous. Fore wing 

VOL. I. B 



338 



DnEPAinjlIDJE. 



ochreous, slightly suffused with fuscous; an oblique black line 
from lower angle of cell to inner margin ; an oblique postmedial 
line from apex ; a trifid hyaline patch before the postmedial line 
from vein 2 to 5, the latter being bent ; a lunulate subraarginal 
pale line ; a marginal fine dark line. Hind wing pale ochreous, 
with straight ante- and postmedial lines and waved submarginal 
line, the area between the two latter suffused with fuscous ; a fine 
marginal line. 

Edb. Sikhim. Exp. 36 millim. 

726. Drepana trilinearia, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 618; C. ^ S. 

no. 3143. 

. Differs from fenestraria in the head being black. Tore wing 
with the basal and costal areas suffused with fuscous ; no oblique 
line from lower angle of cell ; no hyaline patch ; vein 5 straight, the 
postmedial line angled below the costa; the submarginal line of 
both wings straight. Hind wing with the inner area slightly 
suffused with fuscous ; the ante- and postmedial lines indistinct. 
Eah. Sikhim. Exp. 32 millim. 

727. Drepana excisa, n. sp. 

c? . Pore wing with the outer margin deeply excised below 
the apex ; hind wing angled at vein 4 ; hind tibise with one pair of 
spurs. 

Differs ivom fenestraria in not being suffused with fuscous : fore 
wing with the hyaline patch extending from veins 2 to 4 ; vein 5 
straight ; the postmedial line curved. Hind wing with the sub- 
marginal line straight. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Naga Hills, 1500 ieet{Do7ierty). Exp. 28 millim. 
Type in coll. Elwes. 

B. (Callidrepana). Antennae hipectinated. in both sexes, the 
brandies long in the male. 

723. Drepana argenteola, Moore, Lep. JE. I. Co. p. 369 (1859). 

Drepana patraiia, Moore, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 816 ; C. ^ S. no. 1240. 
Drepana biocularis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 84, pi. 2, fig. 9 ; C. Sr S. 
no. 1236. 

Drepana bracteata, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 5. 

Head fulvous ; thorax and abdomen pale fawn-colour. Wings 
pale or dark fawn-colour. Fore wing with traces of an antemedial 
waved line ; a dark patch on the discocellulars, often wanting ; a 
double brown line from the apex to inner margin beyond the middle; 
a series of submarginal dark specks on the veins ; the area in the 
cell and below the costa, the veins, the outer edge of the obhque line, 
and the outer margin spangled with brHhant bluish-silver scales. 
Hind wing vtdth a double straight medial line not reaching the 



DEEPANA. 



339 



costa ; a postmedial series of specks ; silvery scales on outer edge 
of the line and on outer margin. 

The form bracteata from Ceylon is much darker, with the disco- 
cellular patch of the fore wing broken up into three small spots, 
and with more silvery irroration. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Burma ; Ceylon ; Java. E.vp., ^ 35-45, 5 50 
milHm. 



729. Drepana argentilinea, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 394. 

Callidrepana argentifera, Druce, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 574, pi. 29, fig. 3. 

S . Ochreous white. Fore wing with a dark line with a few 
silvery scales on it along basal two-thirds of costa ; two dark streaks 
at end of cell ; an elongate black spot on discocellulars with some 
silvery scales on it ; a dark streak from upper angle of cell to near 
apex, then curved round and waved to inner margin and with silvery 
scales on it; an indistinct streak beyond the cell; a marginal 
silvery Hne ; the marginal area shghtly suffused with orange. 
Hind wing with a silvery submarginal line towards anal angle, with 
orange suffusion between it and margin. 

Hab. Burma; Singapore; Sula; Solomons. ' ^a,;^'- ^6 millim. 



730. Drepana pulcherrima, n. sp. 

(S . Head bright chestnut ; thorax and abdomen ochreous brown. 
Fore wing pale olive-green suffused with chestnut, especially on 
inner basal area ; a waved and angled indistinct antemedial black 
line ; a postmedial obHque chestnut hne from costa before apex to 
inner margin beyond the middle, with an indistinct black line 
before it angled below the costa ; a submarginal series of black 
specks ; numerous silvery and a few black scales below the costa, 
on inner basal area, and on each side of the oblique line. Hind 
wing with the costal area yellow, without markings ; the inner half 
of wing chestnut-brown, irrorated with silvery scales ; black ante- 
and postmedial lines, the latter followed by a red-brown band, then 
a black-brown band, and a marginal red-brown band with 'some 
yellow lunules at anal angle ; both wings with a marginal silvery 
line. Cilia of both wings red-brown tipped with silver. Under- 
side yellow, with a medial black band across the hind wing. 

Allied to D. micacea, "Wlk., from Borneo. 

Eab. Tenasserim Valley, Burma (Boherty). Exp. 42 millim 
Type in coll. Druce. 



731. Dre^aim ^duplex, Moore,P.Z.S. 1865, p. 816, pi. 43, fig. 8; 



$ Head and thorax purplish grey; abdomen and fore wing 
pale brown, suffused with purplish grey. Fore wing with two 
antemedial waved dark lines ; a dark oblique line from the apex to 
centre of inner margin, the outer line deep black; a pale apical 



340 



DEEPANTJLIDjB. 



patch with dark outhne irrorated with brown, but without purpUsh 
suffusion ; the marginal area similar, with a brown submarginal 
line. Hind wing pale brownish ochreous j a broad purplish ante- 
medial band with dark outer edge ; the outer area striated with 
brown. Cilia of both wings dark. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 68 millim. 

732. Drepana specularis, Moore.P.Z.S. 1879, p. 407; trf. Lep. Ceyl. 

ii, pi. 124, fig. 2; C.SfS. no. 1243. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous brown ; the vertex of 
head and shaft of antennae'white. Fore wing pale ochreous brown; 
an indistinct antemedial irregular fuscous band; the outer area 
suffused with fuscous, leaving the veins pale ; a pale obhque line 
from near the apex to inner margin beyond the middle ; a sub- 
marginal series of black spots. Hind wing wholly suffused with 
fuscous, except the base and apex ; the oblique line medial ; two 
hyaline spots beyond the cell between veins 4 and 6 ; the submar- 
ginal spots indistinct. 

Bab. Sikhim ; Ceylon. Exp., S 34, $ 66 millim. 

733. Drepana flava, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 84, pi. 2, fig. 7jC.^S. 

no. 1238. 

2 . Chrome-yellow ; head and antennae fulvous. Fore wing 
with an indistinct dark waved antemedial line ; a speck at end of 
cell ; two short waved lines beyond lower angle of cell ; a waved 
postmedial line ; two series of dark submarginal lunules, two of 
the outer series below the apex having white centres. Hind wing 
with a dark spot at end of cell ; a waved postmedial line and two 
submarginal series oE lunules. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 58 millim. 



Sect. III. Fore wing with vein 11 given off from the middle of 
the areole, 10 from the end of it ; mid tibia with no spurs ; 
hind tibia with a terminal pair. 

A. Antennce of female ciliate ; of male htpectinate, the distal 

portion serrate. 

734. Drepana albonotata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 83 (1879) ; C. Sr S. 
no. 1236. 

Callidrepana ochrea, Butl. III. Het. vi, p. 17, pi. 105, fig. 10 (1886). 

cJ . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow. Wings chrome-yellow. 
Fore wing with the costa dark ; traces of an antemedial waved 
dark line ; a dark speck in the cell, and two silvery-white specks 
at end of it, the speck at lower angle on a fulvous ground ; traces 
of waved postmedial and submarginal dark lines ; a purplish mar- 
ginal patch below the apex, the cilia beyond it rufous, all the 



DEEP AN A. 



341 



markings irrorated with silvery scales. Hind wing with traces of 
antemedial, postmedial, and submarginal waved dark lines. 

The form ochrea differs in having an orange tinge, and the lines 
almost obsolete, as are the silvery-white specks at end of cell of 
both wings. 

In the Nilgiri specimen the apex of fore wing is rather more 
produced. 

Hob. Silihim ; Nilgiris. Exp. 34-38 millim. 

735. Drepana sadana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 817 ; C. ^ S. no. 1242. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow; frons and antennae 
brown. Tore wing luteous yellow ; traces of an antemedial waved 
dark line ; an orange spot in the cell and one at end of it ; a large 
purplish or red-brown patch beyond the lower angle of cell, with 
two dark spots on it and some chestnut on its upper edge ; a sub- 
marginal series of indistinct spots, two below the apex being pro- 
minent ; a chestnut patch on outer margin below the apex. Hind 
wing with indistinct antemedial, postmedial, and submarginal 
waved dark hues. 

The patch of fore wing is very variable in extent, being some- 
times joined to the marginal patch and occupying the whole outer 
area except the costa, while sometimes both are almost absent. 

Eab. Sikhim. Exp. 40 millim. 

736. Drepana xanthoptera, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen reddish yellow. "Wings bright 
ochreous. Pore wing with a curved red-brown antemedial line ; an 
oblique line from the costa before the apex to centre of inner margin ; 
a submarginal series of dark specks, the two nearest the apex with 
white spots inside them ; apex and outer margin suffused with 
red-brown. Hind wing with ante- and postmedial red-brown lines ; 
a white speck at end of cell ; a submarginal series of dark specks. 

Hab. Naga Hills, 1500 feet (Doherty) ; Khasi Hills. Exp. 30-36 
millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

737. Drepana ferrea, Hmpsn. Bl. Ret. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig 15. 

$ . Chestnut-brown, with a purplish tinge. Fore wing with 
indistinct maculate ante- and postmedial fuscous bands ; two white 
dark-outlined specks at end of cell ; traces of a submarginal series 
of dark specks ; a dark blotch on outer margin below the apex. 
Hind wing with the markings similar ; one white speck at end of 
cell. 

Bah. Ceylon. Exp. 42 millim. 

738. Drepana quadripnnctata, Wlk. Joum. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 175. 

Head red-brown ; thorax, abdomen, and wings reddish ochreous, 
the last with waved ante- and postmedial lines and two black 



342 



bkepanulid.t:. 



specks on the discocellulars ; the postmedial line of fore wine 
angled beyond the cell, the angle ending in a dark speck on vein 6^ 
Underside with the black specks and postmedial line prominent on 
both wings. 

Hah. Naga HUls ; Perak. Exp., S 26, $ 38 millim. 



739. Drepana vira, Moore, P. z. S. 1866, p. 817 ; C. ^ S. no. 1246. 

Head, thorax, and fore wing violaceous grey ; abdomen and 
hind wing yellow. Fore wing with an antemedial erect red-brown 
line arising from a dark spot on the costa ; a similar postmedial 
spot ; a white speck at upper angle of cell and two at lower angle ; 
an oblique submarginal nearly straight red-brown line ; ciUa chest- 
nut. tJnderside yellow. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 30 millim. 



B. Antennce hipectinate to apex in male. 

740. Drepana fulva, n. sp. 

c? . Bright fulvous yellow ; head and collar bright ferruginous. 
Fore wing with traces of two dark specks beyond the cell in the 
interspaces between veins 2 and 4 ; the cilia fuscous, greyish at 
tips. Hind wing uniform fulvous yellow. 

2 . Much browner. 

Hah. Sikhim (Elives). Exp. 44 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

741. Drepana hyalinata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 638; C. <§• S. 

no. 3506. 

Fore wing with the apex rounded, the outer margin slightly 
angled. 

5 . Antennae bipectinate, the branches long. Head, thorax, 
and abdomen grey ; vertex of thorax and abdomen suffused with 
rust-red. Fore wing hyaline ; the basal area sparsely clad with 
rust-red scales, and terminating in an angle at lower extremity of 
cell ; traces of an irregular hyaline antemedial line ; an irregular 
submarginal rust-red band outlined, in black, curved and narrow 
below the costa and angled at vein 3. Hind wing hyaline, with 
some rust-red scales on inner margin, and a rust-red lunulate 
submarginal band outlined in black. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 32 millim. 



Genus SPICA. 
Spica, Smnh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 424. 

Type, S. luteola, Swinh. 
Bange. Sikhim. 

Palpi of moderate length, the first two joints thickly scaled ; 
proboscis present. Antennae of male with the branches short and 



SPIO A . — TH YMISTAD A . 



343 



close together ; mid tibiae with one pair of spurs, hind tibi£B with 
two pairs. Pore wing with vein 6 from just above angle ot cell ; 
7 and 10 from the areole, 8 and 9 from end of it ; frenulum 
present. 

742. Spica luteola, Sioinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 424, pi. 44, fig. 10, 

Head, thorax, and abdomen 
orange-yellow. Fore wing yellow, 
irrorated with orange scales ; an 
angled ferruginous antemedial 
line ; an oblique postmedial line ; 
reniform outlined with ferrugi- 
nous ; a curved submarginal line ; 
Fig. 233 —Spica Meola, S ■ \- an oblique apical streak. Hind 

wing pale ochreous. 
Eab. Sikhim. Exjp. 34 millim. 




Genus THYMISTADA. 

Thymistada, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 515 (1865). 

Type, T. tr {'punctata, Wlk. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi slender, upturned and reaching vertex of head ; proboscis 
present. Antennae with the branches long in male. Mid tibia 
with one pair of long spurs ; hind tibia with two pairs. Frenulum 
present. Fore wing with the apex falcate and pointed ; outer margin 
angled at vein ti ; veins 6, 7, and 10 from the areole, which is 
large and formed by the anastomosis of 8 and 9. Hind wing with 
the inner margin deeply excised at anal angle. 



743. Thymistada tripunctata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 515; C. 8f 8. 
no. 1234. 

Erosia cervinaria, Moore, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 646 ; C. ^ S. no. 3052. 

Head red-brown ; thorax, abdomen, and fore wing dark pur- 
plish brown ; the last with waved 
dark antemedial, postmedial, and 
submarginal lines, in some speci- 
mens, with a few grey scales on 
their outer edges ; three dark 
specks on the discocellulars ; 
costa and outer margin red- 
brown ; cilia black, with pale 
tips. Hind wing pale fuscous; 
a dark patch at anal angle, with 
a bent line of white scales on it ; 
ciha pale at apical area, black with pale tips towards anal 
angle. 




Fig. 234. 
Thymistada tripunctata, . 



344 



BREPANULID^. 



?. Paler. 

There is a large paler form also from Sikhim. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 36-40 millim. 

Genus DEROCA. 
Deroca, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 822 (1855). 

Type, D. hycdina, Wlk. 

Bange. Japan ; N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Nagas ; Manipur ; 
Pegu. 

Palpi short and slight ; proboscis present. Antennae with the 
branches long in male, short in female. Mid tibia with one pair 
of minute spurs, hind tibia with two pairs. Frenulum absent. 
Fore wing with apex rounded ; vein 6 from the areole, 7 and 10 
from the end of it. Hind wing with vein 8 anastomosing strongly 
with 7. 

744. Deroca hyalina, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 823 ; C.8fS. no. 899. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen blackish, sparsely covered with 
white hair. Wings hyaline : fore wing with traces of two ante- 
medial waved lines, and both wings with two postmedial and one 
submarginal waved line ; a series of marginal spots and a marginal 
more or less prominent dark line. 

There is a small less completely hyaline form from Sikhim that 
may be distinct. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Nagas ; Manipur ; E. Pegu. 
Exp. 34-44 millim. 

745. Deroca inconclusa, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1727. 

Deroca maculata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 575 ; C. 8^ S. no. 900. 

Differs from hyalina in the wings being clothed sparsely with 

white hair. Pore wing with two 
black spots below the costa on 
basal area; two below them in 
and below the cell ; a series of 
three antemedial spots, on costa, 
at origin of vein 2, and on inner 
margin ; a postmedial series of 
four spots, two being on the dis- 
cocellulars ; a submarginal series 
of dentate spots interrupted at 
Fig. I'ib.— Deroca inconcltm, S - t- middle, with a white line running 

through them ; three pairs of 
marginal spots. Hind wing with two indistinct postmedial macu- 
late bands ; a black spot at apex, a pair at middle of outer margin, 
and a pair at anal angle. 

Hah. Japan ; N.W. Himalayas ; Nagas ; Manipur. Exp., cS 33, 
? 36-43 millim. 




PHALA.ORA. 



845 



Genus PHALACRA. 
Phalacra, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1638 (1866). 

Type, P. vidhisara, Wlk. 
Range. India and Ceylon. 

Palpi short and slight ; proboscis present. Antennae serrate in 
male, thickened and flattened in female. Mid tibia with one pair 
of long spurs, hind tibia with two pairs. Frenulum absent. 
Pore wing produced, the apex acute ; vein 6 from below the angle 
of cell ; 7 from the areole which is formed by 9 and 10 anasto- 
mosing with 8. Hind wing with the outer margin straight from 
anal angle to vein 6, where it is angled. 

Sect. I. Wings with the outer margins not excised 
below the apices. 

746. Phalacra vidhisara, Wlh. Cat. xxi, p. 319 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, 
pi. 201, figs. 1, 1 « (larva) ; C. <§• S. no. 4011. 
Phalacra metagonaria, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1639. 

Pale reddish brown, sparsely irrorated with black scales. Pore 
wing with traces of an antemedial waved black line ; postmedial 
and submarginal series of black specks. Hind wing with an in- 




Fig. 236. — Phalacra vidhisara, § . \. 



distinct subbasal line ; a double medial line ; postmedial and sub- 
marginal series of black specks. Cilia of both wings traversed by 
a black line. 

Larva fusiform, the head broad ; lateral and dorsal setse and 
prolonged anal setaceous spines ; colour green, with a dorsal pink 
band laterally bordered by yellow, and two red lines. 

Pupa purple-brown, covered with white bloom. 

Hab. Bombay; Calcutta; Nilgiris; Ceylon. Exp., S 28, $ 
38 millim. 

Sect. II. Both wings with the outer margins excised 
below the apices. 

747. Phalacra excisa, n. sp. 

? . Grey-brown. Fore wing with the outer margin excised 
below the apex and angled at vein 4 ; traces of numerous waved 



346 



DREPATTULID^. 



lines ; a black spot in the cell ; a pale postmedial band with waved 
edges ; ,a dark speck on the costa before the apex. Hind wing 
paler, with the lines nearly straight, two antemedial, four post- 
medial, and one submarginal line being prominent, the outer 
margin excised between the apex and the much-produced angle 
at vein 6. 

Hob. Sikhim. Exp. 36 milUm. Type in coll. Knyvett. 



Genus DEAPETODES. 

Drapetodes, Gum. Sp. G6n. Lep. Phal. i, p. 424 (1867). 

Type, D. mitaria, Guen. 

Range. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Nagas ; Ceylon ; Singapore. 

Palpi slender and upturned, reaching vertex of head, the third 
joint short ; proboscis present. Antennae thickened and flattened 
in both sexes. Legs naked ; mid tibia with one pair, hind tibia 
with two pairs of long spurs. Frenulum absent. Pore wing with 
the apex rounded ; vein 6 from below the angle of cell ; 7 from 
the angle ; 8, 9, 10 stalked. 

748. Drapetodes mitaria, Ouen. Sp. G6n. L6p. Phal. i, p. 424; C. §■ S. 
no. 3690. 

Drapetodes fratercula, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 541, pi. 200, figs. 1, 

1 a (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 3589. 
Anisodes.P platycerata, Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1586. 

Pulvous yellow. Fore wing with a plumbeous line below the 

costa of fore wing from the base to 
the apex, then passing inside the outer 
margin to outer angle ; two indistinct 
dentate antemedial lines ; two dark 
specks at end of cell ; the area just 
beyond the cell suffused with purpUsh 
grey ; three obliquely-waved and curved 
Fig. 237. lines from the costa near apex to centre 

Drapetodes mitaria, S ■ \- of inner margin, where they almost 

meet ; the area near outer angle suf- 
fused with purplish grey. Hind wing with two subbasal lines ; a 
broad medial purplish-grey baud with dark edges, three waved 
lines beyond it, and a leaden submarginal line. 

The iovm fratercula, from Sikhim, the Nagas, and Ceylon, has the 
basal area of both wings, the apex of fore wing, and outer area of 
bind wing very pale yellow, and all the markings well defined ; the 
meso- and metathorax and abdomen pale, the last with dark 
bands. 

Larva pale salmon-pink; head pale yellow, with two brown 
transverse bands ; anal somite tapering to a bifid point, each somite 
with six small setaceous glandular spines. Dorsal surface of 1st, 
2nd, and 3rd somites dull green, of 4th, 5th, 10th, and 11th dark 
brown ; lateral area of 6th to 9th yellow ; a lateral series of six 




DEAPBTODES. — OEETA . 



347 



dark brown diagonal stripes. Spins a cocoon in a rolled-up leaf ; 
pupa covered with white bloom. 

Hob. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Nagas ; Ceylon ; Singapore. Exp., 6 28, 
$ 32mUlim. 

Genus CILIX. 

Cilix, Leach, Edinb. Encycl ix, p. 134 (1815). 
Euclea, Hiibn. Verz. p. 149 (1818). 

Type, 0. glaucata, Scop. 

Range. N. America ; Europe ; Himalayas. 

Proboscis absent; antennae o£ male bipectinated, the branches 
short, of female serrate. Tore wing with veins 6 and 7 from angle 
of cell ; 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing with vein 8 anastomosing 
with 7 beyond the cell. 

In American and European specimens the palpi are minute and 
porrect ; the hind tibiae have two pairs of spurs ; fore wing with 
vein 7 separate from 8, 9, 10. In Himalayan specimens the palpi 
are absent ; the hind tibise have but one pair of spurs, and vein 7 
of the fore wing is bent upwards and almost, or quite, anastomoses 
with 8, 9, 10. 



749. Cilix glaucata, Scop. Ent. Cam. p. 221. 
Bomhyx ruffa, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, 2, p. 1068. 
Bombyx compressa, Fahr. Gen. Ins. p. 279. 
Geometra modesta, Naturf. xiii, 27, pi. 3, fig. 4. 

Head and thorax fuscous ; collar and 
tegulae pure white ; abdomen white, 
slightly ringed with fuscous. Pore wing 
pure shining white ; a large leaden patch 
on centre of inner margin irrorated with 
white, with some olive on its upper 
edge and above it ; a more or less obso- 
lete fuscous band from beyond the upper 
angle of cell to the leaden patch ; raised ridges of white scales on 
end of median nervure and origins of veins 2, 3, 4 ; a submarginal 
fuscous line from vein 6 to inner margin, with a series of mai-ginal 
leaden lunules beyond it ; cilia fuscous. Hind wing white, with a 
marginal fuscous lunular band. 

t/ab. N. America; Europe; Simla; Dalhousie. Exp., S 24, 
2 26 millim. 




Fig. 238. 
Cilix glaucata, 2 . 



Genus ORETA. 

Oreta, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1166 (1855). 
Cobanilla, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 120 (1883). 

Type, 0. externa, Wlk. 

Range. N. America; Japan; throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma ; Java. 



348 



DEBPANULIDjf;. 



Proboscis absent. Antenna serrate in both sexes or bipectinate 
in male. Legs fringed with hair. Erenulum absent. Pore wing 
produced and falcate, the apex rounded ; vein 6 from angle of cell ; 
7 and 8 stalked ; 9, 10, 11 stalked, 9 anastomosing shortly with 
7 and 8. 

Sect. I. (Oreta). Palpi minute ; mid and hind tibiae 
without spurs. 

A. Antennce with the serrations not coalescing. 

750. Oreta extensa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1166 ; Moore, Lev. Ceyl ii, pi. 124, 
figs. 3, 3a; C.8fS. no. 1246. 
Oreta suifusa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1167. 

Head and legs bright orange or scarlet ; thorax and abdomen 
yellow, with a pink tinge. Both wings yellow, suffused with pink- 
ish brown, sometimes uniformly, but generally the basal area of 




Oreta extensa, <5'. \. 



fore wing and the whole outer area of hind wing, except the apex, 
is not suffused ; both wings with numerous small, dark, evenly 
distributed and more or less prominent spots, and two white 
specks on the discocellulars. Pore wing with a yellow oblique line 
from the apex to inner margin beyond the middle, and a fuscous 
spot at outer angle. 

The form suffusa is much duller in colour and suffused with 
brown. 

Larva spins a cocoon in a rolled-up leaf. 

Hah. The whole of India, Ceylon, and Burma; Java. Exjp., 
c? 38-43, 5 40-54 millim. 

751. Oreta sanguinea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 85; C. §• S. no. 1249. 

2 . Differs from extensa in having the thorax and abdomen 
slightly suffused with pale crimson. Fore wing with the basal two- 
thirds pale crimson, followed by a broad yellow band with irregu- 
lar edges ; the marginal area greyish fuscous at apex and outer 
angle, pale crimson at middle. Hind wing with the basal half and 
apex pale crimson ; the outer half yellow. 

Hah. Sikhim. Eocp. 50 millim. 



ORBTA. 



349 



752. Oreta violacea, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 62, pi. 141, fig. 18. 

2 . Differs from ecctensa in being yellow, with a purplish, not 
pinkish, brown tinge ; the collar white ; head and legs less brilliant 
orange ; fore wing with the whole basal area yellowish ; the ob- 
lique yellow line from the apex curved ; the apex greyish. Hind 
wing suffused with purplish, the base, a medial hue, and a patch 
on outer margin yellowish. 

Hah. Nilgiris, S. slopes, 3000 feet. Exp. 28 milHrn. 

753. Oreta obtusa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1167 ; C. 8f 8. no. 1247. 
Oreta vatama, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 816 ; C. ^ S. no. 1250. 

cJ. Differs from ecctensa in the frons and legs being more 
brilliant scarlet ; the thorax and abdomen yellowish. Wings with 
the ground-colour yellowish, evenly striated with brown. Fore 
wing with a bright chestnut curved line from apex to centre of 
inner margin, the area within it suffused with pinkish-brown, ex- 
cept a patch on base of inner margin bounded by an indistinct 
dark line ; a pinkish-brown patch on centre of outer margin ; the 
apex dark, with some white scales on the origin of the oblique line. 
Hind wing with a broad medial pinkish-brown band with dark 
edges. Both wings with some white on the discocellulars ; ciha of 
fore wing and at apex of hind wing red. 

2 . More suffused with brown ; the line from apex of fore wing 
less curved. 

Hab. Kashmir ; Sikhim ; Sylhet. Exjp., c? 40, ? 48 millim. 

B. Male with the antennce thiclcened and flattened by the 
coalescing of the serrations. 

754. Oreta obliquilinea, n. sp. 

Differs from obtusa in being ochreous yellow ; the head and legs 
not so brUliantly scarlet. Wings with evenly-disposed brown 
striae ; a straight oblique brown line with greyish outer edge from 
apex of fore wing to inner margin of hind vdng before the middle. 
Underside of fore wing and costal area of hind wing more or less 
suffused with red. 

The male from the Punjab has almost the whole fore wing and 
the apex of hind wing suffused vdth brown. 

Hab. K^lapani, Punjab ; Sikhim ; Sylhet. Exp., 6 38, $ 42 
millim. Type in B. M. 

755. Oreta albipuncta, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 8. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale red-brown. Wings pale 
red-brown, with evenly disposed dark striae. Fore wing with an 
indistinct antemedial line ; a white spot at end of cell ; a post- 
medial dark and pale red line angled below the costa ; some 
fuscous suffusion at apex. Hind wing with a medial dark and 
pale red line. 

Hab. Trincomah, Ceylon. Exp. 26 millim. 



350 



DBBPANTTLID^. 



766. Oreta castanea, Hmpsn, III. jm. viii, p. 62, pi. 141, fig. 17. 

6 V Pale reddish brown. Wings evenly striated with brown ; 
an oblique line from the apex of fore wing to middle of inner 
margin of hmd wing, bent near the apex, where there is a deep 
black spot above it. Pore wing with traces of an antemedial dark 
line ; the costa red-brown ; a white speck on discocellulars. 

Hah. Nilgiris, N. slopes, 3500 feet. Exp. 28 milUm. 

757. Oreta rotundapex, Umpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 61, pi. 141, fig. 6. 

S . Dark purplish olive-brown. "Wings thickly striated with 
brown. Fore wing crossed by a broad, medial, indistinct darker 
band with a vinous tinge. Hind wing with a medial, pale, straight 
line, the area inside it and the marginal area with a vinous 
tinge. 

Hab. Mlgiris, N. slopes, 3500 feet. Exp. 36 millim. 

758. Oreta pavaca, Moore, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 816 ; C. ^ S. no. 1248. 

c? . Head with the frous crimson, the vertex red-brown ; thorax 
and abdomen red-brown, the latter reddish towards extremity. 
Fore wing red-brown, the basal, costal, and more especially the 
outer areas suffused with silvery scales ; discocellulars silver. 
Hind wing red-brown, the inner area slightly suffused with silver 
scales ; _ the discocellulars silver. Underside brilliant crimson ; 
both wings with numerous dark specks ; the inner area of hind 
wing yellowish. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 44 millim. 



Shot. II. Mid and hind tibiae with terminal pairs of spurs. 
Antennae bipectinate in male, the branches long. 

A. Palpi short atul porrect. 
759. Oreta griseotincta, n. sp. 

S . Palpi and legs scarlet ; head, thorax, abdomen, and wings 
chestnut-brown. Fore wing slightly irrorated with silvery grey ; 
medial and postmedial dark lines angled below the costa and 
approaching each other towards inner margin ; a blackish patch on 
costa before apex ; three black submargmal specks towards inner 
margin. Hind wing chestnut-brown, very slightly irrorated with 
silvery grey ; ante- and postmedial indistinct curved lines. Cilia 
of both wings red-brown. Underside with the costal area of both 
wings suffused with scarlet. 

Hah. Sikhim (Moller). Exp. 32 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



OEBTA. — OAMPTOCHILTJS. 



351 



B. (Cobanilla). Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head. 

760. Oreta marginata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 121, pi. 124, fig. 4 ; 
a ^ S. no. 1264. 

c?. Frons red; head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous. Fore 
wing yellow, the costa red ; the area below the medial two-thirds 
of costa suffused with red-brown ; an indistinct dark spot on disco- 
cellulars; outer margin from below apex to near outer angle 
red-brown. Hind wing yellow, the cilia red-brown. Underside 
suffused with crimson. 

Hah. Ceylon ; E. Pegu. Kvp. 32 millim. 



Genus CAMPTOCHILUS, nov. 

Type, C. reticulatum, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi short and porrect ; proboscis present. Antennae cilated in 
female. Mid tibia with one pair of spurs, hind tibia with two 
pairs. Frenulum present. Fore wing with the costa bent beyond 
the middle, the apex being produced upwards. Vein 6 from below 
the angle of cell; 7 and 8 stalked. Hind wing with a slight 
vesicle between veins 1 a and b ; the discocellulars straight ; vein 
8 almost straight. 

761. CamptocMlus reticulatum, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 233, pi. 8, fig. 3 ; 
a 8f S. no. 3243. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen brick-red. Fore wing brick-red, 
with evenly-disposed darker strisB over the whole wing, except a 




Fig. 240. — CamptocMlus reticulatum, $ . \. 

broad oblique yellow band from the apex to below vein 2. Hind 
wing similar, the yellow band marginal from apex to anal angle, 
and with the reticulations continued on it ; a medial straight line. 
Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 38-40 millim. 



Species formerly recorded as Indian which are omitted. 

Argyris deliaria, "Wlk., C. & S. no. 1259, is a Geometer {Acida- 
lince. 



352 



THTEIDIDJ!. 



Argyris clelphiaria, Gueu., C. & S. no. 1260, is a Geometer. 
Arrjyris extrusata, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1261, „ 
Argyris ocellata, H.-S., C. & S. no. 1263, 
Problepsis vulgaris, Butl. 111. Het. vii, p. 43, „ 
Arcjyris cinerea, Butl., C. & S. no. 1258 a, 
Argyris apoUinaria, Guen., is a Geometer. 
Cili<c olivacea, Hmpsn. 111. Het. viii, p. 63, is a Noctua (Acoiv- 
tiince). 

Drapetodes biUneata, Wlk., C. & S. no. 3588. Type lost ; de- 
scription unrecognizable. 



Family THYRIDIDJE. 

Moths generally with hyaline patches and strise on the wings. 
Palpi obliquely upturned and slender. AntennsD almost simple. 
Fore wing with vein 1 a forming a fork M'ith 1 6 at base ; 1 c 
absent ; 5 from near lower angle of cell. Hind wing with two 
internal veins ; vein 8 nearly touching vein 7 just before or after 
the end of the cell. Mid tibia with one pair of spurs ; hind tibia 
with two pairs. 

Larva Pyraliform, with five pairs of prolegs.* 




Fig. 241. — Larva of Striglina scitaria. \. 
(From Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii. pi. 175, fig. 1 a.) 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Hind wing with the cell closed. 

a'. Hind wing with vein 5 from the centre of 



the discocellulars 1. Add^a, p. 353. 

v. Hind wing with vein 5 from near lower 
angle of cell. 
Fore wing with veins 7, 8 and 9, 10 

stalked 3. Dixoa, p. 855. 

h^. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 stalked, [p. 364. 

9 and 10 from cell 5. Hypolampeus, 

c^. Fore wing with veins 8 and 9 stalked . 6. Camadena, p. 366. 
d*. Fore wing with all the veins from cell. 
a^. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 from 
angle of cell ; 9 and 10 from some 

way before the angle 2, Stbigmna, p. 363. 



* After the Thyrididce would follow the PyralidcB, if the Heterocera could 
be arranged in a linear series. 



ADD^A. — STEIGLINA. 



353 



6*. Fore wing "with veins 7, 8, 9, 10 
given off near angle of cell. 
a*. Fore wing with the costa excised . 7. Hebdonia, p. 367. 
b*. Fore wing -with the costa evenly 
arched. 

a*. Hind wing with the outer mar- [p. 355. 

gin nearly evenly curved .... 4, Ehodonbuba, 
6'. Hind wing with the outer mar- 
gin much excurved at centre . . 8. Dysodia, p. 368. 
b. Hind wing with the cell open. 
a'. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 from tlie [p. 370. 

cell 10, Hypebthybis, 

b'. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 stalked . . 9. Glanycus, p. 369. 



Genus ADD.ffiA. 

Addsea, Wlk. Cat. xxxiv, p. 1201 (1865). 
Mesopempta, Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1886, p. 217. 

Type, A. subtesselata, Wlk., from Australia. 

Range. Ceylon ; Ceram ; New Guinea ; Australia ; Solomons. 

Palpi upturned, short, and thickly sealed. Antennas annulated 
and minutely ciliated. Hind tibia rather thickened. Eore wing 
with veins 8 and 9 stalked; 10 from just before the angle of cell. 
Hind wing mth vein 5 from the centre of discocellulars. 

762. Addaea trimeronalis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 916 ; C. <^ S. no. 4386. 
Mesopempta heliopsamma, Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1886, p. 217. 

Pale red-brown. "Wings evenly 
and closely striated with slightly 
darker lines. Underside with a 
rather darker spot on the discocel- 
lulars of fore wing. 

Hab. Ceylon; New Guinea. Exp. 
15 millim. 




Fig. 242. 
Addcsa trimeronalis, . I. 



Genus STRIGLINA. 

Striglina, Guen. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877 p 283 
Sonagara, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 179 (1882). 

Type, 8. scitaria, Wlk. 

Range. Japan; Formosa; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma: 
Andamans; Borneo; Australia; Solomons; Fiii. 

Palpi upturned and thickly scaled, the third joint short. An- 
tenna minutely ciliate in male, simple in female. Femora and 
tibiae hairy, i ore wing with veins 8 and 9 from cell, 9 and 10 
from some way before the angle. Hind wing with vein 5 from 
just above lower angle of cell. 

2 a 



354 



THYBIDIDJE. 




763. Striglina scitaria, Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1488 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. 

iii, pi. 175, figs. 1, 1 a (larva). 
Striglina lineola, Guen. Am. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, p. 284 ; C. 8r S. 
no. 2786. 

Thermesia reticulata, Wlk. Cat. xxxiii, p. 1062 ; C. ^ S. no. 2811. 
Sonagara strigosa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 180 ; C. 8f S. no. 2813. 
Anisodes pyriniata, Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1582. 
Homodes thermesioides, Snell. Tijd. v. Ent. xx, 1877, p. 28. 
Azazia navigatorum, Feld. Rets. Nov. pi. 117, fig. 4. 
Laginia reticulata, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1560. 
Sonagara superior, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) xx, 1887, p. 433. 
Sonagara vialis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 27, pi. 6, fig. 9 ; C. 8r S. 
no. 2814. 

Sonagara strigipennis, Moore, Lep. Atk. ii, p. 180 ; C.8f S. no. 2812, 

Eeddish ochreous,the wings evenly 
striated with brown ; an oblique red- 
brown line from the apex of fore wing 
to inner margin of hind wing before 
the middle. Underside with a dark 
spot at end of cell of fore wing ; the 
oblique line coming out as black 

Fig.l43. streaks. . , ^, 

Striglina scitaria, J . \. Some specimens have a line on the 

hind wing from the same point on 
costa as the oblique line, and either curved to inner margin above 
anal angle or oblique to outer margin before anal angle. 

The Sikhim forms vialis and strigipennis are large ; the former 
is bright coloured, with a dark ring-spot at end of cell of fore wing 
and has the oblique line to hind wing ; the latter with the line 
curved. 

Larva olivaceous, the first somite ochreous, head blackish ; a tew 
fine short dorsal hairs ; some transverse series of black dots on 
second to terminal somites. 

Hob. Japan ; Formosa ; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; 
Andamans; Borneo; New Guuiea; Solomons; Austraha; Fiji. 
Exp. 24-43 millim. 

764. Striglina decussata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 27, pi. 6, fig. 8 ; 

C. ^ S. no. 2810. , n n 

Striglina bivittata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 27, pi. 6, fig. 7. 

c? . Differs from scitaria in being browner. Wings with small 
dark spots instead of striae ; no oblique line ; fore wmg with a 
dark spot at end of cell and one below it. . i j 

The form decussata, from N.E. India and Burma, is large and 
brighter fulvous, whilst bivittata, from the Andamans and Borneo, 
is a" small brown form with medial and marginal bands to both 
winffs developed ; the spots at end of cell of fore wmg may be absent 
in any of the forms, but small fulvous and large brown forms also 

occur in Sikhim. _ r ^ oa 

Hab. Sikhim ; Assam ; Nagas ; E. Pegu ; Borneo. Exp. 26 

millim. 



DIXO A. — BHODOmETJR A . 



355 



Genus DIXOA, nov. 

Type, D. albatalis, Swinh. 
Range. Ganara ; Poona ; Eaipur. 

Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head, the third joint short. 
Antennae minutely ciliated. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, and 9, 10 
stalked. Hind wing with vein 5 from just above lower angle of cell. 



765. Dixoa albatalis, Swinh. P. 




Fig. 244. — Dixoa albatalis, . \. 



Z. S. 1889, p. 422, pi. 44, figs. 1, 2. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen cov- 
ered with white scales. Wings 
pure white, with evenly disposed 
small fuscous striae over the whole 
surface, these being more promi- 
nent on the underside. 

Hob. Canara ; Poona ; Eaipur. 
Exp. S 30, 2 40 millim. 



Genus RHODONEURA. 

Khodoneura, Gmn. Sp. GSn. Lap., Phal. ii, pi. i, fig. 8 (1857). 

Pharambara, Wlk. Cat. xxxiv, p. 1274 (1865). 

Osca, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vii, p. 73 (1864). 

Microsca, Butl. III. Het. iii, p. 71 (1879). 

Banisia, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vii, p. 77 (1864). 

Letchena, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 257 (1887). 

Durdara, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 176 (1882). 

Type, B. pudicula, Guen., from Java and Celebes. 

Range. W. Indies ; S. America ; S. Africa ; Madagascar ; Aden ; 
China ; throughout India and Ceylon ; Burma ; Andamans ; 
Borneo ; Java ; Celebes ; Australia ; New Britain ; Tonga. 

Palpi slight, upturned, reaching above vertex of head, the 3rd 
joint variable in length. Fore wing slightly produced and acute 
at apex. Fore ^ving with veins 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 given off close to the 
angle of cell. Hind wing with vein 5 from just above lower angle 
of cell. 



Sect. I. Palpi with the third joint very long ; antennae 

almost simple. 

766. Rhodoneura obliqualis, Warr. MS. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen silvery white ; head and thorax 
suffused with brown ; abdomen with brown bands. Wings silvery 
white ; basal area covered with browna striae ; an oblique line from 
the apex of fore wing, which becomes double towards inner margin 
and treble on the hind wing ; another submarginal line becoming 
double on the hind wing ; a marginal waved line. Underside with 
the costa of fore wing chestnut. 

Uab. Sikhim. Exp. 42 millira. Type in coll. Elwes. 

2a2 



356 



THYBIDID^. 



Sect. IL Palpi with the third joint of moderate length; antenna 
nearly simple in both sexes. 

A. Outer margin of both wings nearly evenly curved. 

767. Rhodoneura acaciusalis, mk. Cat. xix, p. 901 ;C.^s. no. 4439. 
biculodes stngatula, Feld, Heis. Nov., Lep. pi. 134, fig. 9. 

Head and coUar brown ; thorax and abdomen pale, suffused with 
reddish brown. Fore wing ochreous white, with numerous brown 
specks and spots telow the centre of costa, in the end of cell, and 




"Fig, 245.— Skodoneura acaciusalis, c?. {. 
over the whole of the inner area except the base ; the nervules 
beyond the cell salmon-colour. Hind wing ochreous white ; the 
whole medial area streaked and spotted with dark brown ; the 
nervules beyond the cell salmon-pink. Underside striated with 
chestnut, the nervules bright crimson ; veins 6, 7, 8 of fore wing 
streaked with black. 

The form strigatula, from China, has the brown markings of the 
body and wings obsolete; the striae brown and more prominent ; 
underside with the chestnut suffusion of the hind wing obsolete. 
In a Sikhim variety the hind wing has the strise very numerous 
and bright pink on both upper and under sides. In another form 
the strise of both wings are pink. In a small male from Burma 
the striae are obsolescent and few in number. 

jffab. China ; Sikhim ; Moulmein. Exp. 22-32 millim. 

768. Rhodoneura multipunctata, Warr. MS. 

Differs from ohliqualis in the head, thorax, and abdomen being 
without brown suffusion or bands. Wings with less silvery sheen, 
evenly striated with -fuscous, and without lines; fore wing with 
two submarginal series of black dots ; hind wing with one series. 
Underside with a costal series of black dots to hind wing. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma. Eocjp. 34-40 railHm. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 

769. Rhodoneura reticulalis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 616; C. S- S. 

no. 4376. 

$ . Head and thorax brown ; abdomen white, suffused with 
brown. Wings white, reticulated with brown almost evenly over 
the whole surface ; costa of fore wing slightly suffused with brown. 
Underside with the reticulations rather more prominent. 

Hah. Andamans. Eccp. 29 miDim. 



EHODONEUEA. 



357 



770. Rhodoneura anticalis, Wlk. Cat. xxxiv, p. 1238. 
Rhodoneuva tetraonalis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 616, pi. 60, fig. 10, 

Differs from reticulalis in the wings being striated with fuscous ; 
apex of fore wing with two small black dots. Underside with a 
conspicuous black spot centred with white at the apex of fore wing ; 
a short fuscous postmedial band above inner margin. 

Hab. Eangoon ; Andamans ; Mysol. Ewj). 24 millim. 

771. Rhodoneura naevina, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 212 ; C.8fS. no. 4375. 

(S . Differs from anticalis in being whiter, with fewer strise on 
the wings and with some prominent waved black marks on the 
inner portion of two of the postmedial series of striae of the fore 
wing. Underside with the area above the cell of fore wing suffused 
with golden scales ; postmedial and submarginal double series of 
waved chestnut marks on inner half of wing. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 30 millim. 

772. Rhodoneura hypargyra, n. sp. 

S . Head and collar brown ; thorax white, more or less tinged 
with brown ; abdomen white, with a dark band on penultimate seg- 
ment. Pore wing silvery white, with a few dark strigae ; costa 
fuscous, with short white streaks on it ; a black speck at lower 
angle of cell ; a short medial band from vein 2 to inner margin 
and postmedial spot on vein 2 ; three subapical black specks. Hind 
wing silvery white, with a few brown strigas and short black sub- 
basal, medial, and postmedial lines ; three submarginal black specks 
towards apex and two towards anal angle. Underside of fore wing 
with the costal area brown, much spangled with silvery scales, 
especially at upper angle of cell. 

Hah. Tenasserim Valley ; Mergui (Doherty). Exp. 22 millim. 
Type in coll. Druce. 

773. Rhodoneura bastialis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 902 ; C. ^ S. no. 4442. 
Rhodoneura marmorealis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 617 ; C 8c S 

no. 4374. ^ 
Rhodoneura denticulosa, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ill. p. 267 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 4373. 

Differs from anticalis in having two black dots on underside of 
fore wing at apex, with an oblique line across the apex from costa 
to outer margin. 

The male has the striae of the upperside aggregated in the form 
of bands, whilst in the female they are separated. 

Hah. Assam; Nagas; Burma; Ceylon; Andamans; Solomons. 
Exp. 20-22 millim. 

774. Rhodoneura myrsusalis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 892. 
Letchena elaralis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 901 ; C.^ S. no. 4498. 
Pyralis ? idalialis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 903 ; C.^ S. no. 4449, 



358 



THYRIDIDJE. 



Uurdara pyraliala, Moore, Lep. AtJc. p. ]77 ; C. ^ S. no. 2789. 
Durdara lobata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 177 ; C. ^ 8. no. 2787. 
Durdara zonula, Sioinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 469, pi. 28. fie 12- 
C. ^ S. no. 2790. ^ 

Grey-brown, some specimens with a slight red or pink tinge. 
Wings somewhat lineally striated with dark brown. Pore wing 
with the costa yellow ; ciha fuscous on fore wing, white on hind 
wing. Underside silvery grey, the striae prominent and chestnut- 
brown ; fore wing with two brownish postmedial and one sub- 
apical patch. 

The variety idalialis has one to three small hyaline spots below 
the lower angle of cell of fore wing, with an ochreous streak below 
them, beneath which is another hyaline spot. 

Hah. Brazil ; Natal ; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; 
Borneo. Exp. 22-26 millim. 

775, Rhodoneura myrtaea, Drury, Exot. Ins. ii, pi. 2, fig. 3 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 2788. 

Durdara fenestrata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 27, pi. vi, fig. 6; 

a 4- S. no. 2785. 
Durdara ovifera, Butl. P. Z. S. 1892, p. 129, pi. vi, fig. 7. 
Thermesia fenestrina, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 117, fig. 2. 
Microsca plagifera, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1886, p. 420. 

Differs from myrsusalis in being brick-red ; the striae less distinct. 
Fore wing without the yellow costa. Underside suffused with 
pink, the strise well defined ; a dark brown subapical patch on 
margin of fore wing. 

The form fenestrata has two hyaline spots on the fore wing, with 
an ochreous streak between them ; ovifera from Borneo has the 
3rd joint of palpi and the hyaline spots long ; whilst plagifera 
from Tonga has only the upper spot, which is oval. 

Hab. W. Indies ; throughout India ; Andamans ; Borneo ; Ce- 
lebes ; Tonga. Ea-j). 28 millim. 

776. Rhodoneura semitesselalis, Wlk. Cat. xxxiv, p. 1246. 

Differs from myrtcea in being fuscous ; the thorax and abdomen 
in some specimens slightly suffused with pink. Eore wing with 
all three spots below the cell hyaline ; the centre of the marginal 
area occupied by a large irregular patch of hyaline globules, out- 
lined with ochreous and red. Hind wing with a medial band of 
globules similar to those on the fore wing ; a number on iuner area 
and at apex and centre of outer area. 

Hab. E. Pegu ; Australia. Kvp. 26 millim. 

777 Rhodoneura loceusalis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 903 ; C. Sf S. no. 4463. 
Pyralis ? thyralis, Wlk. Cat. xxxiv, p. 1234 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. lu, 
pi. 178, fig. 10; C. ^ 'S. no. 4499. 

2 . Greenish grey ; abdomen pinkish at extremity. Wings with 



EHODONEITRA. 



359 



slight brown stri^ ; a marginal pink line. Fore wmg with the 
outer margin slightly excurved at veins 2, 3, 4 ; an ochrec-s patch 
irrorated with pink beyond and below the end of cell, with two 
pairs of hyaline spots on it and a single spot below them. Under- 
side silvery grey ; the striations of the hind wing and those on the 
patch of fore wing bright chestnut and prominent. 
Hah. Ceylon. Exp. 16 millim. 

778. Rhodoneura nitens, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) xx, 1887, p. 116 ; 

Umiom. III. Het. ix, pi. 171, tig. 8. 
Pharambara hamifera, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 213 ; C. 8f S. no. 4380. 
Microsca marginepiinctalis, Leech, Entom. 1889, p. 66, pi. 4, fig. 10. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish white. Fore wing 
white, suffused mth olive or pale red-brown, especially beyond the 
cell, and evenly striated with dark lines; indistinct antemedial, 
medial, and submarginal bands ; a white patch striated with dark 
lines at or just below the apex, with a black line or patch on its 
lower edge. Hind wing similar but less clouded, and with medial 
and submarginal bands only. Underside paler, the bands bright 
chestnut-brown : fore wing with series of longitudinal and trans- 
verse black costal striae ; a large apical red-brown patch with a 
large white hamate mark on it ; some golden scales on the retina- 
culum and silvery scales on subcostal nervure from middle to 
end of cell : hind wing with medial, postmedial, and submarginal 
bands. 

Hob. Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Japan ; Solomons. Exp. 28-32 millim. 

779. Rhodoneura pallida, Butl 111. Het. iii, p. 71, pi. 58, fig. 7. 

$ . Differs from nitens in being paler. Fore wing suffused and 
striated with pale reddish brown ; the apical patch red-brown, 
with the white black-edged strigse small ; the submarginal band of 
both wings regular, with a pale centre. 

Hah. Japan : Sikhim ; Assam. Exp. 24 millim. 

780. Rhodoneura glaphyralis, n. sp. 

. Head, thorax, and abdomen variegated pale yellow and 
. brown. Wings pale yellow, striated with reddish brown, which 
forms ill-defined medial and submarginal bands to both wings ; the 
submarginal band not continued on apical area of fore wing ; six 
or seven short bands from the costa of fore wing to subcostal 
nervure. Underside of fore wing with black and white streaks cn 
the subcostal nervures in the cell and beyond the upper angle. 
Hah. Sikhim (Mbller). Exp. 34 millim. Type in coll. Elwes, 

781. Rhodoneura exusta, Butl. Bl. Het. iii, p. 71, pi. 68, fig. 8. 
Microsca ardens, Butl. III. Het. iii, p. 71, pi. 68, tig. 9. 

Microsca exusta, var. erecta, Leech, Entom. 1889, p. 66, pi. 4, fig. 3. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen chestnut. Wings chestnut, striated 



360 



THYEIDID^. 



With brown. Fore wmg with very indistinct subbasal and ante- 
medial bauds ; a postmedial band expanding towards the costa • 
a prominent subapical band from costa to outer margin ; a short 
band at outer angle. Hind wing with an indistinct subbasal band • 
a broad medial band. Underside of fore wing with the markings' 
below the costa as in nitens; a very prominent dark medial band, 
interrupted in the Sikhim specimen. 

Hab. Japan; Sikhim. Exp., d 20-33, $ 30 millim. 

782. Rhodoneura emblicalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 213- C & S 

no. 4379. > • y . 

Pharambara sphoraria, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1892, p 18 nl 1 
fig. 17. ' f > f • > 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale red-brown. Wings striated 
with red-brown ; the basal two-thirds red-brown, the outer third 
ochreous : fore wing with a subapical line from the costa to outer 
margin at vein 5. Underside with series of longitudinal and 
transverse black streaks on the costa of fore wing ; the subcostal 
neryure and nervules streaked with black and white ; an oblique 
similar streak across the cell. 

Eab. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Calcutta, ^^j?., c? 24, $ 20 milUm. 

783. Rhodoneura disparalis, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 171, %. ii. 

$ . Head and collar bright rust-red ; thorax pale. Wings 
reddish white ; a red-brown band, which extends on the fore wing 
from the centre of the costa to apex, narrowing to the centre of 
inner margin of hind wing ; outer margin red-brown ; fore wing 
with a white triangular mark on the costa before the apex. 
Underside with a red-brown patch on the costa of fore wing at 
base. 

Hob. Ceylon. Exp. 26 millim. 

784. Rhodoneura atripunctalis, Wlk. Cat. xxxiv, p, 1623. 

S . Differs from disparalis in being browner ; the wings striated 
with brown ; a prominent black spot on outer margin of fore wing 
below the apex on both upper and under sides. 
Hab. Nilgiris ; Java. Exp. 28 millim. 

785. Rhodoneura bipuncta, n. sp. 

(S . Head dark red-brown ; thorax and abdomen paler. Fore 
wing pale reddish chestnut, with a large medial greyish sub- 
triangular patch on the costa and a smaller postmedial patch ; an 
oblique ferruginous band from the costa just beyond the middle to 
median nervure and a more indistinct band from lower angle of 
cell to inner margin ; two prominent white subapical spots. Hind 
wing pale chestnut, with a prominent medial ferruginous band. 
Underside of fore wing with the white subapical spots very pro- 
minent on a dark chestnut patch. 



BHODONEUBA. 



361 



Hah. Tenasserim Valley (Doherty). Ex^. 28 millim. Type in 
coll. Druce. 

786. Ehodoneura vinosa, Butl P. Z. S. 1892, p. 130, pi. vi, fig. 8. 
Pharambara reticulata, Moore, Lep. AtJc. p. 212 (nom. praeocc.) 

a c5- S. no. 4382. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark red-brown, with a pur- 
plish tinge. Fore wing glistening purplish brown, evenly striated 
with dark lines ; antemedial, medial, and postmedial red-brown 
bands with dark edges; a curved irregular line from the post- 
medial band on the costa to outer angle ; a very irregular sub- 
marginal line sending spurs to the outer margin. Hind wing with 
no postmedial band. Underside with some black and white streaks 
below the subcostal nervure of fore wing. 

Some specimens have a pair of white spots near the origin of 
vein 2 of both wings, sometimes with dark spots between the white 
ones. 

$ without the purplish tinge ; the bands of both wings re- 
placed by lines, which on the fore wing are Y-shaped. 

Hab. Sikhim; Margharita, Assam; Borneo. Bccj:)., (S 37, $ 
42 millim. 

787. Ehodoneura fasciata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 213, pi. 7, fie-. 22 ; 

C. ^ S. no. 4383. 

S . Head ferruginous ; thorax pale red-brown ; abdomen 
ochreous. Fore wing ochreous white, slightly striated with 
brown ; a broad chestnut oblique band occupying the whole wing, 
except the costal and outer areas, and running up to the costa at 
end of cell ; a black line on discocellulars and spot beyond ; some 
silvery spots on medial area above vein 1. Hind wing with the 
basal half chestnut, suffused with silvery scales ; the outer half 
ochreous, streaked with brown. Underside of fore wing with the 
costa, veins beyond the cell, and vein 1 speckled with black ; a 
black patch below end of cell ; two white submarginal spots below 
the apex. Hind wing with medial and marginal reddish bands. 
Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 30 millim. 

788. Rhodoneura cuprealis, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown. Fore wing with the 
ground-colour pale, thickly irrorated with brilliant coppery scales 
and crossed by about six ill-defined brilliant coppery bauds, the 
most conspicuous being a portion of a band across the end of the 
cell. Hind wing similar, with a prominent broad medial band. 
Underside with the costal area of fore wing and inner area of hind 
wing pale. 

Some specimens are much darker than others. 
Hab. Tenasserim Valley {Doherty). Exp., S 22-24, 9 28 
millim. Type in coll. Druce. ' 



362 



TIITRTDlDiE. 



789. Rhodoneura alternata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 212; C. 8f S. no. 4378. 

$ . Differs from vinosa in being paler. Fore wing with the 
lines and bauds ill-defined ; a dai'ker patch beyond the cell, 
another on costa before apex, one submarginal, and one at outer 
angle. Hind wing Mith the lines ill-defined ; the medial band 
prominent near inner margin; a darker patch at anal angle. 
Underside without the black streaks on the subcostals of fore wing. 
Hab. Sikhim. Ecep. 36 milHm. 

790. Rhodoneura oligosticha, n. sp. 

cJ. Head, thorax, and abdomen pale red-brown. Wings 
ochreous, slightly suffused with rufous and with sparse rufous 
striae : fore wing with the costa dark red-brown, and obscure 
darker patches on discocellulars and centre of outer margin. 
Underside similar. 

Hab. Sikhim (Mdller). Exp. 28 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

791. Rhodoneura subcostalis, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown, irrorated with 
fuscous. Wings ochreous, closely striated with brown. Pore 
wing with an indistinct antemedial line expanding into a spot on 
median nervure ; a postmedial band expanding into a spot beyond 
the cell ; two curved lines near apex, terminating in a black sub- 
marginal spot. Hind wing with traces of a medial band and sub- 
marginal very irregular line. Underside of fore wing with the 
cell and veins beyond its upper angle streaked with black ; a 
rufous streak from upper angle of cell to apex. 

Hab. Simla. Exp. 32 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 

792. Rhodoneura ferrofusa, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen ferruginous. Fore wing ochreous, 
striated with ferruginous ; the basal area ferruginous ; a post- 
medial patch on the costa continued as a narrow band to inner 
margin ; outer area with reticulated lines, which are very variable, 
even on the two sides of the same specimen. Hind wing ochreous, 
striated and reticulated wdth ferruginous lines. 

Hab. Bombay. Exp. 52 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 

793. Rhodoneura uniformis, u. sp. 

9 . Head, thorax, and abdomen bright brick-red. Wings bright 
brick-red, with faint evenly-disposed dark striae, which are rather 
more prominent on underside. Tarsal joints ringed with white. 
Hab. Andamans. Exp. 34 millim. Type m B. M. 



794. Rhodoneura micacealis, Wlk. Cat. xxxiv, p. 1275. 

(5 . Eed-brown. Wings evenly striated with short dark 



EHODONBUBA. 



363 



fore wing with a white spot at end of cell ; two antemedial, and 
single medial, postmedial, and subapical curved black lines : hmd 
wing with antemedial, medial, and postmedial lines. Underside 
with patches of bluish -silvery scales scattered over the whole of 
both wings. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Mysol. Exp. 22 millim. 

795. Rhodoneura striativena, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 126, pi. 154, 

fig. 1. 

c?. Ochreous white. Wings slightly striated with brown: 
hind wing with traces of a medial band. Underside of fore wing 
with transverse dark striae from the costa, and black streaks in the 
cell and on the nervules beyond the upper angle ; some ferruginous 
marks below the cell. 

Hah. Mlgiris, S. slopes, 3000 feet ; Burma. Exp. 24 millim. 

796. Rhodoneura splendida, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) xx, 1887, p. 117. 

c?. Dull smoky white. Wings evenly striated with brown: 
fore wing with a dark longitudinal streak below the costa, which 
forks before the outer margin. Underside with some bluish-silvery 
specks in the cell of fore wing, and a speck on a dark patch beyond 
the cell. 

Hah. Andamans ; Solomons. Ex'p. 20 millim. 

B. Outer margin sligTitly excised helow the apex in hoth wings. 

797. Rhodoneura bracteata, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale, suffused with red-brown. 
Wings whitish, slightly striated with red-brown. Tore wing with 
the basal area darker ; large postmedial triangular darker patches 
on costa and inner margin, with a line between them ; a curved 
submarginal line sending a spur to centre of outer margin ; some 
pale streaks on costa. Hind wing with indistinct subbasal and 
medial lines and some reticulated lines on marginal area. Under- 
side with a few metalhc scales below the costa and in cell of fore 
wing. 

Hah. Andamans. Exp. 19 millim. Type in coll. Moore. 

798. Rhodoneura rufareta, n. sp. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale, suffused with reddish 
brown. Wings white, reticulated with red-brown. Fore wing 
with an antemedial line ; a medial line forking towards costa and 
inner margin ; a curved submarginal line sending an oblique spur 
to centre of outer margin. Hind wing with lines forming large 
reticulations on outer half of wing ; cilia rufous. Underside of 
fore wing with large chestnut subtriangular ante- and postmedial 
patches on the costa. 

Hah. Sikhim {Mdller, Knyvett). Exp. 26 millim. Type in coll. 
Elwes. 



364 



THYEIDID^. 



0. Fore wing xvith the outer margin oblique and crenulate from 
vein 5 to outer angle. 

799. Rhodoneura hypoxantha, n. sp. 

c? . Palpi with the first two joints fringed with yellow ; head, 
thorax, abdomen, and wings purplish black. Fore wing with in- 
distinct yellowish spots on basal half ; a large white patch reticu- 
lated with dark lines in and below the end of cell ; a submarginal 
white spot on vein 5. Hind wing with a subbasal white spot and 
another beyond end of cell. Underside with the basal half of fore 
wing and whole hind wing spotted with bright yellow. 

The specimen from Burma is larger, with the hyahne spots 
yellowish. 

Hah. Mussooree ; Sikhim ; Burma. Exp. 28 millim. Type in 
coll. Moore. ' 



800. Rhodoneura tristis, n. sp. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown. Wings red-brown, 
with evenly-disposed darker striae ; the basal area yellowish : fore 
wing with a very indistinct oblique medial line and four white 
specks on the costa towards apex : hind wing with indistinct ante- 
medial, medial, and postmedial oblique lines. Underside much 
more varied with yellow, the striae and lines more prominent ; a 
whitish spot at apex of fore wing. 

Hah. Sikhim (Mdller). Exp. 31 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



Sect. III. Antennae serrated in female. 

801. Rhodoneura munda, Wnrr. MS. 

$ . Differs from vinosa $ in being of a pale reddish white. 
"Fore wing with three medial lines, the inner and outer irregular, 
the middle line straight ; the postmedial line more erect and less 
curved; the submarginal line represented hyaline across the apex 
from the costa to outer margin. Hind wing with subbasal, medial, 
postmedial, and submarginal irregular lines. Underside with a 
white streak on the nervules beyond the upper angle of the cell of 
fore wing. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 30 millim. Type in B. M. 



Genus HYPOLAMPRUS, nov. 
Type, H. striatalis, Swinh. 

Range. China ; Himalayas ; India ; Ceylon ; Burma. 

Palpi slight, upturned, and reaching above vertex of head. 
Antennae minutely ciliated in male. Neuration as in Rhodoneura, 
except that veins 8 and 9 of the fore wing are stalked. 



HYPOLAMPEUS. 



365 




Sect. I. Outer margin of both wings evenly curved. 

802. Hypolamprus striatalis, Sioinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 875 ; C. 8f S. 

no. 4385. 

Pharambara intimalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 213 ; C. 8f S. no. 4381. 

Pale red-brown. Wings evenly striated with short lines ; traces 

of a medial band; fore wing with 
indistinct postmedial and submarginal 
lines. Underside of fore wing with 
five white specks on the costa ; a 
tuft of silver scales on the retina- 
culum and others below the costa ; 
Fig. 246. ^ (ja^pjj. gpQ^. beyond the cell. Legs 

Hypolamprus stnatahs, S . \. banded with white. 

Eah. Dharmsala; Calcutta; Poona; Nilgiris; Ceylon. Exp. IS 
millim. 

803. Hypolamprus obscuralis, n. sp. 

S . Pale chestnut ; wings indistinctly striated with darker lines. 
Fore wing with indistinct darker medial and postmedial bands, 
obsolete towards inner margin ; an oblique line from costa towards 
outer angle and irregular subapical and submarginal lines ; cUia 
with a dark Hne through them. Hind wing with indistinct 
subbasal, medial, postmedial, and subapical lines. Underiside 
similar. 

Eab. Sikhim (Mdller). Exp. 20 milHm. Type in coll. Elwes. 

804. Hypolamprus lobulatus, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 214, pi. 7, fiff. 12 : 

C. ^ -S. no. 4384. > i- > a > 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdoman brownish ochreous, suffused with 
silvery scales. Fore wing ochreous white ; some brown specks on 
inner margin ; tM'o brown spots below the middle of cell ; a post- 
medial band narrowing to inner margin ; a subapical line arising 
from a spot on the costa and ending on outer margin at vein 3. 
Hind wing ochreous white; a brown spot near base; a medial 
nearly straight band; traces of a curved submarginal line; a 
marginal line. Underside witli a ferruginous streak below the 
costa; the subcostal nervure and nervules streaked with black; 
silvery scales in and below the cell. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 26 milhm. 

805. Hypolamprus atrostriatus, n. sp. 

Ochreous, suffused with ferruginous red-brown; wings 
sparsely striated with red-brown, some of the strife forming large 
reticulations on the outer area of both wings. Underside of fore 
wing with black and white streaks on the subcostal nervures in 
and beyond the cell. 

Sab. Naga HOls, 3000 feet (Doherty). Exp. 20 millim. Type 
in coll. Elwes. ^ 



366 



THTEIDIDJi. 



Sect. II. Hind ^ing with the outer margin excised 
towards anal angle. 

806. Hypolamprus subrosealis, Leech, Entom. 1889, p. 66, pi. iv, 

ng. 14. ' r J r ) 

6- Pale red-brown. Wings evenly speckled with fuscous; 
hind wmg redder. Underside of fore wing with black streaks on 
the costa and in and beyond the cell ; series of brilliant opalescent 
globular scales in the cell and on the nervules beyond towards the 
apex ; a white spot with a black speck in the centre at apex. 

Hah. China ; Dharmsala ; Ceylon. Exp. 22 millim. 

807. Hypolamprus angulalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 214; C. 8f S. 

no. 4387. 

S . Differs from subrosealis in the hind wing being more 
excised near anal angle ; the cilia white towards outer angle of 
fore wing and anal angle of hind wing. Underside of both wings 
suffused with silvery scales ; the discocellulars black ; no opales- 
cent scales in and beyond the cell of fore wing. 

Hah. Eangoon. Exp. 20 milhm. 



Sect. III. Fore ^ving long ; hind wing with the apex acute, 
the outer margin straight. 

808. Hypolamprus trifascialis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 614, pi. 60, 
fig. 9 ; C.8f S. no. 4468. 

S . Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing ferruginous ; the 
last with the costa, apex, and outer area pale. Hind wing with 
the basal two-thirds ferruginous, deeper in tone outwardly ; post- 
medial area whitish; outer area pale ferruginous. Underside 
brighter, with rich chestnut maculate bands across both wings ; 
the ground-colour of hind wing whitish. 

Hah. Burma ; Andamans. Exp. 30 millim. 



Genus CAMADENA. 
Camadena, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 214. 

Type, 0. vespertilionis, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of^ head ; antennsE simple. 
Hind leg of male with the tibia extremely long and swollen, the 
terminal pair of spurs short ; a tuft of long hair from base, the 
tarsus very short ; normal in female. Fore wing very acute and 
produced at apex ; veins 8 and 9 stalked. Hind wing very acute 
and produced at apex. 



CAMADENA. — HEEDONIA. 



367 



809. Camadena vesper fcilionis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 214; C. 8r S. 

Ca^'ustofom; acutipennis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 230 -,0.^8. no. 3144. 

S Yellow • the vertex of head, thorax, and abdomen suffused 
with red-browi. Wings yellow, slightly striated with_ jed-bro^vu. 
Tore wing with a red-brown band just beyond the middle, broad 
toward costa, narrow towards inner margin, with a silvery speck 




on it at end of cell and extending along the costa to apex ; an 
indistinct series of submarginal double specks. Hind wing Avith 
a dark spot at end of cell, with a silvery speck on it, and an indis- 
tinct submarginal series of specks. 

5 . Suffused with brown; the wings much more thickly striated 
with brown ; the band on fore wing nearly obsolete ; the silvery 
spots and submarginal double specks much more prominent on 
both wings. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp., <S 32, $ 40 millim. 



Genus HERDONIA. 
Herdonia, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 963 (1859). 

Type, H. osacesalis, Wlk. 
Range. China ; Sylhet ; Burma. 

Palpi short and porrect. Antennae almost simple in both sexes. 
Eore wing with the costa excised at middle ; vein 6 from below 
angle of cell ; 7, 8, 9 from the angle ; 10 absent. Hind wing 
with vein 5 from just above lower angle of cell ; a forked 
veinlet in the cell. 

810. Herdonia osacesalis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 964 ; Feld. Reis. Nov., 
Lep. pi. 134, fig. 4 ; C. ^ 8. no. 4427. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale red-brown. Fore wing silvery 
red-brown, almost entirely covered with broad conjoined darker 
strigse, some of which form a highly irregular bright chestnut sub- 
marginal band; apex suffused with fuscous and irrorated with 
silvery scales. Hind wing opalescent white, with basal and 
medial red-brown bands, broadest at inner margin and having 



paler centres ; a marginal red-broMTi band striated with black, with 




a black line on its inner edge and another through the centre, 
beyond which the colour is paler. 

Hah. China; Sylhet; Eangoon. ^a^. 46 millim. 



Genus DYSODIA. 

Dysodia, Clemens, Pr. Ac. N. Sc. Phil. 1860, p. 349. 
Platythyris, Gr.8f R. Ann. N. Y. Lyc. viii, p. 361 (1867). 
Varnia, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vii, p. 69 (1864). 
Pachythyris; Feld. Reis. Nov., Lep. pi. 75, fig. 1 (1867). 

Type, D. vitrina, Boisd., from N. America. 
Range. N. and S. America; throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Java. 

Palpi thickly scaled, upturned, reaching above vertex of head, 
the third joint acute. Antennae simple in both sexes. Legs with 
femora and tibise very hairy. Eore wing excurved at veins 2, 3, 4 ; 
veins 7, 8, 9 from close to the angle of cell. Hind wing with 
vein 5 from lower angle of cell ; the outer margin irregular and 
excised below the apex. Thorax and abdomen stout. 

811. Dysodia ignita, Wlk. Cat. xxxiii, p. 825 ; C. ^ S. no. 2211. 

Varnia fenestrata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 376 ; C. ^ S. no. 2210. 
Varnia taprobana, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 67, pi. 151, fig. 7 ; C. SfS. 
no. 2214. 

Varnia insequalis, Wlk. Cat. xxxiii, p. 828 ; C. ^ S. no. 2212. 
Pachythyris siculoides, Feld. Reis. Nov., Lep. pi. 75, fig. 1. 
Pachythyria rajah, Boisd. LSp. HH. p. 492 ; C. 8f S. no. 210. 

Head and collar dark red-brown ; thorax, abdomen, and wings 

dark red-brow^n or ochreous suf- 
fused with fiery red ; wings with 
numerous brown striae. Fore wing 
with an irregular dark band wide 
at costa ; an oblique subapical line 
from the costa to outer margin; 
a submarginal band from vein 4 
Fig. 249. to inner margin, sometimes re- 

Dysodia ignita, S • v duced to a fine line. Hind wing 




DTSODIA. — GLANYCUS. 



369 



with several fine short lines on the outer half, these being obscured 
in the specimens which are suffused with dark brown. 

The colour and distribution of the suffusion are very variable. 

The form mcequcdis=fenestrata has two hyahne spots at the end 
of cell of hind wing, generally connected and large. 

Bab. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Java. Kvp. 32-38 
millim. 

812. Dysodia viridatrix, Wlk. Cat. xv, p. 1777 ; C. ^ S. no. 2207. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen yellowish green. Wings yellowish 
green, with slight dark striae. Pore wing with some dark strigae on 
costa ; a postmedial oblique line ; an outwardly-obUque line from 
the costa to outer margin ; a short line near outer angle ; a yellow 
patch at end of cell ; some yellow suffusion beyond the postmedial 
line below the costa. Hind wing with a hyaline spot at end of 
cell ; indistinct postmedial and submarginal lines. Cilia yellow. 

Larva bores in wood, living in a cocoon of silk and sawdust, over 
which is a spiral strip of bark. 

JIab. Sikhim ; Bangalore ; Ceylon. E.vp., cS 25, 5 28 millim. 

813. Dysodia albifurca, n. sp. 

c? . Head and collar red-brown ; thorax paler ; abdomen with 
the first five segments pale ochreous, the terminal segments red- 
brown ; a very prominent dorsal tuft of scales on fifth segment. 
Wings red-brown with darker striae, the basal area and centre of 
outer area of both wings ochreous ; fore wing with a medial 
Y-shaped whitish band and two white spots on the costa towards 
apex. Underside with the band more prominent and a deep 
chestnut band beyond it crossing both wings. 

JIab. Silihim (Mdller). Exp. 26 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

Genus GLANYCUS. 
Glanycus, Wlk. Cat. iii, p. 634 (1855). 

Type, 6r. insolitus, Wlk. 
Range. Sikhim ; Sylhet. 

Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head and thickly scaled. 
Antennae o£ male fasciculated. Legs hairy ; mid tibise with one pair 
of spurs, hind tibiae with two pairs. Fore wing with the outer 
margin very obliquely rounded; veins 7 and 8 stalked. Hind 
wing excised below the apex ; the cell open. 

Sect. I. Hind wing with the anal angle truncate. 

814. Glanycus insolitus, Wlk. Cat. iii, p. 635 ; Butl III. Hot v. v\ 84 
%. 12 ; C. & no. 784. • , P^. o* 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen black, shot with metallic blue ; 
collar and tegulae fringed with crimson ; abdomen with the basal 

VOL. I. 2 B 



370 



THYBiniDiE, 



segment crimson; a dorsal crimson line; the terminal segments 
fringed with crimson. Fore wing blue-black, a broad basal 
crimson band and narrower anfcemedial, medial, and postmedial 
bands, which are conjoined into reticulations, the postmedial band 
running outwards to centre of outer margin, then along it to the 

outer angle, leaving two spots on 
the margin, then inwards to join 
the medial band ; a hyaline streak 
on the discocellulars. Hind wing 
blue-black ; the inner and outer 
areas crimson, the former giving 
off a band to median nervure, and 
the latter -with three blue-black 
spots on it ; a large angled hyaliue 
patch in the end of cell. 




Fig. 250. 
Glanycus insolitus, J . 



Hah. Sylhet ; Sikhim. Exp. 38 millim. 



Sect. II. Hind wing with the anal angle produced. 

815. Glanycus tricolor, Moore, Lcp. Atk. p. 38; Waterh. Aid, ii, 
pi. 131, fig. 1 ; aSfS. no. 785. 

cJ . Blue-black ; the collar and first abdominal segment broadly 
fringed with crimson ; abdomen with lateral crimson bands meeting 
at the extremity. Fore wing with a hyaline streak on the discocel- 
lulars. Hind wing with a very large hyahne spot in the cell ex- 
tending to near outer margin. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 36 millim. 



Genus HYPERTHYRIS. 

Hyperthyrus, Leech, Trans. Ent. Sac. 1889, p 121. 

Type, H. aperta. Leech. 
Kange. China ; Sikhim. 

Palpi upturned, reaching above vertex of head, the 1st and 2nd 
joints heavily scaled, the 3rd joint naked. Antenna? slightly 
ciliate. Femora and tibias thickly scaled ; mid tibia Avith one pair 
of spurs, hind tibiae with two pairs. Fore wing with the cell 
closed ; vein 6 from below the angle, 7, 8, 9 from the angle. 
Hind wing with the cell open ; veins 4, 5, and 6, 7 stalked to near 
the margin. 

816. Hyperthyi-is aperta, Leech, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1889, p. 122, pi. vii, 
fig. 7. 

S . Head black ; frons and palpi in front grey ; collar black, 
tipped with golden brown ; abdomen black. Fore wmg hyalnie, 



LIMACODIDJE. 



371 



slightly golden brown at base ; the margins broadly black ; a large 

triangular black mark from the 
costa to lower angle of cell ; veins 
narrowly black. Hind wing with 
the margins broadly black ; a large 
hyab'ne space above median uervure 
and a smaller one below it. 

Hah. Kiukiang, China; Sikbim. 
Exjp. 24 millim. 




Fig. 251. 

Hypcrthyris aperta, . 



Species formerly recorded as Indian which, is omitted. 
Thyridiphora fenestrata, Warr., C. & S. no. 1773 b, is a Pyrale. 



Jb^amily LIMACODID^. 

Fore wing with two internal yeius, vein 1 h forked at the base. 
Hind wing with vein 8 arising free, then bent down and usually 
anastomosing shortly -with 7 near the base of the cell ; three 
internal veins. 

Larva : Limaciform. and either bearing series of spinous sting- 
ing tubercles, or smooth and segmented, or unsegmented with very 
thick transparent cuticle ; the head, legs, and claspers small and 
often retractile. 

Cocoon : hard and compact ; round or oval in shape, with a lid 
for the escape of the imago prepared by the larva. 




Fig. 252. — Larva and cocoon of Thosea apcricns. \. 
(From Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 130, fig. 4.) 



Key to the Genera. 

A. Fore wing short, the outer margin evenly 
rounded. 

a. Larva (of known species) segmented and 
bearing series of spinous tubercles. 
Lnago : head and thorax smoothly scaled ; 
fore wing with vein 11 not curved 
along 12. 

2b2 



LIMACODIDjK. 

Palpi porrect. 

(i^. Palpi extremely elongate. 

a^. Palpi with a terminal brush of 
hairs ; fore wing with veins 7, 8, 

9 stalked 1. Scopelodks, p. 373. 

b^. Palpi without a terminal brush ; 
fore wing with vein 7 from the 

cell 2. Hyphokma, p. 375. 

b'~. Palpi shorter, but reaching beyond the 
frontal tuft. 
a^. Fore wing with vein 7 from below 
angle of cell. 

Fore wing with veins 8, 9, 10 [p. 376. 

stalked . . 3. Macroplkctra, 

6'. Fore wing with vein 10 from the 

cell 4. OxYPLAX, p. 376. 

b^. Fore wing with vein 7 from angle 
of cell. 

a*. Fore wing with veins 8 and 9 

stalked 7. Natada, p. 380. 

i*. Fore wing with veins 8, 9, 10 

stalked 9, Biethama, p. 384. 

c^. Fore wing with vein 7 stalked 
with 8 and 9. 
a* Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 
on a short stalk or from cell. 
a^. Fore wing short, broad, and 

rounded 6. Susica, p. 377. 

b^. Fore wing with the apex more 
produced, 
a®. Fore wing with vein 10 from 
angle of cell or before it. 
d'. Fore wing with the apex 

somewhat rectangular. . 6. Thosea, p. 377. 
b''. Fore wing with the apex 

rounded 12. Parasa, p. 3W, 

W. Fore wing with vein 10 [p. 383. 

stalked with 7, 8, 9 8. Tetraphleps, 

b*. Hind wing with -veins 6 and 7 

on a long stalk 10. Contheyla, p. 384. 

c\ Palpi slighter and not reaching be- 
yond frontal tuft, 
rt'. Hind wing with vein 8 anastomos- 
ing with 7 near the base 11. Miresa, p. 385. 

b^ Hind wing with vein 8 anastomos- [p- 391. 

ing with 7 near end of cell 13. Spatulifimbria, 

', Palpi upturned. 
d\ Palri reaching vertex of head. 

Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9, 10 

stalked 14- Idonatjton, p. 391. 

P. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 
stalked. 

d\ Hind tibia with two pairs of 

spurs ; male with proximal half LP- 
of an tennc^ pectinated 15. Chalcocelis, 

b*. Hind tibia with one pair of spurs ; LP- 
male with antennje simple .... 16. Triplophleps, 



SCOPELODES. 



373 



Fore wing with veins 8 and 9 [p- 393. 

stalked 17. Okthockaspeda, 

Fore wing with veins 8, 9, 10 [p. 393. 

stalked 18- Cebatonema, 

h^. Palpi extending above vertex of head ; 
fore wing with vein 7 from below 

angle of cell, 8 and 9 stalked 19. Ar^ogyia, p. 394. 

b. Larva (of known species) segmented and 

nou-tuberculate. 
Lnago : Fore wing with vein 11 curved 

and running along vein 12. 
a'. Palpi short and slender ; ^ male with 
proximal half of antennse bipectinated ; 
hind wing with veins 6 and 7 from the 
cell. 

Head and thorax smoothly scaled . . 20. Cania, p. 395. 
b^. Head and thorax clothed with erect 

pile 21. Altha, p. 396. 

b'. Palpi reaching vertex of head ; male 
with antennae simple ; hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 stalked 22. Nakosa, p. 398. 

c. Larva non-segmented, smooth, and oval, 

with very thick cuticle. 
Imago : Fore wing with vein 11 not curved; 

head and thorax clothed with erect pile. 
a'. Hind wing with vein 8 not sending a 

spur to the ccsta 23. Belippa, p. 399. 

b'. Hind wing with vein 8 sending a spur 

to the costa 24. Nagoda, p. 400. 

R. Fore wing elongate, the apex produced, the 
outer margin excised, veins 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 

stalked. Palpi upturned 25. Mahanta, p. 401. 



Genus SCOPELODES. 

Scopelodes, Westw. Nat. Libr. 37 {Ent. vii.), p. 222 (1841). 
Type, 8. unicolor, Westw. 

Range. N. China ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Sylhet ; Burma ; Ceylon ; 
Borneo ; Java. 

Antennae in male with proximal half bipectinated. Palpi with 
2nd and 3rd joints very long, the latter ending in a large brush of 
hairs. Legs hairy ; mid tibia without spurs, hind tibia with one 
pair of spurs in male, two pairs in female. Fore wing with veins 
7, 8, and 9 stalked together ; vein 11 straight. Hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 from angle of cell, 8 anastomosing with 7 near the 
base. There are indications of numerous fine veinlets between 
vein 1 6 of fore wing and inner margin, and vein 8 of hind wing 
and costa. 



I 



LIMACODIDJE. 

Sect. I. Hind wing with veins 0 and 7 from cell in male, 

stalked in female. 

817. Scopelodes venosa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1105 ; C. <§■ S. no. 1270. 

Scopelodes ursina, Butl III. Het. vi, p. 3, pi. 101, figs. 7, 8: C.^S. 
no. 1269. 

Scopelodes aurogrisea, Moore, Lep. Cet/l. ii, p. 126, pi. 128, 
figs. l,la,b (larva and cocoon) ; C. 8f 'S. no. 1265. 

Scopelodes testacea, Btitl. III. Ilet. v, p. 3, pi. 101, fig. 5 : C. & S. 
no. 1268. 

Palpi brown, sometimes tinged with fuscous, the brush whitish 
at base, black at tip. Head, thorax, and fore wing varying from 
pale silky ochreous to smoky brown. Hind wing paler. "Abdomen 
yellow, the distal segments terminating in a black spot or some- 
times dorsally fringed with black ; anal tuft black. 




Fig. 253. — Scopelodes venosa, cS . \. 



The darkest form venosa, from Sikhim and Sylhet, is smoky 
brown, with the inner margin of hind wing yellow, the veins on 
underside standing out pale on a dark ground ; legs almost black. 
The form ursina, also from Sikhim and Sylhet, is ruddy brown, 
the hind wing fuscous in male ; aurogrisea, from Ceylon, is paler, 
the bind wing ochreous, with fuscous margin in both sexes ; 
testacea, from Sikhim, Sylhet, Moulmein, is pale ochreous without 
a pale border to hind wing. 

Larva : green, above, yellow below ; two rows of large, broad, 
densely-spined tubercles ; a red, white, and blue transverse dorsal 
stripe on 8th somite ; a black spot on anal segment. 

Cocoon purple, brown, and oval. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Moulmein ; Ceylon. JSxjp., c? 51-64, 
$ 74 miliim. 

818. Scopelodes sericea, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, p. 63 ; id. III. Bet. 
vi, pi. 101, fig. 6 ; C.ilfS. no. 1267. 

$ . Differs from venosa in the palpi being more thickly clothed 
with hair, and uniform fulvous in colour. "Wings silky ochreous. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exj). 78 miliim. 



SCOPBLODES. — HYPHOHMA. 



375 



Sect. II. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked in both sexes. 

819 Scopelodes nnicolor, Westw. Nat. Libr, xxxvii, p. 222, pi. 28, fig. 2. 
Scopelodes palpalis, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1105 ; C. 8f S. no. 1266. 
Scopelodes vulpina, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 73, pi. 3, fig. 22 ; C. i^- 'b. 
no. 1271. 

Bethura minax, Wllc. Joum. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 173. 
Nyssia micacea, WUc. Cat. xxxii, p. 481. 

Differs from sericea in the palpi, head, thorax, and fore wing 
being redder brown ; hind wing uniform pale yellow ; abdomen 
more orange. 

miL Sikhim ; Assam ; Java ; Borneo. Ex^., c? 44, $ 60 miUim. 

820. Scopelodes contracta, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1105. 

(J . Palpi blackish, the base of brush pale. Head and thorax 
dark brown; abdomen blackish, the sides and extremity clothed 
with golden-yellow hairs. Wings very dark brown, somewhat 
darker at apex of fore wing and inner margin of hind wing. 

Hab. China ; Sikhim. Exp. 37 millim. 



aeuus HYPHORMA. 

Hyphorma, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 493 (1865). 

Type, H. minaae, Wlk. 
Range. N. China; Sikhim. 

$ . Antenuaj simple. Palpi with no terminal brush of hairs. 
Hind tibia with a terminal pair of spurs. Pore wing with vein 7 
from end of cell, 8 and 9 stalked, 10 from before the angle. Ab- 
domen with long lateral and ventral tufts of hair. 

821. Hyphorma minax, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 493. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown, tlie vertex of thorax 
and basal segments of abdomen deep red, the tufts of hair on 




Fig. 2.54. — Hyphorma minax, $ . \. 



abdomen pale at sides and below. Fore wing silky red-brown ; an 
oblique dark line from the costa before the apex to lower angle of 



376 



LTMACODID.'E. 



cell ; another from the same point on the costa curved to outer 

i ^'^"S ^^'"^ ^'^^^ ^'it^ silvery-white spot. 

JJab. N. Chma; Sikhim. Ea,-p. 44 millim. 



ang. 



Genus MACROPLECTRA, nov. 

Type, M. minutissima, Swinh. 
Uange. Burma. 

6 • Antennae heavily bipectinated to three-fourths length. 
Palpi long and porrect, the 3rd joint minute. Hind tibia with two 
pairs of long spurs. Fore wing with vein 7 given off below the 
angle of cell ; veins 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing with veins 6 and 
7 from angle of cell. 



822. Macroplectra minutissima, 

Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1800, 
p. 195, pi. vi, fig. 11. 

S . Head, thorax, abdomen, and 
wings ochreous. Fore wing with 
a dark line from the costa before 
the apex to outer angle. Hind 
wing paler. 
Hah. Rangoon. Exio. 12 millim. 

Genus OXTPLAX, nov. 

Type, 0. ocJiracea, Moore. 
Range. Khasis ; Ceylon. 

<S . Antennae bipectinated to the tips. Palpi stout and porrect, 
reaching beyond the frontal tuft. Hind tibia without spurs. 
Fore wing with the apex produced upwards, the outer and inner 
margins forming a continuous curve ; vein 7 from below the angle 
of cell, 8 and 9 stalked. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 from 
angle of cell, 8 anastomosing with 7 to near end of cell. 




823. Oxyplax ochracea, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii. p. 129, pi. 129, figs. 3, 3 « ; 
C. ^' S. no. 1297. 

(S . Head pale, fuscous at sides ; 
thorax fulvous. Fore wing fulvous, 
suffused with fuscous below the 
basal part of costa and towards 
outer margin ; a curved white line 
from apex to centre of inner mar- 
gin. Abdomen and hind wing fus- 
cous. 

Larva : pale green, whitish above, 
with two dorsal rows of black spots ; 




Fig. 250. 
Oxyplax ochracea, • 



a black dorsal patch on 1st somite and single spot on anal somite ; 



OXYPLAX. — THOSEA. 



377 



lateral and sublateral series of spatulate spinous tubercles, those at 
anterior and posterior ends pinkish. 

Cocoon round and pale brown. 

Hab. Khasis; Ceylon. Eocp. miWim. 

Genus SUSICA. 

Susica, Wlh. Cat. v, p. 1113 (1855). 
Tadema, Wlk. Cat. p. 1758 (1856). 

Type, S. pallida, Wlk. 

Bange. China; Nepal; Sikhim ; Moulmein. 

AntennJB bipectinated to two-thirds length in male, simple in 
female. Palpi long, the 3rd joint short. Hind tibia with two 
pairs of spurs in both sexes. Fore wing short, broad, and 
rounded; veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 
stalked. 

824. Susica pallida, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1114 ; C.^S. no. 1303 ; Butl. III. 
i/e^. vi, pi. 102, fig. 4. 
Tadema siuensis, Wlk, Cat. vii, p. 1759. 

. Pale silky brown. Tore wing with an oblique line from the 
costa just before the apex to inner margin before middle, expanding 
into a small spot beyond the lower end of cell ; a submarginal line 




Fig. 257. — Susica pallida, c?. 

from the same point on the costa to outer margin above outer 
angle, more or less angled below the costa. Hind wing slightly 
browner. Underside of fore wing suffused with black near the 
base. 

Hab. China ; Nepal ; Sikhim ; Moulmein. E.vp., d 2.5, $ 48 
millim. 

Genus THOSEA. 

Thosea, Wlk. Cat. v, p. ]068 (1855). 
Aphendala, Wlk. Cat. xxxiii, ]). 494 (1866). 
Anzabe, Wlk. Cat. \, p. 1093 (1855). 

Type, T. unifascia, Wlk. 

Eange. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; China ; Java. 

Palpi projecting beyond frontal tuft. Pore wing with the apex 
somewhat rectangular; veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 from cell or on a short stalk. Mid tibia with one 
pair of spurs, hind tibia with two pairs. 



378 



LIMACODIDiE. 



Sect. I. Male with the antenuse bi pectinated to tips. 

825. Thosea cana, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 484; C. ^ S. no. 1295; Moore, 

Li'p. Ccyl. ii, pi. 130, figs. 3, 3 a, b (larva). 
Aphendala transversata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 495 ; C. ^ S. no, 1298. 

Palpi long and slight. Grevish 
brown ; fore wing with a dark 
oblique line with light outer edge 
from centre of costa to inner mar- 
gin ; a similar but erect line from 
costa before apex to outer angle ; a 
dark speck at end of cell. Hind 
wing slightly browner. 

An ochreous race is found at 
Dalhousie and Murree. 
Larva green ; a yellowish-white dorsal stripe ; a subdorsal row 
of short spinous tubercles ; a sublateral row of larger tubercles ; 
spiracles with pale rings. 

Cocoon purplish brown and oval. 

Hah. Kulu ; Sikhim ; Poona ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exp., ^ 26 
$ 30 millim. 

826. Thosea aperiens, mh. Cat. xxxii, p. 476 ; C. 8,- S. no. 1294 ; 

Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 130, figs. 4, 4 a (larva). 

Differs from cana in having the palpi shorter and stouter and 
the lines of the fore wing paler ; the first line much further from 
the base. 

Larva grass-green above, purple-brown below ; subdorsal and 
sublateral series of spinous tubercles ; a dorsal series of round 
purple-brown spots and lateral series of oval spots. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp., (S 30, $ 35 millim. 

827. Thosea tripartita, Moore, Ti •ans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 376 ; C. 8f S. 

no. 1299 ; Forsayeth, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, pi. 14, fig. 14 (larva). 

Differs from cana in the basal half of the fore wing being dark 
brown, the pale line bounding it more erect ; the submarginal 
pale line outwardly oblique and reaching the margin above outer 
angle. 

Larva green, with subdorsal series of small and sublateral series 
of long spinous tubercles ; dorsal and lateral series of blue spots. 

Hah. Dbarmsala ; Sikhim ; Manpuri ; Ganjam ; Jubbulpore ; 
Mhow. Exjp. 26 millim. 

828. Thosea recta, Hmpsn. 111. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 3. 

S . Differs from tripartita in having the fore wing slightly more 
produced at apex, and suffused with white below the costa and 




THOSEA. 



379 



beyond the antemedial line; the subraarginal line absent; the 
costa, basal area below .the cell, and a large patch at outer angle 
dark.' Head, thorax, and abdomen reddish brown. 
Hob. Nawala-pittia, Ceylon. Exp. 22 millim. 

829. Thosea fasciata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 403 ; Butl. III. Ilet. vii, 

pi. 124, fig. 6 ; C.^S. no. 1296 a. 

c^. Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing red-brown. Fore 
wing iiTorated with dark scales ; the basal area slightly darker red- 
brown, with an erect outer edge ; no submarginal line ; a dark 
speck at end of cell. Hind wing duller brown; the underside 
paler and irrorated with black scales. 

Eah. Dharmsala. Exp. 34 milhm. 

830. Thosea sinensis, Wlh. Cat. v, p. 1093. 

Parasa loesa, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. ii, p. 417, pi. 11 a, fig. 12 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 1286 A. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing grey ; the last irrorated 
with dax'k scales ; a dark speck at end of cell ; an oblique dark line 
from costa before apex to inner margin beyond the middle. Hind 
wing rather duller brown. Male with a conspicuous white spot at 
end of fore tibia. 

Larva yellow or green, with a white or yellow dorsal stripe, 
sometimes with a red spot at middle, subdorsal and sublateral series 
of spinous tubercles reddish towards tips. 

Cocoon purplish grey. 

Hah. Hongkong; Formosa; Cachar; Pegu; Java. Exp., S 30, 
5 40 milhm. 

831. Thosea nnifascia, Wlk. Cat. t, p. 1068 ; C.^S. no. 1277. 

Differs from sinensis in being red-brown instead of grey. 

Bab. Eangoon ; Moulmein ; Bhamo. Exp., (S 36, $ 40 millim. 

832. Thosea cervina, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 348 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. 

ii, pi. 129, figs. 2, 2 a (larva) ; C. 8f S. no. 1275. 
Thoswi^duplexa, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 130, pi, 131, fig. 3, $ ; 

S' Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown. Fore wing silky 
grey-brown, with a dark speck at end of cell, and a slightly incurved 
hue from costa just before apex to near outer angle which is 
red-brown with a pale outer edge. Hind wing and underside 
dull brown. Antennae with basal joint pale ; a conspicuous white 
spot at end of fore tibia. 

"With the submarginal line of fore wing erect; the basal 
joint of antennae dark ; no white spot on tibia. 

Larva green, with a yellow-bordered dorsal irregular band, 
linear and purplish anteriorly, dilated at middle and cleft behind,' 



380 



LTMACODIB^, 



purple streaked, and with the angles at middle red ; anterior and 
posterior subdorsal spinous tubercles ; lateral and sublateral series 
of longer tubercles. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Ceylon. Exp., ^ 38, $ 44 millim. 

833. Thosea rara, SivmJi. P. Z. 8. 1889, p. 408, pi. 43, fig. 9. 

$ . Differs from cervina in the postmedial line of fore wing 
being pale and oblique, with a diffused fuscous band on its outer 
edge ; nervules near outer margin pale. 
Bab. Thyetmyo, Burma. Kv;p. 40 millim. 

834. Thosea cotesi, S^vinh. MS. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown, the scales with pale tips. 
Fore wing brown, irrorated with pale scales ; a pale line from apex 
to inner margin beyond the middle. Hind wing nearly black, the 
cilia pale. 

5 . Paler ; the oblique line on fore wing dark. 
Bab. Darang, Assam. Exp., S 22, 2 26 milUm. 

Sect. 11. Male with the distal half of the antennae serrated. 

835. Thosea divergens, Moore, Lev. Atk. p. 75, pi. 3, fig. 23: C. & S. 

no. 1325. 

Aphendala divaricata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 376 ; C. ^- S. 
no. 1296. 

c? . Differs from aperiens in being pale reddish brown ; the 
oblique and submarginal lines of fore wing fine, dark, and start- 
in gfrom the same point on the costa. 
Ilab. Sikhim ; Assam ; Nagas. Exp. 34 millim. 



Genus NATADA. 

Natada, WlJc. Cat. v, p. 1108 (1855). 
Phocoderma, Btitl III. Het. vi, p. 4 (1886). 
Phlossa, Wlk. Cat. xv, p. 1673 (1858). 

Type, N. rufescens, Wlk. 

Range. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; China. 

Palpi extending beyond frontal tuft. Hind tibia with two pairs 
of spurs. Fore wing with vein 7 from angle of cell, 8 and 9 
stalked. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 from the cell, or on a 
short stalk. 

Sect. I. Male antennae bipectinate to apex, the branches short. 

836. Natada rufescens, Wlk. Tait. v, p. 1109; C. <S- -S. no. 1273 ; Butl. 
111. Ilet. vi, pi. 102, fig. 10. 



NATADA. 



381 




Head, thorax, and abdomen brown, the thorax and abdomen 

suffused with fiery red above. 
Pore wing brown, the basal area 
rather darker, and bounded by a 
straight obhque antemedial dark 
Hne; an erect dark line from 
costa before apex to outer margin 

above outer angle. Hind wing 

Fig. 259. and underside rather paler. 

Natadariofescens, S- t- i/a6. Eangoon. ^J^p. 34 millim. 

837. Natada convergens, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 868 ; C. 8^ S. no. 979. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous. Eore wing pale 
ochreous, irrorated with dark brown scales ; a brown speck at end 
of cell ; costa red-brown ; an obhque brown line from the costa, 
before the apex, to centre of inner margin ; a red-brown line from 
nearly the same point on the costa to outer margin above the 
angle, curved below the costa. Hind wing reddish brown. Under- 
side pale ; hind wing irrorated with dark scales. 

Hah. Sylhet. Exp. 50 millim. 

838. Natada conjuncta, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1150. 
Natada neutra, Sivinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 195. 
Phlossa fimbi'iares, Wlk. Cat. xv, p. 1673. 

Miresa cuprea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 74, pi. 3, fig. 8 ; C. ^ S. no. 1310. 

cJ . Head and collar pale or copper eolonr ; thorax and abdomen 
dark brown. Pore wing dark brown ; the outer two-thirds silky 
in texture, with some short strigsB of raised scales ; a dark dot at 
end of cell ; a submarginal coppery band, narrow at middle, wide 
towards apex and outer angle. Hind wing and underside pale 
brown. 

Hab. N. China ; Pormosa ; Sikhim ; Rangoon ; E. Pegu. E.vp. 
26 millim. 



839. Natada cepMca, S^o{nh. Tram. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 192. 

S . Palpi longer. Head and thorax dark brown, the thorax black 
posteriorly. Pore wing pale reddish brown, the costa and outer 
margin dark brown ; an obsolescent waved broken postmedial 
black line, bent inwards at lower angle of cell and reaching the 
centre of inner margin. Abdomen and hind wing pale brown. 
In some specimens the fore wing is wholly clouded with fuscous. 

Bab. Eangooa. Exp. 18 millim. 

Sect. II. Male antennae bipectinate to apex, the branches long. 

840. Natada nararia, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 415, pi. 21, fio-s. 8, 8 a 

(larva) ; C. S. no. 1287. 
Susica co8miana, Sioinh. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 440, pi. 40, fig-. 9 ; C. S,- S. 
no. 1301. 



382 



LIMACODID.E. 



Susica suffusR, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 403; Butl. HI. Het. vii, 
p. 41, pi. 124, h^. 6 ; C. ^ 8. no. 1315 u. ' 
Susica fraterna, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 131 ; C. 8f 8. no. 1302 
busica signata, Moore, Lep. Cexjl. ii, p. 131 ; C.^ 8. no. 1304. 

Pale brownish ochreous. Fore wing with the basal two-thirds 
redder, and bordered outwardly by a dark brown somewhat 
diJ¥ased slightly curved line. 

The form signata, from Ceylon, has the fore wing more or less 
suffused with brown, sometimes with a conspicuous black dot at 
end of cell. 

Larva yellowish green aboA^e, pink below ; a yellow or pinkish 
dorsal band ; a subdorsal series of red-tipped spinous tubercles ; a 
sublateral series of larger whitish tubercles with very short spines, 
the tubercles at each end being long, those at posterior end 
longest. 

Cocoon purplish brown. 

Hab. Dharmsala; Mhow; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exp., 12-20, 
5 22 millim. 



841. Natada sericea, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 161, fig. 15. 

(S . Differs from nararia in being uniform silky ochreous white; 
fore wing with an indistinct darker sub marginal line. 
Hah. Pundaloya, Ceylon. Exp. 20 millim. 



842. Natada unicolor, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 415, pi. 21, figs. 7,7 a 
(larva). 

(S . Uniform pale reddish brown; a fuscous spot on pro- 
thorax ; metathorax and abdomen tipped with fuscous. 

Larva green ; a pale blue dorsal line ; the lateral paired 
spinous processes on each somite yellow. 

Hab. Calcutta. Exp. 24 millim. 



Sect. III. Male with distal half of antennae serrated. 

843. Natada ocellata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 74 ; C. 4- ^S". no. 1324. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous brown ; some of the hairs 
on the vertex of thorax and abdomen black. Pore wing ochreous 
brovpn, irrorated with black, especially below the costa; a purplish- 
grey patch beyond the lower angle of cell with a deep red-brown 
mark beyond it ; a fine submargiual black line. Hind wing 
suffused with fuscous. 

Hab. Bikhim ; Khasis ; Nagas ; Burma. E.rp., J 40, $ 60 millim. 

844. Natada velutina, Eoll. HUgel's KascJimir, iv, p. 473 ; C. ^- 8. 

no. 1274 ; Butl. III. Het. vi, pi. 102, fig. 1. 
Natada rugosa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1109. 



NATADA. — TBTEAPHLEPS. 



383 



Head, thorax, and abdomen dark red -brown. Fore wing dark 
silky red-brown ; an oblique line, which is curved below the costa, 
from near the apex to inner margin near base, the scales on its 
inner side (especially below the costa and towards the inner 
margin) more erect, giving exactly the appearance of ruffled seal- 
skin ; a curved submarginal line. Hind _ wing and underside 
paler. Fore tibia of male with a silvery-white spot. 

Hah. Himalayas; Sind ; Poona ; jBengal ; Cachar; Burma. 
Exp., d 60, $ 78 millim. 

Genus TETRAPHLEPS, nov. 

Type, T. hrevilinea, "Wlk. 
Range. Sikhim ; Nilgiris. 

Antennae of male bipectinated to tips. Palpi obliquely porrect, 
projecting beyond frontal tuft. Pore wing with veins 7, 8, 9, 10 
stalked together. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 on a short stalk. 

Sect. I. Antennas with the branches long ; fore wing with 

the apex rounded. 

845. Tetraplileps hrevilinea, Wlh. Cat. xxxii, p. 475 ; C. Sf S. no. 1308. 

Head, thorax, and base of abdo- 
men dark brown, the remainder of 
abdomen pale ochreous brown. 
Pore wing dark red-brown ; the 
basal area and costa slightly darker. 
Hind wing pale ochreous brown. 
Underside pale red-brown. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp., 36, $ 40 
millim. 




Fig. 260. 
Tetraphleps hrevilinea, . t- 



Sect. II. Antennae with the branches shorter ; fore wing with 

the apex produced. 

846. Tetraphleps crispa, Sioinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 409, pi. 43, fig. 4. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown, suffused with fiery 
red above. Pore wing dark red-brown ; a dark speck at end of 
cell ; a purplish gloss forming an oblique line from apex to middle 
of inner margin ; another along outer margin. Hind wing and 
underside dull brown. Silvery-white spots at end of coxa, femur, 
and tibia of fore leg. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp>. 38 millim. 

847. Tetraphleps nilgirica, Hmjysn. III. Ilet. viii, p. 63, pi. 142, 

fig. 13. 

cJ . Differs from crispa in the head, thorax, and abdomen being 
chestnut -brown. Pore wing with the purplish oblique line rather 



384 



LIMACODIDJE. 



dark ; no marginal purplish shade ; a chestnut submarginal nearly 
straight line. 

Hah. Nilgiri plateau, 7000 feet. Exp. 38 millim. 

Genus BIRTHAMA. 

Birthama, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 175 (1862). 

Type, B. obliqua, Wlk., from Borneo. 
Range. Ceylon ; Burma ; Borneo. 

Antennae bipectinated to two-thirds length in male, simple in 
female. Palpi reaching beyond frontal tuft. Hind tibia with a 
terminal pair of spurs in male, two pairs in female. Fore wing 
with vein 7 from angle of cell, 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 from angle of cell. 

848. Birthama junctura, Wlk. Cat. xxxiii, p. 857. 

Head, thoi'ax, and abdomen bright red-brown. Fore wing red- 
brown ; the basal area darkest, and bounded by an oblique dark 




Fig. 261. — Birthama junctura, \. 



medial line ; outer area with two indistinct waved postmedial Hues 
and two oblique lines across the apex. Hind wing paler. 
Hah. Burma ; Borneo. Exp., S 36, ? 48 millim. 

849. Birthama obliquifascia, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 4. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown. Fore wing pale 
reddish brown, irrorated with black scales ; a broad oblique black 
line from the costa before the apex to inner margin before the 
middle. Hind wing paler. Cilia oE both wings red-brown. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp. 34 milUm. 

Genus CONTHEYLA. 
Contheyla, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 384 (1865). 
Type, 0. vestita, Wlk. 

Banqe. N.W. Himalayas and Peninsular India. 

Antennse bipectinated to tip in male, ciliated in female. Palpi 
reaching beyond frontal tuft. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 
stalked. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 on a long stalk. Hind 
tibia with a terminal pair of spurs in male, two pairs in female. 



OONTHEYLA.. — MIEESA. 



385 



850. Contheyla vestita, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 385 ; C.^ S. no. 1279 ; 
Hmpsn. III. Ret. viii, pi. 143, fig. 10. 

c? . Head and thorax smoky black. Fore wing smoky black ; 
a pale speck at end of cell ; apical area grey, which colour is con- 
tinued to outer angle as a series of conjoined marginal spots ; a 




Fig. 262. — Contheyla vestita, ^. {. 



large grey patch on inner margin near outer angle ; base of cilia 
fulvous ; the tips chequered brown and ochreous. Abdomen, hind 
wing, and underside ochreous, suffused with fuscous. 

2 . The head, thorax, and fore wing paler and browner. 

Hah. Nilgiri plateau, 6700 feet. Ex;p. 34 milKm. 

851. Contheyla propexa, Sxoinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 409. 

S . Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing very pale brown, 
irrorated with black scales. Tore wing with a black spot beyond 
the lower end of the cell ; an elongated medial black mark from 
the median nervure to vein 1 & ; a black obHque line from the apex 
to vein 5 ; a spot at outer angle. Hind wing dark fuscous. 

Hah. Satara ; Poena. Exp. 24 millim. 

852. Contheyla melanosticta, n. sp. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale reddish ochreous ; tegul^e 
smoky black. Pore wing ochreous, with a broad irregular smoky- 
black stripe below the cell from base to outer angle ; a black spot 
beyond the cell ; a black subapical patch with waved outer edge ; 
a series of black marginal specks. Hind wing pale fuscous ; the 
cilia ochreous. 

$ . With the tegulsB ochreous. Fore wing with the black 
markings much reduced, especially the streak from the base, of 
which there is only scattered traces. 

Hah. Jubbulpore; Mandi, N.W. Himalayas. Exp. 27 millim. 
Type, c? m coll. Moore, $ in coll. Elwes. 

Genus MIRESA. 
Miresa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1123 (1855). 
Type, M, alhipuncta, H.-S. 

Range. Japan ; China ; throughout India and Ceylon. 
TOL. I. o ^ 



386 



LIMACODIDjE. 



Palpi not reaching beyond frontal tuft. Antenna? of male with 
the distal half serrated, mid and hind tibise with tenninal pairs of 
spurs. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 on a short stalk or from cell. 

Sect. I. Pore wing with vein 10 from end of cell. 

853. Miresa albipuncta, Herr.-Schdffer, Samml. aussereur. Schmett. i, 
fig. 179 ; C. ^ /S. no. 1305 ; Forsayeth, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, pi, 14, 
figs. 8 a-c (larva and pupa). 
Miresa guttifera, Wlk. Cat v, p. 1124 ; C. ^ S. no. 1312. 

Head yellow ; thorax fulvous yellow ; abdomen ochreous 
fulvous. Fore wing red-brown ; a silvery-white spot beyond the 
lower angle of cell ; a faint silvery postmedial line. Hind wing 




Fig. 263. — Miresa albipuncta, S ■ f- 



ochreous. Underside ochreous; both wings suffused with red- 
brown towards the costa. 

The Burmese form has the thorax and fore wing rather darker. 

Larva green ; two pairs of dorsal and two of lateral spinous 
tubercles at anterior and posterior ends, the dorsal pairs longest ; 
a lateral brown line, beneath which the colour is pale, with a series 
of brown spots ; stigmata on a pale brown line. 

Hah. Throughout India and Ceylon. Exp., S 32-43, $ 46 
millim. 

854. Miresa inornata, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1125 ; C.8rS. no. 1313. 

Differs from albipuncta in the fore wing being duller red-brown ; 
the white spot beyond the cell absent ; an indistinct submai-giual 
curved line. Hind wing darker. 

Hah. Japan; China; N.W. Himalayas; Nagas. Exp., 6 36, 
$ 50 millim. 

855. Miresa argentifera, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1124 ; C. ^ S. no. 1306 ; 

Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 129, figs. 1, 1 a (larva). 

Differs from alhipuncta in the spot beyond the cell of the fore 
wing being absent; a broken ill-defined postmedial silvery Ime, 
curved from the costa to vein 2, then straighter and more promi- 



MiEESA — PARASA. 



387 



iient to inner margin ; some silvery scales towards outer margin 
a series of silvery marginal spots. 

Larva green ; two pairs of dorsal and two of lateral spinous 
tubercles at anterior and posterior ends, the dorsal pair longest ; 
intervening series of minute subdorsal and sublateral spinous 
tubercles ; a pink stripe at base of the anterior and posterior 
tubercles ; a pale dorsal line ; spiracular rings pale. 

Hob. Ceylon. Exp. 36 millim. 

856. Miresa bracteata, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, p. 64 : id. El. Set. vi, 
pi. 102,%. 2; a^^, no. 1307. 

Differs from argentifera in the postmedial silvery line of the 
fore wing being bent inwards at vein 5 and expanding into a large 
triangular silvery spot beyond the lower angle of the cell ; the 
marginal silvery spots larger. 

Hob. Sikhim ; Nagas. Exp., ^ 38, $ 41 milHm. 



Sect. II. Pore wing with vein 10 stalked with 7, 8, 9. 

857. Miresa decedens, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1125 : C & S. no. 1311 : Butl. 

III. Het. vi, pi. 102, fig. 3. 

Differs from argentifera in having the fore wdng much darker 
brown instead of red-brown ; the hind wing also darker. 
Eah. Assam ; Nilgiris. Exp. 36 millim. 

858. Miresa nivaha, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 413 ; C. 8f S. no. 1315. 

Differs from decedens in the head, thorax, and vertex of abdomen 
being dark red-brown instead of yellow. 
Hah. Canara. Exp. 38 milhm. 



Genus PARASA. 
Parasa, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 413 (1859). 

^^^'^^^^fl^^-^'-Schaffer, Samml. aussereur. Schnett. i, fig. 176 
(1864), nom. praeocc. 

Type, P. lepida, Cram. 

Range. America; W. and S. Africa; Madagascar; Japan; 
China ; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java. 

Palpi projectmg beyond frontal tuft. Pore wing rounded at 
apex, veins 7 8, 9 stalked; the veinlet in cell forked or the 
lower discocel ular absent, the fork of the veinlet replacina it 
Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 on a short stalk or from cell. Hind 
tibia with a terminal pair of spurs. 



2g2 



388 



LIMAOODID^. 



Sect. I. Antennao of male bipectinated, the distal 
half serrated. 

859. Parasa lepida, Cmm. Pap. Exot. ii, pi. 130 e ; C.fyS. no. 1286 ; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi, 128, figs. 2, 2 o, 6 (larva and cocoon). 
Nesera media, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1140. 
Limacodes graciosa, Wedio. Cab. Or. Etit. p. 50. 
Nyssia latifascia, Wlk. Cat. v. p. 1136; C. 8f S. no. 1317. 

(5" . Head green, red-brown at the sides ; thorax green, with a 

brown stripe on the vertex ; abdo- 
men brown. Eore wing pea-green ; 
a red-brown basal patch on the 
costa ; the outer area red-brown, 
widest at inner margin. Hind 
wing yellowish at base, red-brown 
towards outer margin. Legs with 
the joints pale tipped. 

$ . The red-brown stripe on 
thorax wider, and nearly the whole of the hind wing red-brown. 

Larva pale green, whitish or bright yellowish green above ; 
three dorsal mauve or green bands ; subdorsal and sublateral series 
of short spinous tubercles, the spines of the anterior and 
posterior tubercles tipped with red. 

Eggs flat and overlapping each other, and covered by a trans- 
parent cement. 

Cocoon purple-brown. 

Hah. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Java. Exp. S , 30, 
2 42-50 millim. 




Fig. 264. — Parasa lepida, c? . 



860. Parasa repanda, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1141; C.^S. no. 1290; Butl. 
III. Het. vi, pi. 102, fig. 5. 

$ , Differs from lepida in the basal brown patch of the fore 
wing being broader with an irregular lower edge ; the marginal 
brown area narrower and even throughout, with a silvery-white 
line on its inner edge. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Assam. Exp. 52 millim. 



861. Parasa dharma, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 414, pi. xi a, fig. 7. 

Differs from repanda in the head being dark brown; tegulsa 
with only a small green spot. Pore wing with the green area 
confined to the disk and crescentic in shape, extending from near 
the base to near the apex ; the marginal band suffused with silvery 
scales beyond the white line; a fine dark submarginal hne. 
Hind wing with the basal two-thirds yellow, the brown marginal 
area more sharply defined. 

Hah. Eangoon ; Java. Exp., 6 26, $ 34 miUim. 



PAEASA. 



389 



862. Parasa argentilinea, n. sp. 

S . Differs from repanda in the brown basal patch of the fore 
wing being absent ; an even brown band along inner margin ; the 
silvery line starting from the costa nearer the apex, straight, and 
ending above inner margin, not recurved. Hind wing pale ochreous. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Margharita, Assam (Doherty). Exp. 24 millim. 
Type in coll. Elwes. 

863. Parasa hilaris, Westiv. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 60 ; C. ^ S. no. 1282. 
Parasa laeta, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 50 ; C. ^ 8. no. 1284 ; Moore^ 

Lep. Ceyl. ii. pi. 130, fig. 1. 
Parasa hockingii, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1888, p. 403. 
Parasa mirza, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 192. 

Differs from lepida in the thorax being without the brown 
stripe. Fore wing with the red-brown patch covering the whole 
basal area, its outer edge angled ; the marginal band very variable 
in width, with an irregular inner edge. Hind wing with only a 
slight tinge of brown towards outer margin. 

Sab. Throughout India and Ceylon. Exp., ^ 26, $ 30-34 
millim. 

864. Parasa pastoralis, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) vi, p. 63 ; id. El. Het. 
vi. pi. 102, fig. 9 ; C.8fS. no. 1288. 

Differs from hilaris in the basal patch of the fore wing being 
suffused with ochreous ; some red-brown suffusion beyond the 
patch ; the marginal band suffused with yellow except the veins, 
its inner edge more curved. 

P. consocia, Wlk. = tessellata, Moore, from Japan and China, only 
differs in being without the brown suffusion and the marginal band 
being narrower at outer angle. 

SaJ. Dharmsala; Sikhim; Bhutan; Ndgas. Exp., (S 40, $ 
56 millim. 

*865. Parasa punica, Herr.-Schafer, Smnml. aussereur. Schmett. i, 
tig. 177 : a ^ S. no. 1289. 

$ . Differs from hilaris in having the basal patch of fore wing 
with a dentate outer edge ; the marginal band very narrow with a 
dentate inner edge ; in the figure a curved pale postmedial line is 
represented. 

Hab. Sylhet. Exp. 40 millim. 

*866. Parasa similis, Feld. Meis. Nov. pi. 82, fig. 16; C. ^ S. no. 1292. 

_ c? . Differs from hilaris in the basal brown patch of the fore 
wing being restricted to a spot below the median nervure ; the 
marginal brown band widest at middle. 

Eab. Ceylon. Exp. 30 millim. 



390 



LIMACODIDJB. 



*867. Parasa Isabella, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 415 ',C.8f8. no. 1283. 

S . Head, thorax, and fore wing grass-green ; the last with a 
large buff-coloured patch from the costa to lower angle of cell, 
suffused with brown and edged with black ; a similarly-coloured 
marginal band expanding into large patches at apex and outer 
angle. Abdomen and hind wing ochreous brown. 

Larva green, with a purple dorsal stripe and paired anterior red- 
brown spinous processes. 

Hob. Bengal. Exp. 40 millim. 



868. Parasa bicolor, Wlk. Ca^. v, p. 1142 ; C7. 4- -S. no. 1281 ; Butl.Ill. 
Het. vi, pi. 102, fig. 11. 

Head and thorax pea-green. Pore wing pea-green, the costa and 
cilia narrowly brown ; a small brown speck near inner margin be- 
tween veins 1 h and 1 c, and another between veins 4 and 5. These 
specks are sometimes edged inwardly with white and form a more 
or less complete series to the apex. Abdomen, hind wing, and 
underside ochreous fuscous. 

Hah. Sikhim ; throughout Continental India and Burma. 
Exp., 6 35, $ 38 millim. 



869. Parasa viridis, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix,ined.,pl. 160, fig. 9. 

S . Differs from bicolor in being without the brown specks and 
in having a brown patch on the margin above outer angle and on 
inner margin before the angle. Thorax edged with fuscous. 

Hab. Ceylon. Ewp. 30 millim. 

870. Parasa albipuncta, n. sp. 

c? . Differs from viridis in the marginal brown band having 
expanded into a large patch between veins 3 and 5 ; a white speck 
on the patch on inner margin. Hind wing ochreous. 

Hab. Mao, Manipur (Doherty). Ecvp. 26 millim. Type in coll. 
Elwes. 



871. Parasa herbifera, WIL Cat. v, p. 1136; C. ^ S. no. 1316 ; Butl. 
III. Het. vi, pi. 102, fig. 6. 
Parasa fumosa, Sivinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 408, pi. 43, fig. 12. 

Head and thorax pea-green. Fore wing with the basal two- 
thirds dark purplish broM'n in the male, dark reddish brown in the 
female ; the outer marginal area a different shade of brown. 
Abdomen and hind wing dark brown. 

Hab. Simla ; Nepal ; Nilgiris. E.vp., d 30, $ 34 milUm. 



PABASA. — IDONAUTON. 



391 



Shot. 11. Male with antennse serrated throughout. 

872. Parasa dentata, n. sp. 

Head and thorax pale brown ; abdomen darker. Fore wing with 
the basal area pale brown, bounded by an antemedial curved black 
Hne, beyond which is a purplish-grey band, then a large discal 
brown patch, on which is a semicircular dark-outlined mark, its 
outer edge highly dentate ; marginal area grey ; a marginal black 
line most prominent at apex ; cilia with two black lines. Hind 
win» fuscous, with marginal and ciUal lines. 

Bob. Sikhim (MoUer) ; Nagas {Doherty). Exp., S 30, 
$ 44 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

Genus SPATULIFIMBRIA. 

Spatulicraspeda, Hmpsn. III. Set. ix, ined. 

Type, S. castaneiceps, Hmpsn. 
Range. Ceylon. 

Antennae bipectinated to three-fourths length in male, ciliated in 
female. Palpi slight and short. Hind tibia with two pairs of spurs. 
Tore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with vein 8 
bent down and anastomosing with 7 near end of cell, 6 and 7 
stalked. 

873. Spatulifimbria castaneiceps, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 161, 

figs. 16, 17. 

cJ . Head and collar chestnut ; 
thorax and abdomen black-brown. 
Eore wing black-brown ; a dark 
band on discocellulars and another 
from costa before apex to outer 
margin above outer angle. Hind 
Fig. 265. wing black-brown ; cilia pale to- 

Spatulifimbria castaneiceps, (J . ^. wards apex. 

2 ■ Thorax and fore wing chest- 
nut ; the submarginal band reaching the inner margin. Hind wing 
smoky black ; the cilia concolorous. 

Cocoon round and streaked with brown and white. 
Eab. Ceylon. Exj-)., d 17, $ 22 millim. 

Genus IDONAUTON. 

Idonauton, Sivinh. Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon., ined. 

Type, /. apicale, "Wlk. 

Range. Sylhet ; Singapore ; Borneo, 




392 



LIMACODIDiK. 



Antennae bipectinated to half thelength in male, ciliated in female 
^^male^ reachmg vertex of head. Tibia without spurs 

Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked together. Hind wing 
with veins 6 and 7 stalked. ^ 

874. Idonauton apicale, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1160 ; C.<^S. no. 1280. 

- Nyssia rubriplaga, WlJc. Journ. 

Linn. Soc. vi, p. 144. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen 
chestnut. Fore wing chestnut, with 
an oval marginal chocolate patch 
bounded on the inside by a white 
semicircular line. Hind wing paler. 

Eab. Sylhet; Singapore; Borneo. 
Exjy., S 25, ? 36 millim. 




Fig. 266. 
Idonauton apicale, . |. 



Genus CHALCOCELIS, nov. 

Type, C. fumifera, Swinh. 
Range. Burma; Singapore. 

d . Antennae with proximal half bipectinated. Palpi reaching 
vertex of head. Hind tibia with two pairs of spurs. Fore wing 
with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 
stalked. 



875. Chalcocelis fumifera, 
fig. 13. 




Fig. 267. 
Chalcocelis fumifera, c?. \. 



inh. Trans. JEnt. Soc. 1890, p. 195, pi. vi, 

S . Head, thorax, abdomen, and 
wings dark smoky brown. Fore 
wing with a patch below the mid- 
dle of the cell, the inner part of 
which is bright coppery red, the 
outer dark brown Avith a con- 
spicuous white dot in the middle 
of it. 

Hah. Eangoon; Singapore. Uxp. 
22 millim. 



Genus TEIPLOPHLEPS, nov. 

Type, T. inferma, Swinh. 
Eange. Burma. 

(S . Antennje simple. Palpi reaching vertex of head. Hind 
tibia with one pair of spurs. Fore wing with A^eins 7, 8, 9 stalked. 
Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked. 



TBIPLOPHLEPS. — OEEATONBM A. 



393 



876. Triplophleps inferma, Swinh. Trans. Ent Soc, 1890, p. 194. 

S • Head, thorax, abdomen, and 
wings greyish fuscous. Tore wing 
with a black antemedial curved line, 
not quite reaching either the costa 
or inner margin ; a postmedial black- 
ish curved line from the lower angle 
of cell to vein 1 6 ; an obliquely- 
curved line from the costa before 
the apex to above outer angle. 
Hab. Eangoon. Exjp. 22 millim. 




Fig. 268. 

Triplophleps inferma, cJ. 



Genus ORTHOCRASPEDA, nov. 

Type, 0, trima, Moore. 
Range. Burma; Java. 

$ . Antennae simple. Palpi reaching vertex of head. Mid tarsi 
tufted with hair ; hind tibiffi with one pair of spurs. Fore 
wing with veins 8 and 9 stalked ; the outer margin straight and 
erect. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 stalked. 



877. Orthocraspeda trima, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 416, pi. xi a, 
figs. 13, 13 a, pi. 21, fig. 9 (larva). 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen 
pale brown. Fore wing pale brown, 
vsdth four oblique black-brown lines, 
one subbasal from subcostal nervure 
to inner margin, a similar medial 
line, one postmedial from subcostal 
to vein 2, and one submarginal from 
the costa before apex to outer angle ; 
a marginal dark line. Hind wing 
fuscous. 

Larva : the first four somites brown ; the posterior somites green, 
with a brown dorsal band expanding on the last somites, a yellow 
patch on each side of the narrow part ; paired lateral spinous 
tubercles to each somite. 

hob. E. Pegu ; Java. Exp. 20 millim. 




Fig. 269. 

Orthocraspeda trima, , 



Genus CERATONEMA, nov. 

Type, G. reiractatum, Wlk. 
Bancje. Sikhim ; Naga Hills. 

S. Antennae simple. Palpi reaching vertex of head. Hind 
tibiae with two pairs of spurs. Fore wing with veins 8, 9 10 
stalked. Hmd wing with veins 6 and 7 from cell. 



394 



LIMACODIDjE. 



Sect. I. Palpi with 3rd joint of moderate length. 

878. Ceratonema alhifttsum, u. sp. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous. Pore wing 
ochreous, suffused with whitish along inner and outer margins ; a 
broken medial band of dark scales, prominent at costa, lower angle 
of cell, and inner margin ; a submarginal series of dark specks. 
Hind wing whitish. 

Hah. Nagas, 6000 feet (Doherty). Exp. 23 millim. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 



879. Ceratonema retractatum, Wlh. Cat. xxxii, p. 487 ; C. Sr S. 
no. 1291. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen 
ochreous. Fore wing ochreous, the 
veins darker ; a dark oblique line 
from the costa before the middle 
to centre of inner margin ; a fine 
waved postmedial line from vein 6 
to inner margin ; an oblique line from 
costa before apex to outer margin at 
vein 3. Hind wing pale yellow ; an 
ochreous streak near anal angle. 
Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 24 millim. 




Fig. 270. 

Ceratonema retractatum, J . 



Sect. II. Palpi with 3rd joint minute. 

880. Ceratonema fasciatum, n. sp. 

cJ . Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish ; collar and extremity 
of abdomen fuscous. Pore wing silky white; an obhque dark 
band from costa just beyond middle to inner margin just before 
the middle ; a dark speck beyond it on the costa and another on 
vein 1 b ; two dark specks on outer margin below the apex. Hind 
wing yellowish white, with two dark specks on margin below the 
apex. 

Hab. Ndgas, 6000 feefc (Doherty). Exp. 28 milhm. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 

Genus AR.aEOGyiA, nov. 

Type, A. spatulata, Hmpsn. 
Range. Sikhim. 

cJ . Antennse simple. Palpi upturned and long, reaching above 
vertex of head. Hind tibiae with two pairs of spurs ; legs naked. 
Pore wing with vein 7 from below angle of cell, 8 and 9 stalked. 
Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 from the cell. 



ABiEOG^ I A. — C ANI A. 



395 



881. AraBOgyia spatulata, n. sp. 

c?. Head and thorax purplish 
black; abdomen fuscous, darkest 
on middle segments. Fore wing 
black, irrorated with a few leaden 
scales ; a patch of leaden scales on 
the costa before apex, and on inner 
margin before outer angle. Hind 
Fig. 271. wing fuscous ; cilia with a few 

Armogijia spatulata, . |. spatulate scales, and a conspicuous 

patch of them at anal angle. 
Eab. Sikhim (Ehves). Exp. 16 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

882. Arseogyia castanea, n. sp. 

S . Head pale ; thorax chestnut ; abdomen pale, the middle 
segments darker. Fore wing chestnut; a large blackish patch 
beyond the cell from the costa to vein 3, darkest on the discocel- 
luiars, where there are a few white scales. Hind wing fuscous. 
Hah. Sikhim (Mwes). Exp. 18 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

Genus CANIA. 
Cania, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1177 (1855). 
Type, C. bilinea, Wlk. 

Bange. China ; throughout India and Burma ; Malacca ; Java. 

Antennae in male bipectinated to three-fourths length. Palpi 
slight and short. Fore wing with vein 11 curved and running 
along 12. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 from the cell. Mid tibia 
with one pair of spurs, hind tibia with two pairs. 




Sect. I. Fore wing vrith vein 7 from angle of cell, 10 from 

before the angle. 

883. Cania bilinea, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1142. 

Cania sericea, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1178 ;C.^S. no. 1321 ; Butl. III. Het. 

vi,pl. 102, fig. 7. 
Mresa mollis, Wlk. C«^. xxxii, p. 475 ; C.8^ S. no. 1314. 
Nyssia malaccana, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 481. 

Aspidiotus bicarinatus, Wlk. Cat. Homopt. Suppl. p. 306 (1858). 

d . Head, thorax, and fore wing 
reddish ochreous,the head and collar 
rather darker. Fore wing with two 
obhqvie hues with pale outer edges 
from the costa before the apex to 
near centre of inner margin ; cilia 
ochreous or brownish. Abdomen 
and hind wiag ochreous. 




.Fig. 272. — Cania bilinea, cJ. 



396 



LIMAOODID^. 



$ . The lines of the fore wing indistinct and without the pale 
edges, 

Hah. China; Dharmsala; Sikhim; Manipur; Ganiam: S.India- 
Blalacca ; Java. Exy. 34 millim. ' 

884. Cama bandura^,^iifoore, Lep. E. 1. Co. p. 417, pi. xi«, fig. 9; 

(S . Head and collar fuscous ; thorax and abdomen yellowish 
white. Pore wing silky black, with a yellowish-white basal patch ; 
the costa and outer margin narrowly yellowish white. Hind wing 
yellowish white, with a slight fuscous suffusion. 

Hah. Eangoon j Malacca ; Java. Exp. 36 millim. 



Sect. II. Fore wing with vein 7 stalked with 8 and 9, 
10 from the angle. 

885. Cania puUigonis, Swinh. P. z. S. 1889, p. 408, pi. 43, figs. 7, 8. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous. Fore wing ochreous, 
the whole disk suffused with dark brown, red-brown, and grey scales ; 
an indistinct oblique line from the costa before apex to centre of 
inner margin ; a curved submarginal line starting from the same 
point on the costa as the postmedial line. Hind wing ochreous. 

$ . Head, thorax, and fore wing uniform dark vinous brown. 
Fore wing with the two lines ochreous, the submarginal line more 
oblique and less curved. Hind wing darker than in male. 

Hah. Canara. Exp., S 25, $ 28 millim. 



Genus ALTHA. 

Altha, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. vi, p. 173 (1862). 
Belgoraea, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 496 (1865). 

Type, A. nivea, Wlk. 

Range. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java ; Borneo. 

Palpi short and slight. Mid and hind tibiae without spurs. 
Fore wing with vein 7 from the cell or stalked with 8 and 9. Hind 
wing with veins 6 and 7 from the cell. 

Sect. I. Fore wing with vein 7 stalked with 8 and 9. 
A. Male with antenna; pectinated to the tips. 

886. Altha castaneipars, Movre, P. Z. S. 1805, p. 819 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 1309. 

c? . Head, thorax, and wings yellowish white. Fore wing with 
a large chestnut subbasal irregular patch, with a blue-grey line 



ALTHA. 



397 



across the middle from the median nervure to lower edge ; traces 
of two postmedial lines, with a costal black speck at their origin ; 
a pale brown suffusion towards outer angle. Underside of fore 
wing suffused with black below the costa and median nervure. 
End of abdomen with some fulvous hairs. 
Hah. Sikhim ; Ndgas. Exp. 40 millim. 




B. Male with distal half of antenna} serrated. 

887. Altha nivea, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. y'l, p. 173. 

Candyba punctata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 132, fig. 4 j C. 8f S. 

no. 1326 {nec Wlk.). 
Belgorsea subnotata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 497. 

The wings broader and rounder. 
Pure white. Eore wing with a 
black dot beyond lower end of 
cell and two on outer margin be- 
low apex. Hind wing with two 
black dots on outer margin 

-n,. o-To ^7x1 « 1 below apex. Underside with 

Fig. 273. — Altha mvea, r? . t- j. c F • t-i i 

^ ' u 1 costa or tore wing black. 

In a fresh specimen from Sikhim prominent olive markings 
appear on the fore wing as patches in and below the cell and 
forming an irregular postmedial band. 

Gandyha punctata,^].^., is from Brazil, and the genus is distinct 
from Altha. 

Hah. Simla; Kulu; Sikhim; Sibsagar; Eanchi ; Ganjam; S. 
India ; Ceylon. Hxp. 30 millim. 

888. Altha lacteola, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 193. 

c?. Differs from nivea in the fore wing being slightly 
blotched and streaked with orange in a similar manner to adala, 
but not nearly as much ; no black spot beyond end of cell and 
only a trace of the subapical dark streak. Hind wing slightly 
suffused with ochreous except on costal and inner areas. Under- 
side with the costa of fore wing white. 

There is a single specimen from Ceylon in coll. Swinhoe of a form 
with the wings as much marked with red as in JSarosa conspersa. 

Hah. Rangoon ; Ceylon. Exjp. 24 millim. 

Sect. II. Pore wing with vein 7 from the cell. 

A. Fore wing with vein 10 from hefore end of cell. 

889. Altha adala, Moore, Lep. E. L Co. p. 418 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 132, 

figs. 3, 3 a (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 1318. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing brownish white. Fore wing 



398 



LIMACODID^. 



whitish, spotted and streaked with red-hrown marks forming in- 
distinct bands, the most prominent being a red-brown spot below 
middle of cell, two in the end of it, and one beyond ; a black dot 
beyond lower angle of cell and two on margin below apex. Hind 
wing silvery white, with a dark dot on margin below apex. 

Larva pale green, with indistinct dorsal and lateral rows of 
bluish-green dots and longitudinal lines and a sublateral row of 
white dots. 

Cocoon oval and whitish. 

Hah. Nagas; Nilgiris ; Ceylon; Java. Exp. 28 millim. 



890. Altha rufotessellata, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 73, pi. 3, fig. 24 ; C. <§• S. 

no. 1320. 

Differs from aclala in the ground-colour of the fore wing being 
ochreous, more closely and evenly distributed; the broken brownish- 
orange bands of fore wing and spot at end of cell being more 
prominent. Hind wing bright orange. Underside orange, yellow 
towards outer margin. 

Hah. Simla ; Sikhim. Ex'p. 34 millim. 



B. Fore wing with vein 10 /row end of cell. 
891. Altha contaminata, Honpsn. III. Set. viii, p. 63, pi. 142, fig. 3. 

Differs from adala in the ground-colour of the thorax and 
fore wing being whiter; fore wing with the markings more 
prominent. The abdomen, the whole of hind wing except costa, 
and underside suffused with black ; hind Aving with a marginal 
series of black dots. 

Hah. Nilgiris, 6000-8000 feet. Exp. 28 millim. 



Genus NAROSA. 
Narosa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1161 (1855). 
Type, N. conspersa, Wlk. 

Range. Peninsular India and Ceylon; Naga Hills; Borneo; 

Java. . -n 1 • u- 

AntennEe ciliated in male, simple m female, ralpi reaching 
vertex of head. Mid tibia with one pair of spurs, hind tibia with 
two pairs. Yore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind wing with 
veins 6 and 7 stalked. 

892. Narosa conspersa, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1151; C. <§■ S. no. 1319; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 132, figs. 2, 2 «, 6 (larva). 
Nai-osa velutina, Wlk. Journ. Lmn. Soc. vi, p. 171. 

Head and thorax white, shghtly spotted with red-brown. Fore 
wing yellowish white, spotted and streaked with red-brown marks, 
forming indistinct broken transverse obhque lines; a large term- 



•N-AEOSA. — BELIPPA . 



399 



ginous patch near base of inner margin ; two brown specks on outer 
^ ^ margin above veins 2 and o. Abdo- 

men and hind wing pale yellow. 

Larva naked, oval, and trans- 
versely corrugated ; with paired 
dorsal humps ; green, with white 
subdorsal lines and a series of white 
sublateral spots ; legs yellow and 
retractile. 

Cocoon oval ; whitish, with a cir- 
cular brown spot at one end. 
Hob. Nagas ; S. India ; Ceylon ; Borneo. Exp. 22 millim. 




Fig. 274. 

Narosa conspersa, ^. 



893. Narosa dcenia, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 416. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale and dark brown. Fore wing 
pale brown, irrorated with fuscous ; a diffused curved dark brown 
band from vein 2 near the outer margin curving up to and along 
the subcostal nervure, then down to inner margin before the middle; 
a marginal dark band, widest at apex ; some dark apical specks. 
Hind wing silky fuscous ; cilia paler. 

Hah. Ganjam ; Nagas ; Java. Exp. 20 millim. 

Genus BELIPPA. 

Belippa, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 608 (1865). 
Cheromettia, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 133 (1883). 

Type, B. horrida, Wlk., from China. 

Range. China ; Ceylon ; Sikhim, Cachar, Manipur, and Burma ; 
Java. 

Antennae with the proximal one-third bipectinated in male, 
ciliated in female. Palpi reaching vertex of head. Hind tibia with 
two pairs of spurs. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. Hind 
wing with veins 6 and 7 from the cell. 



Sect. I. Hind vdng with outer margin rounded in male. 

894. Belippa laleana, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 417 ; C.8f S. no. 1286. 
Cheromettia ferruginea, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 348 ; id. 
Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 132, figs. \,\a,h (larva) C. 8^ S. no. 1322. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing fulvous, the last with a 

dark speck at end of cell ; a 
small black patch with a few 
white scales on it at apex, where 
the tips of the cilia also are 
black. Hind wing paler and 
yellower, with small black mar- 
ginal streaks at apex and anal 
angle. 

Larva naked, oval, and convex 




Fig. 275. — Belippa laleana, ]^. 



400 



LIMACODIDjE. 



above ; pale bluish green, with several longitudinal rows of small 
yellow spots and a subdorsal row of black dots. 
Cocoon round and whitish. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Ceylon ; Eangoon ; Bhamo. Exp., cJ 34, $ 
42 millim. 



895. Belippa thoracica, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 74, pi. 3, fig. 7 ; C.^ S. 
no. 1278. 

c? . Head and thorax white ; collar sometimes fringed with 
black ; abdomen fuscous. Eore wing black-brown or dark olive- 
brown, more or less irrorated with white scales ; a white spot at 
end of cell ; two white spots on inner margin, which are some- 
times obsolete; in the olive-brown specimens a blackish apical 
patch suffused with white is prominent and a pale hne runs from 
its inner edge on the costa towards outer angle. Hind wing 
fuscous ; the cilia blackish at apex. 

Eab. Sikhim, 7000 feet. Eay. 32 millim. 



Sect. II. Male with outer margin of hind wing straight. 

896. Belippa apicata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 75 ; C. *S'. no. 1323. 

S. Head and thorax chestnut; abdomen dark brown. Fore 
wing red-brown ; the basal area rather darker and bounded by a 
slightly waved medial line ; a dark spot at end of cell ; an indis- 
tinct waved postmedial line from costa to outer angle ; a black 
apical patch suffused with grey. Hind wing black-brown ; the 
cUia ochreous. 

Hob. Sikhim ; Manipur. Exp. 30 millim. 

897. Belippa lohor, Moore, Lep. E.L Co. p. 430, pi. xiiia, fig. 3. 

S Differs from apicata in the fore wing being rather narrower 
and having the area beyond the cell suffused with fuscous. Hmd 
wing with a large triangular hyaline patch from the lower angle 
of cell to outer margin from below apex to vein 2. 

Hah. Cachar ; Java. Exp. 28 millim. 



Genus NAGODA. 
Nagoda, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 542 (1887). 
Type, N. nigricans, Moore. 

fSnS the proximal one-third bipectinated in male 
oiW ?r female. Palpi short and porrect. Fore wmg m h 
ciliated 1^^^^^^^ ^- ^th vein 8 sending a spur to 

veins 7, 8, 9 stalked, nxn^ | ^.^^^^^^ 
the costa ; veins 6 and 7 trom tne ceu. ^^'^ abdomen and 
in male, with a terminal pair in female. End ot abdomen and 
hind tarsi tufted with hair in male. 



NAGOBA. — MAHANTA . 



401 




Fig. 276. 

Nagoda nigricans. 



898. Nagoda nigricans, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 542, pi. 211, fig. 10 
( J ) ; Hmpsn. IlL Bet. ix, pi. 161, fig-. 1 ( ? ). 

S. Head pale; thorax and abdomen clothed with red-brown' 
dark brown, black', and grey scales. Fore wing hyaline ; tlie base; 

inner margin, and apex broadly black •> 
the costa, veins, and outer margin 
narrowly so. Hind wing hyaline ; the 
costa and inner margin broadly black, the 
veins and outer margin narrowly black. 

5 yelloM'ish white. Tore wing 
with three bright ferruginous spots 
in cell, two below it, the outer one 
large ; two small dark spots below the 
cell, and two below vein 1 ; a maculate 
dark band from veins 5 to 2 ; two dark 
maculate curved bands from the costa 
before apex to outer margin above outer 
angle. 

Larva greenish blue, with dorsal and 
lateral darker stripes and series of lunular markings seen through 
the thick cuticle. 

Cocoon rounded and greyish white. 

Bob. Ceylon. Exp.., S 30, $ 38 millim. 

Genus MAHANTA. 
Mahanta, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 78 (1879). 

Type, M. quadrilinea, Moore. 
Mange. Sikhim. 

cJ. Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head. Antennae with 
the branches very short. Hind tibia with a minute terminal 
pair of spurs. Tore wing elongate, the apex produced, the outer 
margin excised ; veins 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked together, 11 not curved. 
Hind wing subquadrate ; the upper part of cell short ; veins 6 and 
7 on a long stalk ; 8 almost touching 7 near the end of the cell ; 
the veinlet in cell running obliquely to the median nervure. 

899. Mahanta quadrilinea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 78, pi. 3 fie- 20 : 
C.^S. no. 1478. ^ > t > 6 > 




.V 1 ^ 

Fig. 211.— Mahanta quadrilinea, cJ. \. 

S . Head grey ; palpi fulvous ; collar and tegulse fulvous the 
TOL. I. 2d 



402 



LASIOCAMPID^E, 



latter with a wluDe bar across each ; thorax grey, abdomen 
ochreous. Pore wing ochreous ; au oblique medial dark line ; a 
similar line from the apex to inner margin beyond the middle ; 
inner area suffused with grey, which is diffused along the lines 
towards the costa and along outer margin towards apex; cilia 
fuscous. Hind wing uniform ochreous. 
Hob. Sikhim. Exp. 52 millim. 



Species formerly recorded as Indian which are omitted. 

Aphendala conspersa,'Butl. P. Z, S. 1880, p. 67S = Mir esa quadr I - 
notata, Moore, C. & S, no. 1315 a, is an Acontid. 

Limacodes grisea, Hmpsn. 111. Het. viii, p. 63, is an Acontid. 

Proneca fola, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 191, pi. vi, fig. 8, 
is a Jlypogrammid. 

Rahila frontalis, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1300, is a Leucanid. 

Natada hasalis, Wlk., C. & S. no. 1272. Type lost ; description 
unrecognizable. 

Family LASIOCAMPID^. 

A family of moths mostly of large size. Palpi porrect and 
generally large ; proboscis absent ; eyes small ; antennae bipectinate 
in both sexes ; legs generally with minute terminal pairs of spurs 
to mid and hind tibisa and rather hairy. Fore wing with vein 1 a 
not forked with h;lc rarely present ; the cell medial in position ; 
veins 6 and 7 from the angle ; veins 9 and 10 always stalked and 
from before the angle. Hind wing with two internal veins ; 6 and 7 
arising very near the base ; 8 curved and almost touching 7 or 
connected with it by a bar, thus forming a precostal cell ; accessory 
costal veinlets generally present. Frenulum absent. 

Larva- with lateral downwardly-directed tufts of hair, and often 
subdorsal tufts or dorsal humps on anterior somites thickly clothed 
with hair. 

Cocoon closely woven of silk and hair. 




Fig. 278. — Larya of Suana concolor. \. 



Key to the Genera. 

A. Hind wing with vein 8 running close along 
7; no bar between them; few, or no, 
accessory costal veinlets. 
a. The cell of both wings closed. 



LASIOOAMPID^. 



403 



B 



o'. Fore wing long and narrow, the apex 
produced. 

a?. Fore wing with veins 8, 9, 10 

stalked .• 1. Bhima, p. 404. 

b^. Fore wing with vein 8 not stalked 
with 9 and 10. 
a^. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 

stalked 2, Taragama, p. 404. 

¥. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 

from angle of cell 3, Sctana, p. 406. 

6*. Fore wing broader. 

a^. Hind wing with the costa excised . . 4. Lebeda, p. 407. 
¥, Hind wing with the costa highly 

arched near the base 10. Clisiocampa, p. 417. 

c^. Hind wing with the costa not excised 
and evenly rounded. 
a*. Fore wing with veins 6 and 7 
from the cell. Hind wing with 
veins 4 and 5 from the cell. 

a^ Palpi long 6. Arguda, p. 412, 

b^. Palpi short 13. Trichiuba, p. 420. 

6*. Fore wing with veins 6 and 7 
stalked. Hind wing with veins 
4 and 5 stalked or from the cell, 
a". Fore wing with the outer 

margin evenly rounded. [p. 408. 

a^. Palpi long 6. Metanastria, 

b^. Palpi short 9. Chilena, p. 416. 

b". Fore wing with the outer mar- 
gin angulate and excised 8. Bharetta, p. 415. 

c"*. Fore wing with veins 6, 7, 8 
stalked. Hind wing with veins 

3, 4, 6 stalked 7. Syrastrena, p. 414, 

rZ*. Fore wing with veins 7 and 8 
stalked. 

a^. Fore wing with vein 6 from 

the cell 12. Kosala, p, 418. 

h\ Fore wing with vein 6 stalked 

_ with 7 and 8 11. Alompra, p. 417. 

6', Hind wmg with the cell open 14. Crinocraspeda, 

C Both wings with the cell open 15. Trabala, p. 421^^^* 

. Hind wmg with vein 8 remote from 7 ; a 

bar connecting them and forming a large 

precostal cell with numerous accessory 

costal veinlets, 
a'. Fore wing with the stalk of veins 9 and 
. 10 short. 

f' ^.'"^ ^^^^^ '^Pex rounded . . 16. Lenodora, p. 422 
b\ Fore wmg longer, the apex produced. 18. Odonestis, p. 425. 
b, lore wmg with the stalk of veins 9 and 
10 long. 

a". Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 from fp 428 

-il'^/^ll. Gastropacha;' 

b . Hind wmg with veins 4 and 5 499 

stalked 20. STEKOPHYLLiiDES, ' 

c . Hind wmg with veins 3, 4, 5 stalked. 17. Estigena, p. 424 

2d2 



404 



LASIOCAMPID^. 



Genus BHIMA. 
Bhima, Moore, P. Z. 8. 1888, p. 403. 
Type, B. undulosa, "Wlk. 
Eange. Himalayas ; Khasis ; Manipur. 

Palpi slight and porrect. Antennae with the branches becoming 
abruptly short at middle in male. Legs without spurs. Fore 
wing long and narrow ; veins 6 and 7 from angle of cell ; 8, 9, 10 
stalked. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked ; 8 almost touching 
7 ; slight accessory costal veinlets. 

900. Bhima undulosa, Wlk. Cat vi, p. 1477 ; C. ^ S. no. 1509. 

cf . Frons ochreous white ; antennae, head, thorax, and abdomen 
very dark red-brown. Both wings very dark red-brown, irrorated 
with ochreous scales ; fore wing with two pale waved indistinct 




Fig. 279. — Bhima imdulosa, S • r- 



antemedial lines ; a white spot at end of cell ; two oblique waved 
postmedial lines ; a highly-dentate submarginal Hne ; outer area 
pale ; hind wing with the submarginal dentate hne indistinct. 

2 with the frons red-brown ; the abdomen with a very large 
pale terminal tuft ; the wdngs more sufEused vdth ochreous. 

The Kangra female is much suffused with grey ; the abdominal 
tuft is white ; the markings of wings whitish ; the hind wing 
crossed by two waved lines just beyond the middle. 

Oocoon formed of brownish hairs. 

Hah. Kangra ; Nepal ; Khasis ; Manipur. Exp., S 52, $ 82- 
92 millim. 

Genus TARAGAMA. 
Taragama, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 427 (1859). 
Type, T. siva, Lef. 

Range. Spain ; Bagdad ; throughout India and Ceylon ; Philip- 
pines ; Borneo ; J ava. 

Palpi broad and obliquely porrect. Antennae with the branches 
becoming abruptly short at middle in male ; short throughout in 
female. Legs without spurs. Pore wing long and narrow; veins 
6, 7, 8 stalked ; the stalk of 9 and 10 long. Hind wing with 
veins 4 and 5 stalked ; 8 almost touching 7 ; slight accessory costal 
veinlets. 



TA.BAGAMA. 405 

901. Taragama dorsalis, WlJc. Cat. xxxv, p. 1947. 

Taragama castanoptera, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 404 ; C. 8r S. 
no. 1499 B. 

Taragama igniflua, Moore, Lep. Ceijl. ii, p. 147, pi. 142, figs. 2,2a; 
a (§• S. no. 1602. 

Taragama hyperantherse, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 18 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 1601. 

Taragama intensa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 18 ; C. ^ S. no. 1503. 

c? . Antennae fulvous ; head, collar, and thorax greyish white ; 
tegulse deep red-brown ; abdomen red-brown, each segment 
fringed with grey. Pore wing deep red-brown ; a white spot at 
base ; one on costa just beyond the middle forming part of an 
almost obsolete medial line ; a waved postmedial oblique white 




Fig. 280. — Taragama dorsalis, cT- !• 



line, obsolescent at middle ; margins narrowly white. Hind wing 
deep red-brown, with a large white patch at anal angle ; outer 
margin narrowly white. 

$ . The pale fringe to abdominal segments broader ; hind wing 
paler, with the pale patch produced across the wing as an indistinct 
band. 

The Javan race is very pale in both sexes. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas ; Calcutta ; throughout S. India and 
Ceylon ; Philippines ; Borneo ; Java. Bivja., cS 54, $ 80-102 
millim. 



902. Taragama siva, Lef. Zool Joum. iii, p. 210, 

Bombyx ganesa, Lef. Zool. Journ. iii, p. 211 ; C. 8f S. no. 1500 ; 

Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. ii, pi. 22, figs. 4, 4 « (larva). 
Megasoma pallidum, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1450 ; C. 8; S. no. 1504. 
Megasoma venustum, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1449. 
Megasoma albicans, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1450. 

(S . Differs from dorsalis in the tegulse being ochreous red-brown ; 
the abdomen white, sometimes slightly tinged with red-brown. 
Fore wing grey ; a red-brown spot ringed with white at base ; a 
yellow-brown subbasal patch ; the white medial line distinct and 
angled inwards below the cell ; a red-brown spot in the cell pro- 
duced beyond the lower angle as a streak ; a very irregular white 



406 



LASIOCAMPIDiE. 



postmedial line. Hind wing white; a slight fuscous suffusion on 
outer area ; a dark patch on outer margin near anal angle. 

$ . Differs from dorsalis in the abdomen being almost wholly 
white ; fore wing with a conspicuous white spot on the postmedial 
line (which is obsolescent except at costa) at veins 4 and 5 ; hind 
wing white, with a reddish tinge on outer area ; the cilia red-brown 
near anal angle. 

Larva pale ochreous brown ; large dark dorsal patches of hair 
on 2nd and 3rd somites ; small black spots on 4th to 9th ; long 
lateral tufts of ochreous hair ; subdorsal series of small hairy 
papillae ; paired larger dorsal papillae on 10th and 11th somites. 

Cocoon formed of pale hair. 

ffab. Throughout N.W. and S. India. Exy., ^ 48, $ 66-84 
millim. 

Genus SUANA. 
Suana, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1502 (1855). 
Type, S. concohr, "Wlk. 

Range. Throughout India and Ceylon ; Philippines ; Java. 

Palpi long and broad. Antennae with branches gradually 
shortening to apex in male, extremely short throughout in female. 
Legs without spurs. Pore wing long and narrow ; veins 6, 7, 8 
stalked ; the stalk of veins 9 and 10 long. Hind wing with the outer 
margin straight in the male ; veins 4 and 5 stalked or from angle 
of cell ; 8 almost touching 7 ; one slight accessory costal veinlet. 

903. Suana concolor, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1463; C. <§• S. no. 1508. 

Lebeda bimaculata, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1463; C. Sf S. no. 1506; 

Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 140, figs. \,la,b (larva). 
Suana ampla, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1502 ; C. 4'- 6'. no. 1505. 
Suana cervina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 410; C. ^ 8. no. 1507. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark red-brown. Pore wing 




I 

Fig. 281. — Suana concolor, . \. 
dark red-brown, the cosla greyish ; a more or less distinct yellowish 



SUAK^A. — LEBEDA. 



407 



subbasal spot ; a silvery-white spot at end o£ cell ; two antemedial, 
a medial, and two postmedial dark waved lines ; a submargmai 
lunulate line, with yellow marks more or less promuient m the 
undulations. Hind wing darker red-brown. 

8ome specimens lose the white spot and others are very dark. 

$ . Much paler ; the markings similar ; fore wing with a small 

grey patch at base. . . r n 

the form am^jZa = concolor has lost the white spot at end ot cell 
of fore wing which is present in himaculata ; all the intergrades are 

Larva pale brown covered with numerous black striae ; 2nd and 
3rd somites mth raised dorsal humps covered mth close black or 
dark brown hair ; some specimens (or a younger stage ?) have small 
white-haii-ed dorsal papillae on 4th to 10th somites, each with a 
pair of red-brown papillae in front and a pair of crimson papillae 
on each side ; 11th somite with a black dorsal tuft ; lateral brown 
tufts on each somite ; head longitudinally banded with black. 

ffab. Throughout India and Cej'lon ; Philippines ; Java. Exp., 
d 52-64, $ 106-146 millim. 



Genus LEBEDA. 
Lebeda, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1453 (1855). 
Type, L. nobilis, Wlk. 

Eange. The Himalayas ; Assam Hills ; Sylhet. 

Palpi long and broad. Antennae with the branches gradually 
decreasing to apex in male, short throughout in female ; mid and 
hind tibiae with a minute terminal pair of spurs. Fore wing broad, 
the apex rounded ; veins 6 and 7 stalked ; the stalk of veins 9 and 
10 short. Hind wing with the costa deeply excised ; veins 4 and 
5 from end of cell ; 8 nearly touching 7 ; slight accessory costal 
veinlets. 



904. Lebeda nobilis, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1456 ; C. ^ S. no. 1465 ; Butl. 
III. Het. V, pi. 100, figs. 5, 6. 

. Head and thorax pale red-brown ; palpi black at sides and 
below ; abdomen redder brown. Fore wing pale brown : two 
oblique antemedial pale lines, which nearly meet on the inner 
margin ; a white spot at end of cell ; two postmedial pale curved 
lines ; a dark streak from the middle of cell to outer area, where it 
expands into a large marginal patch ; a very indistinct lunulate 
submarginal line with two dark spots on it near the outer angle. 
Hind wing red-brown, with two pale curved postmedial lines. 
Underside : the basal area of both wings red-brown ; the outer 
area pale, with tw o postmedial lines. 

$ . More uniform red-brown varying to grey-brown ; fore wing 
with the postmedial lines straighter and without the dark streak. 



LASlOOAMPIDiE. 



The distance between the Unas on the inner margin of the fore 
wing varies much. 




Pig. 282. — Lebeda nobilis, ^ . \. 



Hah. N.W. and E. Himalayas ; Sylhet ; ISTagas. Exp., S 96- 
120, ? 138-148 miUim. 

Genus METANASTEIA. 

Metauastria, Hiibn. Verz. p. 186 (1818). 
Eutricha, Hubn. Verz. p. 188 (1818). 
(Eona, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1417 (1855). 
Cliatra, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 80 (1879). 

Type, M. hyrtaca, Cram. 

Bange. Europe ; Japan ; China ; S. Africa ; throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Java ; Borneo. 

Palpi long and broad. Antennae with tbe branches gradually 
decreasing to apex in male, short throughout in female. Mid and 
hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. Fore wing broad ; 
vein 1 c present ; 6 and 7, or 6, 7, 8, stalked ; the stalk of veins 9 
and 10 long. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked or from cell ; 
8 almost touching 7 ; slight accessory costal veinlets. 

Sect. I. Eore wing with vein 8 from the angle of cell in 

both sexes. 

A. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked. 

905. Metanastria aconyta, Crmn. Pap. Exot. n, pi. 131 a ; C. 8,- S. 
no. 1457. 

Lebeda opponens, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1462 ; C. 8f S. no. 1466. 

Bombyx quadricincta, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, p. 111. 

Lasiocampa trifascia, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1439. 

Lasiocampa substrigosa, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1441. 

Lasiocampa subparallela, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 562 ; C. ^ S. no. 1490. 

c? . Pale reddish brown. Eore wing with two antemedial lines 



MBTANASTEIA. 



409 



approaching each other at inner margin ; two postmedial nearly 
parallel lines ; an indistinct lunulate submarginal line with two 
small dark spots on it near outer angle, either or both of which 
may be absent ; the nervules pale ; the outer margin of both wings 
fuscous. Underside of fore and hind wings crossed by two indis- 
tinct lines. 

2 • I'ore wins with the lines not so parallel and more curved. 
Rab. Sikhim ; Canara. £!a;j>., d 48-60, $ 92 millim. 

906. Metanastria nanda, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 423, pi. xii a, fig. 3 ; 

C. Sf 8. no. 1464. 

d" . Differs from aconyta in the inner of the two postmedial 
lines of the fore wing being curved and approaching the ante- 
medial line at inner margin ; the dark spots near outer angle large ; 
the nervules not pale ; hind wing with the basal inner area 
clothed with red hair. 

This may be a variety of aconyta. 

Hah. Sikhim. E.vp. 64 millim. 

907. Metanastria latipennis, Wlh. Cat. vi, p. 1457 ; Butl. III. Set. 

V, pi. 99, figs. 1, 2. 
Lebeda variegata, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 347 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 1473. 

Lebeda vulpina, Moore, Lep. Afk. p. 81 ; C. ^ S. no. 1475. 
Lebeda placida, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 80 j C. 8f S. no. 1467. 
Lebeda fasciata, Mooi-e, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 375 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 1459. 

Ohatra grisea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 80 ; C. ^ S. p. 1479. 
Eutricha clieela, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 408 j C. ^ S. no. 1486. 

Dark brown, dark red-brown, or grey-brown. Fore wing some- 
times with a chestnut patch near the base ; a white speck at end 
of cell ; indistinct curved antemedial, medial, and two postmedial 
lines, the last waved; a series of grey and black submarginal 
lunules expanding into a large spot on inner margin, each lunule 
with a faint chestnut spot inside it, most prominent in the brown 
specimens. 

In the Ceylon form variegata the head and thorax are rather 
greyer ; the abdomen and hind wings browner. 

Bab. Sikhim ; Calcutta ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Borneo. Exp., S 78- 
88, $ 126 millim. 

908. Metanastria fulgens, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 81 ; C. ^ S. no. 1460. 

cJ. Diners horn latipennis in being much darker red-brown. 
Fore wing with a large yellowish patch at outer angle ; the lines 
black; three indistinct irregular antemedial lines and three highly- 
waved postmedial lines, the outer line coalescing at middle with 
the submarginal spots, which are dark. Hind wing with traces of 
three dark lines. 

?. Paler. 

Eab. Sikhim. Kvp., 78, $ 106 millim. 



410 



LASIOCAMPID^, 



909. Metanastria lidderdalii, Butl. III. Het. v, p. 73, pi 100 

ligs. C. ^- S. no. 1461. i ' i 

Lebeda stigmata, Butl. III. Het. v, p. 73 ; C. ^ 8. no. 1471. 

6 . "Uniform dark red-brown. Fore wing with a white spot at 
end of cell ; three dark postracdial curved lines ; a series of dark 
submarginal spots between the veins. 

2 . Without the M'hite spot at end of cell of fore wing. 

In the form stiymatci the first line of the fore wing is nearer 
the end of the cell, and in the female there is a white spot present 
at end of cell. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Bhutan. E.xp., S 98-108, $ 146 millim. 

910. Metanastria ampla, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1412 ; C. 8f S. no. 1491. 
Lebeda ferrugiuea, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1458. 

S ' Differs from lidderdalii in the white spot at end of cell of 
fore wing being usually reduced to a speck ; the three postmedial 
lines waved ; the submarginal spots nearer the margin. 

$ . Paler or more dusky ; fore wing with a dark antemedial 
line ; hind wing with traces of three dusky bands. 

Eah. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Burma ; Java ; Philippines. Exp., (S 98, 
2 140-150 millim. 

B. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 from angle of cell. 

911. Metanastria undans, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1468; C. f S. no. 1472. 
Odonestis excellens, Butl. III. Het. ii, p. 19, pi. xxvi, figs. 4, 5, 

d" . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous red-brown. Fore 
wing ochreous red-brown, darkest at base and outer area ; two 
antemedial waved lines ; three waved postmedial lines, the two 
outer ones approaching each other at inner margin. Hind wing 
uniform ochreous red-brown. 

JIab. Japan ; Sylhet. Exp. 85 millim. 

Sect. II. Fore wing with vein 8 stalked with 6 and 7 in the male. 
Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked. 

•12. Metanastria hyrtaca, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii, pi. 249 r. 
Lebeda lusca, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, p. 112 ; C. 4- S. no. 1463. 
Bombyx buddba, Lef. Zool. Journ. iii, p. 209 ; C. 8f S. no. 1458 ; 

Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. pi. 12 a, figs. 2, 2 a ; Forsarjeth, Trans. Ent. 

Soc. 1884, pi. XV, figs. 3, 3 «, i (larva). 
Bombvx brabma, Lef. Zool. Journ. iii, p. 208. 
Lebeda plagiata, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1464. 

Lasiocampa bhira, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 410, pi. 34, fig. 2; 
C. 8f S. no. 1488. 

S . Pale or dark red-brown ; palpi black below. Fore wing with 
two antemedial pale lines and two postmedial angulated lines, with 
an almost black patch between the upper part of the ante- and post- 



METANASTEIA. 



411 



medial lines crossed by the pale veins and with a white lunalo on 
it; a lanulate submarginal line. Underside of hind wing mth 
two pale lines. 

$ . Eore wing with the two antemedial and two postmedial 
lines much more distinct and without the dark patch and white 
lunule ; the submarginal lunulate line very indistinct. Hind wing 
with an indistinct pale line. 




Fig. 283. — Metanastria Jiyrfaca, S • \- 



Larva dark grey ; a narrow crimson dorsal line across second 
somite behind a tuft of short dense hair ; lateral tufts of whitish- 
brown hair ; 3rd to 10th somites with dorsal oyal brown velvety 
patches, each with four blue papillae armed with long hairs. 

Hah. E. Himalayas ; Assam ; Bombay ; Mhow ; Ganjam ; 
Madras ; Ceylon. Exp., S 48, $ 74 millim. 



913. Metanastria repanda, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1460 ; C.Sf S. no. 1470 ; 
Butl. III. Het. vi, pi. 101, figs. 1, 2. 

S • Differs from liyrtaca in being darker brown ; the black 
patch of fore wing narrower, with the white lunule on its inner 
edge ; the submarginal lunulate line more distinct. 

$ . Tore wing with the antemedial lines more erect ; the inner 
postmedial line more angled below the costa ; a series of dark spots 
on the lunulate line. 

This may be a variety of hyrtaca. 

Hah. Nepal ; Assam ; Bassein. Eccjp., S 50, $ 90 millim. 



Sect. III. Pore wing with vein 8 stalked with 6 and 7 in 

both sexes. 

914. Metanastria recta, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1461 ; C. Sf S. no. 1469. 

5 . G-rey-brown, without any red tinge ; fore wing with the t^vo 
antemedial and two postmedial lines almost straight and parallel, 
not curved or angled ; the submarginal line dark and distinct. 
Hind wing without trace of the pale line on upperside. 

This may be a variety of repanda. 

Hah. N. India. Exp. 70 millim. 



412 



LASIOOAMPIDiE. 



915. Metanastria obliquifascia, Sioinh. Cat. Set. Mus. Oxon. p. 263. 

c?. Very ^ dark red-brown; head and thorax suffused with 
purplish. Eore wing with an indistinct dark line from the base 
curving up to the costa beyond the middle ; an oblique line from 
near the apex to middle of inner margin, with an irregular series 
of pale spots beyond it ; the area between the line and spots 
purplish. Hind wing paler red-brown. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 50 millim. 

Genus ARGUDA. 

Arguda, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 79 (1879). 
Radhica, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 79 (1879). 

Type, A. decurtata, Moore. 

Mange. Himalayas ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Philippines ; 
Amoy ; Singapore ; Australia ; Tasmania. 

Palpi very long ; antennsB with branches gradually decreasing 
to apex. Mid and hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. 
Pore wing broad, the outer margin rather erect ; veins 6 and 7 
from angle of cell ; the stalk of veins 9 and 10 short. Hind wing 
with veins 4 and 5 from cell ; 8 almost touching 7 ; slight accessory 
costal veinlets. 

Sect. I. {Badhica). Palpi with 3rd joint heavily fringed with hair. 
Pore wing with outer margin irregularly waved. 

916. Arguda flavovittata, Moore, Lep. Ath. ; C.SfS.no.l^n. 




Fig. 284. — Arguda flavovittata, 5 . \. 



$. Palpi blackish; head, thorax, and abdomen brownish ocbreous ; 
a dark stripe on head and thorax, ending in a grey spot. Wings 
brownish ochreous ; a slightly irregular antemedial dark line ; a 
black speck at end of cell; a nearly straight postmedial hne, 



AEGUDA. 



413 



inwardly dark, outwardly ochreous ; a subraarginal series of ochreous 
lunules inwardly defined with fuscous, the one between, veins 3 
and 4 displaced towards the margin. Hind wing with straight 
dark antemedial and irregular lunulate submarginal lines. Cilia 
of both wings dark. Underside of bind wing with a prominent 
waved antemedial line. 

Hah. Dharmsala ; Naini Tal ; Bhutan. Exp. 80 millim. 

Sect. II. Palpi with the 3rd joint not thickly fringed with hair. 
Pore wing with outer margin nearly straight. 

917. Arguda bheroba, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 424, pi. xiia, fig. 5; 
C. 8f 8. no. 1492. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale red-brown ; wings rather 
darker red-brown ; fore wing with a curved' antemedial dark line ; 
a very prominent white spot at end of cell ; a nearly straight and 
slightly oblique dark postmedial line ; outer margin suffused with 
grey. Underside : fore wing with a dark postmedial line ; hind 
wing with a large dark patch extending from the middle of costa 
to lower angle of cell, with an indistinct line from it to inner 
margin ; traces of a dark postmedial line. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Ceylon ; Singapore ; Amoy ; Philippines. Exp. 
68 millim. 



918. Arguda rosea, Hmpsn. III. Set. viii, p. 65, pi. 144, fig. 18. 

c? . Palpi black ; head and thorax pale reddish bro^vn, with a 
dark stripe on vertex ; abdomen black, the terminal segment clothed 
with red hair. "Wings pale red-brown ; fore wing with the basal 
and outer areas tinged with pink ; nearly straight oblique ante- 
medial and medial lines ; a waved postmedial line, curved at veins 
3 and 4; a dark speck at end of cell. Hind wing suffused with 
pink, except on costa. Underside: fore wing suffused with fuscous 
below the apex, hind wing on base and outer areas, with grey on 
medial area; waved indistinct dark antemedial and medial lines. 

Hab. Nilgiris, 6000 feet. Exp. 100 millim. 

Sect. III. (Arguda). Male with the branches of antenna 

much longer. 

919. Argnda vinata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 820; C. ^ S. no. 1474. 

Differs from rosea in the colour being much paler grey-brown ; 
the abdomen grey-brown, red-brown above. Pore wing with 
the antemedial and medial lines more distinct, oblique, and in- 
wardly edged with grey ; the postmedial waved line straighter 
Hmd wmg pale grey-brown, the base and inner margin suffused 
with red-brown ; an indistinct curved postmedial line. Under- 



414 



LASIOCAMPII)^, 



side : fore wing red-brown, with a pale suffusion beyond the medial 
and postmedial lines. Hind wing suffused with brown; three 
indistinct waved pale bands. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp., S 70, $ 86 millim. 

920. Arguda rectilinea, n. sp, 

(S . Differs from vinata in the palpi being pale ; thorax with a 
narrow dark streak on vertex ; abdomen not suffused with ferru- 
ginous. Fore wing with the ante- and postmedial lines dark, in- 
distinct, and less oblique ; the black speck at end of cell more 
prominent; the waved submarginal line very indistinct. Hind 
wing vinous red-brown, with an indistinct dark medial line which 
is waved on the underside ; no pale bands below. 

Hab. Bassein, Burma. Exp. 43 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

921. Arguda decurtata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 79; C. Sf S. no. 1476. 

S . Differs from rosea in the colour being browner ; the abdomen 
pale red-brown ; the antemedial line more oblique ; the medial 
line double, the space between it and the postmedial line usually 
darker than the ground-colour ; the postmedial line outwardly 
edged with grey. Underside : fore wing with two indistinct post- 
medial lines, the outer margin suffused with grey ; hind wing with 
a dark waved antemedial line; a curved grey medial band ; a 
lunulate grey postmedial line ; outer margin suffused with grey ; 
dark lunules on the margin. 

2 Baler. 

Bab. Sikhim. Exp., c? 52, $ 68 millim. 

922. Arguda albigutta, Wlk Cat. vi, p. 1419. 

d . Balpi red-brown at sides, white above; head ochreous ; 
branches of antennse black; thorax and abdomen bright red- 
brown; abdominal tuft grizzled. Bore wing bright red-brown, 
the outer area suffused with grey ; a large white spot at end of 
cell- curved antemedial and postmedial fine pale lmes;_an irre- 
gular submarginal series of indistinct black spots. Hmd wmg 
red-brown, with a yellow tinge. j. • vi. 

$ . Baler ; the palpi white or dark grey above ; tore wmg with 
the white spot absent. . , m • 

Hab. Subathu, N.W. Himalayas ; Austraha ; Tasmania. Exp. 

51 millim. 

Genus SYRASTEENA. 

Syrastrena, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 3884, p. 373. 
Type, S. minor, Moore. 

Sfv^i^*" tong and broad. Antenna with the bmnehe, 
decrSng to apex^ Mid and hind tibiae with mmute tennmal 



SYEASXREN'A. — BITIEETTA. 



415 



pairs o£ spurs. Fore wing with veins 6, 7, 8 stalked ; the stalk o£ 
veins 9 and 10 long. Hind wing with veins 3, 4, 5 stalked ; 8 
nearly touching 7 ; one accessory costal veinlet. 

923. Syrastrena minor, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 78 ; C. <§• S. no. 1439. 

S . Pale reddish brown ; fore wing slightly irrorated with grey 
scales ; medial and postmedial nearly straight oblique pale lines. 
Hah. Sikhira. Exp. 40-46 millim. 




Fig. 285. — 8i/rastrena minor, ^. \. 



Genus BHARETTA. 

Bharetta, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 820. 

Type, B. cinncmiomea, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim; Manipur. 

Palpi long. Antennse with the branches rather short. Mid 
and hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. Fore wing 
with the apex acute ; the outer margin angled at vein 6 ; veins 6 
and 7 stalked; the stalk of veins 9 and 10 long. Hind wing with 
veins 4 and 5 stalked ; 8 nearly touching 7 ; one prominent 
accessory costal veinlet. 

Sect. I. Hind wing with the apex and outer margin 
evenly rounded. 

924. Bharetta cinnamomea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 820, pi. 43, 
fig. 6 ; a 4- S. no. 1327. 




Fig. 286. — Bharetta cinnamomea, . x 



S. Palpi and antennae dark red-brown; head, thorax, and 
abdomen pale ochreous brown ; thorax Avith a dark stripe on the 



416 



LASIOOAMPID^. 



vertex, continued in a less defined way on the proximal segments 
of abdomen. Pore wing pale ochreous brown, irrorated with 
fuscous scales ; a dark speck at end of cell ; an oblique line from 
apex to near base of inner margin, which is ochreous inwardly, 
red-brown outwardly ; the margins narrowly red-brown. Hind 
wing pale ochreous brown ; an indistinct line from apex to near 
centre of inner margin. Underside of hind wing with an oblique 
ochreous line from apex. 

Hob. Sikhim. Exj). 54 millim. 



Sect, II, Hind wing with the apex and outer margin excised. 

925. Bharetta flammans, n. sp, 

S . Bright brick-red, Fore wing with the margins dark ; 
straight oblique ante- and postmedial dark lines, which approach 
each other towards inner margin ; traces of a submarginal lunulate 
line ; cilia tipped with white on each side of the angle. Hind 
wing with the apical excised part of the outer margin crenulate 
and the cilia white-tipped ; the apex purplish grey ; traces of a 
medial line. 

Hob. Manipur, 6000 feet (Doherty). Exp. 40 millim. Type 
in coll. Elwes. 



Genus CHILENA. 
Chilena, JVlk. Cat. v, p. 1070 (1855). 
Type, C. similis, Wlk. 

Range. Nepal ; Punjab ; Central India ; Ceylon, 
Palpi short and slight. Antennae with the branches of nearly 
equal length in both sexes. Abdomen tufted at extremity in 
male. Mid and hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. 
Pore wing broad, the outer margin oblique ; veins 6 and 7 
stalked ; the stalk of veins 9 and 10 rather long. Hind wing with 
veins 4 and 5 stalked ; 8 almost touching 7 ; shght accessory 
costal veinlets. 



926. Chilena similis, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1071 ; C. 8f S. no, 1334, 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brownish white. Pore wing 

very pale brown, suffused with 
fuscous; an oblique white streak 
on the discocellulars with a faint 
fuscous line from it to base of 
inner margin ; two oblique fuscous 
postmedial lines from near apex to 
inner margin. Hind wing pale 
brownish white, 

Hab. Nepal; Punjab. E.vp., 6 
38, 2 38-40 millim. 




Fig. 287. 

Chilena similis, J 



CHILENA. ALOMPEA. 



417 



.927. Chilena strigula, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 563 ; C. (§• S. no. 1335 ; 
Forsayeih, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, pi. 14, figs. Q,Qa,b (larva). 

Differs from similis in having the abdomen and hind wings pure 
white. 

Larva black and yellow ; a lateral tuft of long black hair tippe 1 
with white on each segment ; short black and orange hair on the 
dorsum ; dorsal tufts of long hair on the 2nd and 3rd somites 
and one on terminal somite. 

Cocoon formed of strong silk attached by long threads at each 
end to a twig ; the lower end open. 

Hab. Mhow; Campbellpur; Ceylon. Ewp.,(S 34, $ SOmillim. 

Genus CLISIOCAMPA. 

Clisiocampa, Steph. III. Brit. Ent, Saust. \\, p. 48 (1829). 

Type, C. castrensis. Linn., from Europe. 

Range. N. America ; Europe ; Japan ; N.W. Himalayas. 

Palpi loDg and porrect. Antennae with the branches long. 
Mid and hind tibiae without spurs. Pore wing with veins 6 and 7 
stalked ; 8 from angle of cell. Hind wing with the costa highly 
arched near the base; veins 4 and 5 stalked, the discocellulars 
slender ; no accessory costal veinlets. 

928. Clisiocampa indica, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1489 ; C. 8f 8. no. 1333. 
c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale red-brown. Fore wing 




Fig. 288. — Clisiocampa indica, <S . \. 

greyish, with red-brown patches at base and centre of costal area- 
the outer area red-brown; ante- and postmedial obhque lines'. 
Hind wing uniform red-brown. 

Eah. Dehra Dun ; Simla. Exj). 34 milHm. 



Genus ALOMPEA. 
Alompra, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 579. 

Type, A. ferruginea, Moore, 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi slight and porrect. Antenna with the branches Ions 
Mid and hmd tibiae with the spurs very minute. Pore wing broad 
YOL. I. 2e 



418 



LASIOCAMPID^E. 



and elongate ; vein 6 stalked with 7 and 8 : the stalk of veins 9 
and ]0 long. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked; 8 nearly 
touching 7 ; two prominent accessory costal veiulets. 

929. Alompra ferruginea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 580, pi. 33, fie. 8 ; 
C. ^ no. 1337. 

Bright ferruginous red ; fore wing duller in colour except the 




Fig. 289. — Alompra ferruginea, . \. 



hasal area and an indistinct suhmargiual line ; a black speck at 
base and a curved subbasal maculate black line. 
Eah. Sikhim. Exp., 6 66, $ 90 mHlim. 



Genus KOSALA. 

Kosala, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 407. 

Type, K. scmguinea, Moore. 

Eange. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Nagas ; Burma. 

Palpi long and loroad ; antennae with the branches of moderate 
length ; mid and hind tibise with minute terminal pairs of spurs. 
Fore wing broad and rounded ; vein 6 not stalked with 7 and 8 ; 
the stalk of veins 9 and 10 short. Hind Aving with veins 4 and 5 
stalked ; 8 almost touching 7 ; slight accessory costal veinlets. 



Sect. I. Hind wing with the outer margin angulate at vein 7, 

the costa arched. 

930. Kosala sangninea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 408, pi. 33, fig. 8 ; 
C. ^- S. no. 1485. 

2 . Head and thorax fiery red ; abdomen brown. Fore wing 
fiery "red, with antemedial and medial dark slightly curved lines ; 
a submarginal series of indistinct lunulate marks ; apex speckled 
with grey ; a pale spot on the discocellulars. Hind wing brown ; 
the costal area red with traces of a medial line. Underside 
brown ; both wings with a curved postmedial dark line. 

Eab. Sikhim ; Khasis. E.vp. 60 miUim. 



KOSALA. 419 
931. Kosala modulata, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1890, p. 197, pi. vi, 




Fig. 290. — Kosala modulata, (j" . ^. 



darker. Pore wing with a dark spot at end of cell ; a curved dark 
line just beyond the middle ; the outer area rather dai'ker. Hind 
wing with traces of a medial dark line. 
Hah. Bhamo, Burma. Exp. 50 millim. 



Sect. II. Hind wing with the outer margin evenly rounded ; 

the costa arched. 

932. Kosala rufa, n. sp. 

S . Antennae with the shaft ochreous, the branches brown ; 
head and thorax rufous. Fore wing rufous, suffused with ferru- 
ginous red near the base ; two white spots at end of cell ; a nearly 
straight dark medial line; an indistinct series of submargiual 
ferruginous spots. Abdomen and hind wing vinous brown. 
Underside paler and duller; both wings with a dark line just 
beyond the middle. 

'Hah. Naga Hills {Dohertxj). Exp. 62 millim. Type in coll 
Elwes. 



Sect. III. Hind wing with the costa straight. 

933. Kosala flavosignata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p, 77. pi. iii, fio- 17 • 
C. -S. no. 1487. y. ' ' , m, n.. u , 

(S . AntennjB brown ; head and thorax bright dark brick-red 
Fore wing bright red-brown ; a waved antemedial dark line, M'ith 
yellow on each side of it towards inner margin ; a small whitish- 
yellow spot at end of cell ; a waved postmedial line ; an irregular 
lunulate dark submarginal band outwardly edged with oranc^e-red 
Abdomen aud hind wing vinous brown. " ^ ■ 

Hah. Sikhim. Eap. 44 millim. 



2e2 



420 



LASIOOAMPIDJE. 



Genus TRICHIURA. 

Trichiiira, Steph. Ill Brit. Ent, Haunt, ii. p. 42 (1828). 

Type, T. cratcegi, Linn., from Europe. 
Range. Europe ; Sikhim ; Khasis. 

Palpi long and thickly clothed with hair. Antennae with the 
branches long in male. Legs thickly clothed with hair ; mid and 
hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs of spurs. Eore wing broad 
and rounded ; veins 6 and 7 from angle of cell ; the stalk of veins 
9 and 10 short. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 from angle of 
cell ; 8 almost touching 7 ; one accessory costal veinlet. 

934, Trichinra khasiana, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 82, pi. 3, fig. 21 ; 
C. ^ S. no. 1480. 

d" . Head and thorax very dark red-brown ; tips of antennal 
branches and the vertex of thorax reddish; abdomen duller 
brown. Pore wing black-brown, irrorated with grey scales ; the 




Fig. 291. — Trichiura khasiana, . t- 



veins bright red-brown ; a straight grey antemedial line ; a curved 
postmedial line ; a waved submarginal red-brown line. Hind 
M'ing umber-brown. 

Mab. Sikhim; Khasis. Ex^. 38-48 millim. 



Genus CRINOCRASPEDA, nov. 

Type, C. torrida, Moore. 

Bange. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Manipur. 

Palpi slight and porrect. Antennas with the branches of 
moderate length. Mid and hind tibiae with minute terminal pairs 
of spurs. Pore wing short and broad ; the outer margin crenulate ; 
veins 6 and 7 stalked, 9 and 10 on a long stalk. Hind wing 
rounded, the outer margin crenulate ; the cell open ; no accessory 
costal veinlets. 

935. Crinocraspeda torrida, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 76 ; C. ^- S. no. 1450. 

(S Olive-brown with an ochreous tinge. Antennae with the 
shaft ochreous, the branches black. Pore wing with an ante- 



CEINOCEASPEDA. — TEABALA. ^■^J- 

medial slightly curved dark line ; at centre of cell a triangular 
apple-green spot, which may be reduced to a speck or altogether 
absent; a large quadrangular apple-green spot at end of cell; a 
curved dark postmedial line. Hind wing with an indistinct medial 




Fig. 292. — Criiiocraspeda torrida, cf. t- 

line. Both wings with an indistinct purplish -grey submargiaal 
lunulate line, more distinct on the underside. Both wings may be 
largely suffused with ochreous, especially the inner margin of fore 
wing and costa of hind wing. 

Nab. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Manipur. Exp. 48-52 millim. 



Genus TEABALA. 

Trabala, Wlk. Cat vii, p. 1785 (1856). 
Amydona, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1413 (1855, prasccc). 

Type, T. vislmu, Lef. 
[ Mange. China ; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java. 

Palpi somewhat short and slight. Antennae with branches shorter 
in female than in male ; mid and hind tibiae with a minute terminal 
pair of spurs. Fore wing broad, the outer margin rounded, the 
cell open ; the stalk of veins 9 and 10 very long. Hind wing w ith 
the cell open ; veins 6 and 7 arising very near the base ; no acces- 
sory costal veinlets. 

936. Trahala vishnu, Zef. Zool. Journ. ill, p. 207 ; C. 8f S. no. 1456 ; 
Moore, Lep. JE. I. Co. pi. xxii, figs. 3, Sb (larva). 
Gastropacha sulphurea, Eoll. HiigeVs Kaschmir, iv, p. 471 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 1449. 

Trabala mahananda, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 821 ; C.SfS. no. 1454. 
Amjdona basalis, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1415. 
Amydona prasiua, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1417. 
Amydona pallida, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1417. 

J . Pale apple-green ; antennae ochreous brown, the disk of 
fore wing and inner margin of hind wing whitish ; fore wing 
with a faint pale antemedial line curved below the costa ; a dark 
speck at end of cell ; a pale straight oblique postmedial line, 



422 



LASIOCAMPIDvE. 



which becomes medial on the hind wing ; both wings with a series 
ot small submargmal dark spots. 

? ' y^llo;^i«l/-green, which fades to ochreous ; the lines and 
spots ot both wings enlarged and blackish ; the spot at end of cell 
ot tore wmg large, conspicnous, and irrorated with black scales, 
and sometimes centred with grey; a red-brown patch thickly 
irrorated with black occupying the whole medial inner area from 
tJie median nervure to inner margin ; cilia of both wings blackish. 




Fig. 293.— Trabala vishnu, ^. {. 

Larva. Head yellow, spotted with red; the colour brownish 
grey, with long lateral tufts on each somite ; that on the first black 
and grey, the others grey ; paired dorsal and lateral black spots on 
each somite, from which spring long black hairs, the spots on the 
thoracic somites coalescing. Another form of the larva is blackish 
with a broad white dorsal stripe, the anterior tufts red-brown ; a 
third form is reddish with the lateral spots blue. 

Cocoon ochreous, with short black hairs projecting from it, which 
are intensely irritating. 

Hah. China ; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java. 
Exp., 6 50-60, $ 80-90 millim. 

937. Trabala irrorata, Moore, Tram. JSnt. Soc. 1884, p. 375 ; C. 8r S. 
no. 1452. 

$ . Bright yellow. Fore wing irrorated with black scales on 
inner and outer areas ; an indistinct dark antemedial dentate line. 
Hind wing with the inner part of the disk thickly suffused with 
fuscous scales ; the outer area with blackish. Both wings with 
an irregular submarginal series of grey spots irrorated with black 
scales ; the cilia yellow. Underside of hind wing \vith a waved 
medial line. 

Hah. Tavoy ; Mergui ; Borneo ; Java. Exp. 76 millim. 

Genus LENODORA. 
Lenodora, Moore, Lep. Ceijl. ii, p. 144 (1883). 
Type, L. vittata, Wlk. 

Range. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. 



LENODOEA. 



423 



Palpi rather short and thickly clothed with hair. Autennee 
with the branches long in male, short in female. Legs thickly 
clothed with hair ; minute terminal pairs of spurs to mid and hmd 
tibiffi Fore wing broad and rounded; veins 6 and 7 stalked; 
the stalk of veins 8 and 9 rather short. Hind wing with veins 4 
and 5 from angle of cell ; 8 curved and met by a bar from 7 ; the 
accessory costal veinlets numerous and prominent. 



938. Lenodora vittata, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1440 ; C. 8f S. no. 1444. 

Mii-esa subcostalis, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 476; C. 8f S. no. 1443; 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl, ii, pi. 187, figs. 3, 3 a, & (larva). 

(S . Bright red-brown; fore wing with a white streak below 
the costa from the base to near outer margin below the apex. 

$ . Pale ochreous brown, with only a slight red tinge. 

Some Ceylon specimens are much duller in colour than typical 
males. 




Fig. 294. — Lenodora vittata, cS . \. 



Larva. Purplish black above, pale brown below ; a sublateral 
series of black streaks and dots ; anterior somites dorsally divided 
by pale bands ; subdorsal tufts of white hair on 5th to 11th 
somites. 

Hah. Almorah ; throughout S. India and Ceylon. Exp..^ S 43- 
48, $ 50-54 millim. 



939. Lenodora signata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 374 ; C. <§• S. 
no. 1442. 

Lenodora fasciata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 374 ; C. 8f S. 

no. 1440 ; Rmjjsn. Ill Set. viii, pi. 142, fig. 6. 
Lenodora fusca, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 374 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 1441. 

. Bright red-brown ; fore wing with an indistinct darker 
postmedial curved band. 

2 . Umber-brown ; fore wing with a pale indistinct postmedial 
band. 

The form signata has a pale spot at end of cell of fore wing ; 



^"^ LASIOCAMPID^. 

only the female is known, and it may be a distinct species from 

jusca = fasnata. ^ 

Dehra Dun; Bombay; Nilgiri Plateau. Exp., ^ 54, 



940. Lenodora semihyaUna, Stoinh. Tram. JEnt. Soc. 1890, p. 196 
pl. VI, tigs. 10, 16. > » 

d" . Eed dish brown with a yellow tinge; fore wing with an 
indistinct ochreous band from the outer margin below the apex to 
inner margin before middle ; hind wing with a large pale subapical 
patch. 

$ . Ochreous grey, with faint traces of the oblique band of the 
fore wing. 

flab. Nagas ; Eangoon ; E. Pegu ; Bassein. E.vj)., 40, $ 
48 millim. 



Genus ESTIGENA. 
Estigena, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 426 (1859). 
Type, E. pardalis, "Wlk. 

Range. Arabia ; throughout India and Ceylon ; Burma ; Java. 

Palpi very long and slender, varying somewhat in length. 
Ants nnae with the branches short. Legs with the spurs very 
niinute. Fore wing long and narrow, the outer margin very 
obliquely rounded ; veins 6, 7, 8 stalked ; the stalk of veins 9 and 
10 long. Hind wing produced and oval in shape ; veins 3, 4, 5 
stalked ; 8 curved and met by a bar from 7 ; the accessory costal 
veinlets numerous and prominent. 

941. Estigena pardalis, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1453 ; C. ^ S. no. 1499 a. 

Estigena nandina, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 427 ; id. Lep. Ceyl. ii, 
pl. 142, figs. 1, 1 a ; C. ^ 8. no. 1499. 

S . Palpi blackish ; head and thorax red-brown, w^th a dark 
stripe on the vertex ; abdomen paler. Pore wing red-brown, or 




pale ochreous-brown, suifused with fuscous and crossed by four 
indistinct waved dark, lines ; a black speck at end of cell. Hind 



ESTIGENA. — ODONESTIS. 



425 



wing ochreous or red-brown ; the inner area paler ; three indis- 
tinct waved lines, which are obsolete on inner half ; a large 
ochreous patch may be present below the costa. 

$ apparently never has the ochreous patch on the hind wing. 

Bah. Arabia ; throughout India and Ceylon ; Nagas ; Mergui ; 
Andamans; Java, Exj)., 6 38-48, $ 70-76 millim. 

Genus ODONESTIS. 
Odonestis, Germar, Prod. p. 49 (1811), 

Type, 0. Rotatoria, Eabr., from Europe. 

Mange. Palsearctic and Oriental regions ; Australia. 

Palpi very long and slender. Antennae with branches shorter 
in female than male. Legs with the spurs very minute. Pore 
wing long, the apex acute ; the outer margin obliquely rounded ; 
veins 6 and 7 stalked ; the stalk of veins 9 and 10 short. Hind 
wing with veins 4 and 5 from cell or stalked ; 8 curved, and met 
by a bar from 7 ; the accessory costal veinlets numerous and 
prominent. 

Sect. I. Fore wing with vein 8 from the angle of cell 

in both sexes. 

942. Odonestis laeta, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1416 ; C. S. no, 1453 ; Moore, 
Lep. E. I. Co. pi. xii a, figs. 7, 7 a. 
Lasiocampa decisa, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1441 ; C. 8f S. no. 1489. 
Lasiocampa inobtrusa, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) i, 1862, p. 85 ; 
e, ^^S. no. 1494. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen rather pale red-brown. Wings 
red-brown ; fore wing with an indistinct antemedial waved line ; a 
large whitish patch at lower end of cell suffused with reddish 




Fig. 29Q.~OdonesUs Icsta, ^ . i. 



brown and with a small spot above it ; a very oblique dark line 
from near the apex, curved downwards to centre of inner margin ; 
a waved submarginal line ; hind wing with the costal area darker. 

In the male the ground-colour of the whole insect may be dusky 
brown, with the head and collar darker. In the form of the male 



426 



LASIOCAMPID^. 



deeisa=inobirusa the colour is much duller with hardly any red 
tinge, the line less oblique, and the spots at end of cell of fore wing 
are reduced to fuscous marks. The female may have these same 
spots reduced to a single white speck ; the distance between the 
oblique line and the end of the cell varies much. 

Larva. Dark brown, with dusky strigJB ; lateral grey and black 
tufts of hair, the pair on 1st somite longest ; a long dorsal black tuft 
on 1st somite and a grey tuft on 2nd ; V-shaped short black tufts 
on 3rd-10th somites; along dorsal tuft on 11th somite; some 
reddish lateral spots. 

Cocoon whitish, closely woven and papery in substance. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Burma ; Sumatra ; 
Java. Exp., (S 44-54, $ 80 millim. 

943. Odonestis divisa, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 160, pi. 141, fig. 2 ; 

a 8f S. no. 1493. 
Estigena purpurascens, Hmpsn. III. Set. ix, ined., pi. 160, fig. 10. 

cJ . Head and thorax purplish red-brown. Fore wing purplish 
red-brown ; a large chestnut or whitish spot at end of cell of fore 
wing ; an indistinct dark oblique line from the apex to centre of 
inner margin. Hind wing with the costal area purplish red- 
brown, the remainder flesh-colour. Cilia of both wings chestnut. 

2 with the ground-colour of the thorax and fore wing red- 
brown. ^ 

The Sikhim specimen differs in having the inner area of fore 
wing suffused with yellow. 

Ilab. Sikhim; Kelani Valley, Ceylon. Ea^)., S 52, § 76 
millim. 

944. Odonestis castanea, n. ep. 

c? . Differs from Iceta in having the head, thorax, abdomen, 
and fore wing chestnut-yellow; tbe last with the discal spots 
reduced to two minute grey specks ; the oblique grey line straight, 
not curved near inner margin ; hind wing dull brown ; the cUia 
ochreous. 

2 . Redder chestnut ; the costa of hind wing reddish brown. 
Hab. Sikhim. Exp., cS 40, $ 60 millim. Type, 6 in coll. 
Druce, $ in B. M. 

945. Odonestis signata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 76 ; C. 4' 'S'- no. 1498. 

c5' . Differs from the decisa form of Iceta in the thorax and basal 
part of abdomen being dark red-brown. Pore wing with the tuft 
of hair on inner margin long ; the lower whitish spot narrow and 
elongate ; the postmedial line narrow and highly waved. Hind 
wing with an indistinct medial Hue. 

Bab. Sikhim, 4000 feet. Exjp. 51 millim. 



ODONESTIS. 



427 



946. Odonestis isocyma, n. sp. 

(S . Dull red-brown. Tore wing with an indistinct waved ante- 
medial line ; a dark speck at end of cell ; an evenly curved dark 
line from the apex to inner margin, this being the main distin- 
guishing point. Hind wing flesh- colour, with the costa darker. 

Bab. Naga HiUs, 6000 feet (Doherty). Exp. 41 millim. Type 
in coll. Elvves. 

947. Odonestis pyriformis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 408, pi. 34, fig. 7 ; 

a (§• S. no. 1496. 

(S . Differs from Iceta in being darker red- brown ; the lower 
whitish spot of the fore wing smaller and usually pyriform ; the 
oblique line greyer and far from the cell. Hind wing uniform red- 
brown, usually with an indistinct dark transverse line. 

Larva. Dorsum black ; lateral area brown ; a scarlet lateral 
line and strigse, grey and black subdorsal tufts on 2nd-llth 
somites ; dorsal red-brown tufts on 1st somite and lateral tufts 
on each somite. 

Bah. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim. Exp. 50 millim. 

Sect. II. Fore wing with vein 8 stalked with 
6 and 7 in the male. 

948. Odonestis plagifera, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1459 j C. 8f S. no. 1468 ; 

Biitl III. Het. V, pi. 99, fig. 5. 

^ . Dark red-brown. Fore wing with an indistinct antemedial 
line ; a pale line from the middle of inner margin curving up 
obliquely to near the costa, then bent down with a curve to near 
outer angle, and enclosing in its upper half a chocolate patch, 
which extends beyond it to the apex and outer margin; some 
purplish suffusion beyond it towards the apex. Hind wing paler 
red-brown, with traces of a medial line ; outer margin of both 
wings dark. 

$ . Paler red-brown ; fore wing with a dark spot at outer angle. 
Bah. Simla; Nepal; Sikhim; Java. Exp., cS 68-72, $ 100- 
116 millim. 

Sect. III. Pore wing with vein 8 stalked with 6 and 7 in the 
female ; veins 4 and 5 stalked. Hind wing with veins 4 and 
5 stalked. 

949. Odonestis lineata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 81 ; C. ^ S. no. 1462. 

6 . Ochreous chestnut-brown ; palpi and antennie blackish ; 
fore wing with the costal edge dark ; a longitudinal blackish line 
from base to outer margin below apex ; numerous basal and discal 
indistinct dark waved lines ; a submarginal series of black spots. 



428 



LASIOCAMPIDvE. 



Hind wing rather paler. Underside with two postmedial indis- 
tinct dark lines on both wings. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exy. 80 millim. 



Genus GASTROPACHA. 

Gastropacha, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. iii, p. 239 (1810). 

Type, G. quercifolia, Linn., from Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Japan ; China ; Himalayas. 

Palpi very long, the 3rd joint slender. Antennae with the 
branches short, especially in female ; mid and hind tibiae with 
minute terminal pairs of spurs. Eore wing long, the apex acute, 
outer margin crenulate ; veins 6 and 7 stalked ; the stalk of veins 
9 and 10 long. Hind wing with part of the costa and outer 
margin crenulate ; veins 4 and 5 from cell ; 8 curved and met by a 
bar from cell ; accessory costal veinlets numerous and prominent. 

950. Gastropacha undulifera, Wlk. Cat. vi, p. 1395 ; C.^ S. no. 1451. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen very pale brownish grey. 
Wings pale brownish grey, slightly irrorated with fuscous ; an 
indistinct dark antemedial waved line; a dark streak on disco- 




Fig. 297. — Gastropacha uvdulifera, \. 



cellulars ; two indistinct waved oblique postmedial lines close 
together; the crenulations of both wings dark at the projections, 
pale at excisions. 

Cocoon formed of pale silk loosely woven. 

Hah. Dharmsala. Exp. 70 milhm. 

951. Gastropacha sinuata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 76 ; C. 8,- S. no. 1448. 

S . Pale reddish ochreous ; antennae black. Eore wing with two 
indistinct antemedial waved lines ; a black spot at end of cell ; two 
postmedial and one submarginal indistinct waved lines ; a series of 



GASTROPAOHA. — STENOPHTLLOIDES. 



429 



marginal indistinct marks. Hind wing with three waved post- 
medial Hnes, not reaching the inner margin. 
Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 58 millim. 

952. Gastropacha divaricata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Sac. 1884, p. 374 ; 
a I S. no. 1446. 

$ . Dark red-brown. Tore wing with the outer margin more 
irregular than in the preceding species ; dark irregularly curved 
ante- and postraedial hnes which nearly meet on inner margin ; 
between these are two less prominent lines which meet and end 
at vein 2 ; an indistinct series of submarginal grey spots. 
Bab. Sikhim. Bxp. 88 millim. 



Genus STENOPHYLLOIDES, nov. 

Type, S. siJcJcima, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi very long and slender. Antennae with the branches rather 
short and decreasing rapidly to apex. Legs with the spurs very 
minute. Pore wing very long and narrow, the outer margin very 
oblique, angulated and crenulate ; veins 6, 7, 8 stalked ; the stalk 
of veins 9 and 10 long. Hind wing with veins 4 and 5 stalked ; 8 
curved and met by a bar from 7 ; the accessory costal veinlets 
very numerous and prominent, the outer margin crenulate. 

953. Stenophylloides sikkima, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 76 ; C. 8)- S. 
no. 1447. 

6 . Palpi blackish ; head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown ; a 




Fig. 298. — Stenophjlloides sikkima, . \. 



dark stripe on vertex of head and thorax; metathorax with a 
yellow tinge. Pore wing purpUsh red-brown ; the inner and apical 
areas with a yellow tinge ; about seven very indistinct waved lines. 



430 



rTBEOTHYSANIDJE. 



Hind wing dark red-brown, the costal area ochreous ; traces of 
three or four waved medial lines. 
$ paler and yellower in tone. 
Hah. Sikhim. Eayp., S 66, $ 96 millim. 



Species formerly recorded as Indian which are omitted. 

Trabala varia, "Wlk., C. & S. no. 1455, belongs to the genus 

Lechriolepis, ButL, and is from W. Africa. 
Trisula variegata, Moore, C. & S. no. 1331, is a Noctua. 



Family PTEROTHYSANID^. 

A family consisting of a single genus of day-flying moths. 

Palpi upturned, proboscis present. Antennae simple. Mid 
and hind tibiae with terminal pairs of spurs. Fore wing with 
veins 1 a and c absent ; 5 from the lower angle of cell. Hind 
wing with veins 1 a and c absent ; 5 from lower angle of cell, 8 
with a precostal spur, and bent down and touching 7 at middle of 
cell. Frenulum absent. 

Larva unknown. 



Genus PTEROTHYSANUS. 

Pterothysanus, Wlk. Cat. ii. p. 401 (1854). 

Type, P. laticilia, Wlk. 

Bange. ? China ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma. 

Palpi upturned, reaching above vertex of head. Antennae simple. 
Mid and hind tibiae with terminal pairs of spurs. Fore wing with 
vein 7 given off just before the end of cell ; 8 and 9 stalked, and- 
from far before the end. Hind wing with a double fringe of very 
long hair on inner margin, and scattered long hairs on inner area 
of both wings. 

954. Ptercthysaniis laticilia, Wlk. Cat. ii, p. 401 ; Butl. III. Het. i, 
pi. 14, tig. 2 ; 8. no. 475. 
Pterothysanus lanaris, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) xiv, p. 406. 

Head and collar fiery red ; thorax black ; abdomen orange, wath 
a series of black dorsal spots and paired lateral white spots ; all the 
segments with black bands below slightly spotted with white, the 
first two banded also above. Fore wing black ; a large white spot 
on inner margin before the middle ; one at end of cell ; medial, 
postmedial, and submarginal series of spots, those towards inner 
margin coalescing, the first two series irregular; some small 
marginal spots towards outer angle. Hind wing white, with a 



PTBUOTHTSANUS. 



431 



black medial band ; a postmedial lunulate band not reaching inner 
margin, sending spurs along the veins to the sabmarginal series o£ 
spots ; a marginal series of spots which more or less coalesce with 
the submarginal series. 




Fig. 299. — Pterothysanus laticilia, c? . \. 



The form Innaris from ? China has the postmedial band of the 
hind wing much reduced. 

Rah. ? China; Sikhim ; Bhutan; Assam. Exy., c? 64, $ 75 
milhm. 

955. Pterothysanus atratus, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) xvi, p. 346, 

pi. viii, fig. 3 ; C. ^ 8. no. 474. 

S . Differs from laticilia in having a series of marginal pink 
spots to both wings ; the white markings are considerably reduced, 
especially those towards outer margin. Abdomen with paired 
white spots on the ventral band. 

Hub. Assam. Exj). 75 millim. 

956. Pterothysanus noblei, Stvinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 401, pi. 44. fig. 3. 

Differs from atratus in the marginal pink spots of both wings 
being larger and brighter ; the wings otherwise marked as in lati- 
cilia. Abdomen with the white spots on ventral black bands 
elongate. 

Bab. Burma. Exjj., S 54, $ 58 millim. 

957. Pterothysanus pictus, Butl. A. M. N. H. (5) xiv, p. 407; 

C. 8,- S. no. 476. 

S . Differs from nohlei in the marginal pink spots of both wings 



432 



LYMANTEIIDJ;. 



being small and pale ; the white area much more extensive ; the 
black markings small and only conjoined along the costa of fore 
wing, towa-rds the margin of both wings being reduced to small 
round spots ; the postmedial series placed "further from the 
margin. 

Hah. Elephant Isl., Mergui. Exp. 60 millim. 

These last three forms are very possibly varieties of one species. 



Family LYMANTRIID^. 

A family of moths generally of nocturnal flight *, mostly clothed 
with hair-like scales and with very highly developed pectinations 
to the antennae in the male, the branches often having long terminal 
spines, and spines to retain them in position ; the females often 
have a largely developed anal tuft of hair for covering the eggs. 

Proboscis absent ; legs hairy ; frenulum present f. Fore wing 
with vein 1 a not anastomosing with 1 6 ; 1 c absent t ; 5 from 
close to lower angle of cell. Hind wing with two internal veins t ; 
5 from close to lower angle of cell % ) 8 nearly touching 7 at middle 
of cell and connected with it by a bar. 

Larva hairy ; generally clothed with very thick hair or with 
thick tufts of hair and forming a cocoon into which these hairs 
are woven, they being often of a very poisonous nature. 




Fig. 300. — Larya of Lasychira horsfieldi. |. 



Zey to the Genera. 

A. Frenulum present. 

a. Fore wing with vein 9 given oflF from 10 
and anastomosing with 8 to form an 
areole. 



* Except Orgyia and Aroa. 

t Except in the lowly genus Batarda. 

X Except in Gazalina and Forthesia. 



LYMANTEUD^. 



433 



a'. Palpi porrect. 

Palpi slight and not projecting 
beyond the frons ; head, thorax, 
and abdomen clothed with long 
hair. 

a"*. Mid and hind tibiae -without 

spurs 1. 

b^. Mid and hind tibiae with a ter- 
minal pair of spurs 2. 

6^. Palpi extending beyond the frons ; 
head, thorax, and abdomen 
smoothly scaled. 
fl\ Fore tarsi with lateral tufts of 
hair to the joints. 
a*. Hind tibiae with one pair of 

spurs 3. 

b^. Plind tibiae with two pairs of 
spurs. 

a\ Fore wing short and broad, 
the outer margin nearly 

erect 8. 

b\ Fore wing more produced, 
the outer margin obhque . 9. 
b^. Fore tarsi without lateral tufts 
of hair to the joints. 
a^. Fore wing short and broad. 
a\ Hind tibiae with two pairs ' 

of spurs 4. 

b\ Hind tibias with one pair 

of spurs , 6. 

bK Fore wing more produced, 
o'. Hind wing with veins 6 and 

7 stalked 5. 

b\ Hind wing with veins 6 and 

7 from cell 7, 

b'. Palpi uptui'ned. 

a-. Palpi slight, closely approximated 
to frons, and not reaching the 

vertex of head 13. 

b-^. Palpi reaching vertex of head 11. 

Palpi reaching above vertex of 
head 12. 

b. Fore wing with veins 9 and lo" anasto- 

mosing with 8 to form the areole 10. 

c. Fore wing with no areole, or rarely vein 

10 arising from 11 and anastomosino' 
with 8 and 9 or giving off 9 to anasto- 
^ mose with 8 and form an areole. 
a'. Fore wing with veins 7, 8, 9, 10 
stalked. 
d^. Palpi upturned. 

a\ Fore wing with the apex rounded, 
a'. Fore wing with vein 10 given 

off near apex 14_ 

b\ Fore wing with vein 10 given 
off nearer the cell than 7 ..15 
b . Fore wing with the apex acute . 19. 

YOL. I. 



Vaumina, p. 434. 
Lachana, p. 435. 



Obgyia p 436. 

ClFUNA, p. 446. 
Dasychiba, p. 447. 

Aboa, p. 437. 
Pantana, p. 443. 

LiELTA, p. 440. 
Thiacidas, p. 445. 

Daplasa, p. 458. 
NUMBNES, p. 455. 

PiDA, p. 457. 
MardarA; p. 454. 



Heracula, p. 458. 

LYMAr-7TRIA, p. 459. 
TopoMESA, p. 469. 
2f 



434 



LYMANTRIIDJE. 



V-. Palpi porrect. Hind wing with 
vein 6 from neai* lower angle of 
cell, or absent. 
a^. Hind tibiae with two pairs of 
spurs, 
a'. I'alpi short. 

a°. Hind wing with vein 5 

absent 22. Pouthesia, p. 484. 

¥. Hind wing with vein 6 
present. 
a^. Fore wing with vein 10 

given off near the apex. . 21. Eupeoctis, p. 470. 
b^. Fore wing with vein 10 
given oif nearer the 
cell than, or from the 

same point as, 7 27. Cispia, p. 492. 

¥. Palpi long 16. Imaus, p. 466. 

b^. Hind tibiae with one pair of 

spurs 23. Peeina, p. 486. 

6'. Fore wing with veins 8, 9, 10 stalked, 
7 from cell, 
a'-. Hind wing with vein 5 from near 
lower angle of cell ; palpi very 

long 20. Dactyloehyncha, 

b-. Hind wing with vein 5 from near [p. 470. 

upper angle of cell ; fore wing 
with veins 3 and 4 coincident; 

palpi minute 18. Gazalina, p. 468. 

c. Fore wing with vein 10 from the cell 
or rarely stalked with 11. 
a^. Palpi porrect. 

a^. Palpi long ; hind tibise with two 

pairs of spurs 17. Himala, p. 467. 

¥. Palpi short ; hind tibiae with one 
pair of spurs, 
a*. Hind wing with veinlets be- 
tween vein 1 a and inner 

margin 26. Dendeophleps, 

fe*. Hind wing with no veinlets [p. 491. 

between vein 1 a and inner 

margin 25. Cavieia, p. 489. 

Palpi upturned 24. Leucoma, p. 487. 

B. Frenulum absent 28. Rataeda, p. 493. 



Genus VARMINA. 
Varmina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 406. 

Type, V. inclica, Wlk. 
lianqe. N.W. Himalayas. 

Palpi short, slender, and porrect ; antennte of male \v\ih short 
branches, dilated distally; legs hairy and without spurs. Head 
small and hairy ; abdomen of female with a large anal tuft. Fore 
wing with vein 9 arising from 10 and anastomosing with 8 to form 
a long areole. Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 from angle of cell ; 
5 from above the angle ; 6 and 7 from upper angle. 



VARMINA. — LACIIANA. 



435 



958. Varmina indica, Wik. Cat. y, p. 1039 ; C. ^ S. no. 1177 

(S . Head and thorax black, clothed with grey and brown hair ; 
abdomen black. Eore wing blackish, thickly sprinkled with orange 
spots ; black spots on a grey ground at middle and end of cell ; an 
irregular marginal grey area with a submarginal series of black 
spots. Hind wing black. 

$ . Head clothed with white hair ; collar and abdominal tuft 
ochreous white; the wings paler. 




Fig. 301. — Varmina mdica, (j" . i. 

Larva black, speckled with white and with dorsal and lateral 
tufts of hair arising from fulvous tubercles; the thoracic and anal 
somites with reddish tufts, the medial with grey ; 4th and 11th 
somites with long dorsal black tufts. 

Ilah. N.W. Himalayas. Kvj)., cS 32, $ 42 millim. 



Genus LACHANA. 

Lachana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 397. 

Type, L. ladacensis, Moore. 
Range. Kashmir ; Ladak. 

Palpi short, hairy, porrect and hidden by the long hair from the 
frons ; antennae with the branches short ; thorax and abdomen 
hairy; mid and hind tibise with minute terminal pairs of spurs. 
Fore ^'^dng with vein 9 arising from 10 and anastomosing with 8 
to form a short areole. Hind wing with veins 3 a,nd 4 stalked ; 5 
from above angle of cell ; 6 and 7 from upper angle. 

959. Lachana ladacensis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 398 ; Batl III 
Ilet. vii, p]. 121, fig. 6 ; C. ^ S. no. 1071 A. 




Fig. 'i^2.~Lachana, ladacensis, o . 1. 

cJ. Head clothed with grey hair; thorax and abdomen with 
brown and black ban-. Fore wing pale brown irrorated with dark 

2r 2 



43G 



LrMANTilllDJE. 




Hah, Kashmir ; Ladak. Exjy. 28 millim. 



Genus OEGYIA. 



Orgyia, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. m, p. 208 (1810). 
Notoloplius, Germar, Prod, ii, p. ,35 (1812). 
Gynaephora, Hiibn. Verz. p. 161 (1818). 

Type, 0. antiqua, Linn., from Europe. 

llange. Universally distributed, except the Neotropical region. 

_ 6 . Flight diurnal. Palpi short, porrect, and heavily fringed 
with hair ; antennae with the branches long and with long spines 
at extremities; legs heavily fringed Avith hair; abdomen with a 
dorsal tuft on 2nd segment. Fore wing with vein 9 arising from 
10 and anastomosing with 8 to form an areole. Hind wdng with 
veins 3 and 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from just above angle ; 6 and 
7 stalked. 

$ with the palpi and legs less hairy ; antennse serrate ; wings 
aborted, scale-like, and covered with hair ; abdomen covered with 
hair and immensely dilated when full of eggs. 

960. Orgyia postica, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 803 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 109, 
figs. \,la,b (larva) C. ^ 8 no. 876. 
Orgyia cevlanica, Nietn. Ed. Neiv Phil. Jour, xv, 1862, p. 34; C. 8f S. 
no. 874. 

Orgygia ocularis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 44 ; C. 8f S. no. 868. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown. Fore wing brown, with 
an indistinct oblique subbasal line ; waved antemedial and post- 
medial lines which approach each other at lower angle of cell, the 



Fig. 303.— Orff^i^ia postica, (S • \- Hind wing dark brown. 

2 with aborted wings. 

Larva. Yellowish, sparsely clothed with brown hair ; one dorsal 
and two lateral brown bands ; paired tufts of long brown hair on 
1st and 11th somites projecting forward and backw^ard; lateral 
tufts of grey hair from 4th and oth somites ; dorsal tufts of yellow 
hair on 4th-7th somites ; the head red. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Nagas ; Formosa ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Burma ; 
Borneo; Java; New Guinea. Erj;). 24-28 uiillim. 




area between them slightly tinged 
with bluish grey and with a waved 
dark line edged with white on each 
side of the discocellulars ; two in- 
distinct waved submarginal lines; 
the apex slightly tinged with grey 
and with some subapical dark streaks. 



ORGIIA. — AB.OA. 



437 



961. Orgyia viridescens, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 798; C. 4'- S. no. 878. 

d" . Differs from postica in the vertex of thorax and base of 
fore wing being pale-spotted ; the ante- and postmedial lines widely 
separated below the cell, and the space between them much more 
shot with bluish green and purple ; the submarginal line with a 
white lunule on it near outer angle. Hind wing paler, with 
traces of a postmedial curved line. 

Mab. Ceylon. Exp. 30 millim. 

S62. Orgyia turbata, Butl. Trans. Linn. Soc. (2) i, 1879, p. 560. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown and grey. Fore wing 
brown saffased with orange; indistinct dark waved subbasal, ante- 
medial, and postmedial lines, which approach each other towards 
inner margin ; an indistinct dark patch at end of cell ; orange 
patches at middle of cell, apex, and outer angle. Hind wing red- 
brown. 

Hab. Karen Hills ; Malacca. Exp. 24 millim. 

Genus AROA. 

Aroa, Wlk. Cat iv, p. 791 (1855). 
Baziza, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 398 (1866). 

Type, A. digcaUs, Wlk., from S. Africa. 

Range. S. Africa ; China; throughout India, C-eylon, and Burma; 
Java. 

Plight diurnal : differs from Orgyia in the palpi being much 
longer and not so heavily fringed with hair, the 3rd joint promi- 
nent ; legs not so hairy. Female with fully developed wmgs ; the 
branches of antennae shorter than in the male. 

963. Aroa maxima, mnpsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 159, fig. 9. 

S' Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown; antennse with 
the shaft pale at sides. Fore wing black-brown; the cell pale 
with a black speck on a pale patch at the end of it ; traces of a 
curved submarginal line ; cilia chequered dark and lighter brown. 
Hind wing smoky black, with a white fascia from the base to beyond 
end of cell ; the cilia pale. Underside of both wings with a 
prominent cell-spot and the discal area pale. 

Hab. Ceylon. Exp. 52 milhm. 

964. Aroa major, Hmiom. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 159, figs. 3, 5. 

6 . Differs from maxima in the head, thorax, and fore wing 
being ochreous brown. Fore wing with no pale fascia m the cell • 
the black speck on a white patch much more prominent, as also is 
the submarginal line which is incurved between veins 2 and 3 
Hind wing greyish fuscous, except the costal black area. Under- 
side whitish. 



438 



LTMANTRIID^, 



2 . OcLreous, tlie wings irrorated with dark scales. Fore wing 
Avith a dark speck al end of coll ; a submarginal series of indistinct 
dark specks. Hind wing paler, except the cilia. 

Bab. Ceylon. Eay., cJ 42, $ 50 millim. 

965. Area plana, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 786: 3Ioore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 110, 
figs. 1, 1 «; C.Sf S. no. 882. 
Cliarnidas juuetifera, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 334. 
Charnidas ochracea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 44 ; C. 8,- S. no. 881. 

cJ . Differs from major in its small size, usually bright ochreous 
ground-colour, and better marked postmedial band to fore w^ing. 

The colour may be either ochreous or reddish irrorated with dark 
scales or almost wholly fuscous. 




Fig. 304. — Aroa plana, • \- 



5 . As in major, but with a prominent or obsolescent postmedial 
band to fore wing ; the amount of fuscous irroration varies much 
and the cell-spot may be prominent or obsolescent on both wings. 

Bob. Kangra ; Calcutta ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exjo., (S 28-34, 
$ 36-42 millim. 

966. Aroa subnotata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 803 ; C. ^ S. no. 884. 

c? . Dark red-brown. Fore wing with the lines indistinct ; the 
cell-spot on a small orange patch. Hind wing darker, with an 
orange discal fascia from the origin of vein 2 widening towards 
outer margin. Underside with the basal and inner areas of both 
wings suffused with orange. 

Bab. Ceylon. Exp. 26 millim. 

967. Aroa sienna, Ilmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 55, pi. 140, figs. 2, 9. 

S. Differs from subnotata in having tlie hind wing uniform 
dark red-brown without any orange fascia. Underside without 
orange suffusion. 

5 . Differs from plana in having a reddish tinge. 

Bab. Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exy., 6 30, $ 36 millim. 

968. Aroa simplex, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 325 ; Hmijsn. III. Het. viii, 

pi. 143, fig. 17 ; e. ^ S. no. 876. 
cJ . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown. Fore wing yellowish 



AKOA. 



439 



brown, with a postmedial line exourved at middle and with its 
inner edge pale. Hind wing orange, with a more or less pro- 
nounced brown margin. 

Hah. Nilgiris. Exio. 30 millim. 

969. Area cinnamomea, Moore, Lep. Aik. p. 44; C. ^- 8. no. 879. 
Oharnidas aurantiaca, Warr. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 296 -,€.^8. no. 878 A. 

(S . Differs from siviplex in being rather paler. Fore wing with 
the discocellulars slightly darkened ; no postmedial line ; the ciHa 
ochreous. Hiud wing orange suffused with brown. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas ; Attock, Punjab. Exp. 34 millim. 

970. Area socrus, Geyer, Hiibn. Zutr. v, p. 12, figs. 837, 838; C. ^ 8. 

no. 869. 

Aroa substrigosa, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 794 ; Butl. III. Het. v, pi. 90, 
fig. 5. 

S , Head, thorax, and abdomen fulvous orange, the branches oP 
anteunse blackish. Fore wing fulvous orange ; the costal area 
and interspaces, especially towards outer margin, slightly streaked 
with fuscous. Hiud wing brighter orange ; ciha of both wings 
fuscous. 

Hah. China; Assam; Khasi, Naga, and Karen Hills; Java. 
Exj). 32-38 miUim. 

971. Aroa pyrrhochroma, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 329 ; C. Sf 8. no. 1033. 
Area Clara, Swinh. P. Z. 8. 1885, p. 299, pi. 20, figs. 9, 10; C. 4' 8. 

no. 1032. 

Baziza detecta, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 399 ; C. 8f 8. no. 1071. 

(5 . Differs from socrus in the fore wing being slightly suffused 
vdrh fuscous instead of streaked. Hind wing orange, with a broad 
marginal black border. 

§ . Uniform greyish pink with an ochreous tinge. 

The Bombay form clara is small, the feuiale uniform pale 
orange. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Khasis ; Nagas ; Bombay. 
Exjp., S 26-34, $ 34-44 millim. 



972. Aroa sagrara, 8winh. P. Z. 8. 1885, p. 299, pi. 20, fi-?. 13; 

C. (5- & no. 1034. 

c? . Uniform orange-brown ; the ciUa and underside brighter 
orange. 

Hah. Belgaum. Exp. 32 millim. 

973. Aroa atrella, n. sp. 

c? . Head and legs fulvous ; thorax, abdomen, and wings black- 
brown. Fore wing with a black spot at end of cell and very 



440 



LYMANTEIID^. 



indistinct ante- and postmedial curved pale lines, which somewhat 
approach each other below the median nervure. 

Bah. Sikhim {Moller) ; Margharita (Doherty). Exp. 20 millim. 
Type in coll. Elwes. 



974. Area aurantifascia, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen black-brown. Fore wing brown 
suffused with dark green ; traces of subbasal and autemedial lines ; 
an indistinct waved postmedial and two submarginal lines. Hind 
wing black ; a bright orange fascia from the base through the cell 
to near outer margin, interrupted by a broad black band on disco- 
cellulars ; two orange fasciae irrorated with black scales on inner 
area ; cilia orange. Underside orange, the margins broadly black ; 
a black band on discocellulars and fasciae on median nervure of 
both wings, in hind wing continued to the marginal band. 

Hah. Naga Hills, 6000 ft. (Doherty). Exp. 44 mHlim. Type 
in coll Elwes. 



975. Aroa xerampelina, Sivinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 299, pi. 21, figs. 8, 9; 
C. S. no. 870. 

c? . Yellowish or greyish brown ; fore wing with an indistinct 
dark spot at end of cell, and broad irregular marginal band ; hind 
wing slightly darker towards outer margin. 

5 with a greyer tone. 

Hah. Poona ; Nilgiris. Exp. 32 millim. 

Genus L.ffiLIA. 

LEelia, Steph. Si/st. Cat. Brit. Ins. ii, p. 52 (1829). 
Procodeca, WUi. Cat. iv, p. 812 (1856). 
Eicine, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 824 (1865). 
Charnidas, Wlh. Cat. iv, p. 797 (1855). 
Eepena, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 799 (1855). 
Lselioides, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 83 (1883). 
Hondella, Moorfi, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 144 (1883). 
Harapa, Moore, Lep. Aik. p. 47 (1879). 
Odagra, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 401 (18G5). 

Type, L. ecenosa, Hiibn., from Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Japan ; China ; throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma ; Java. ' 

Elight nocturnal. Palpi long and porrect, the 2nd joint heavily 
fringed with hair, the 3rd long; antennae with the branches long 
in male, short in female. Eore wing more produced than in Arm, 
the wing-membrane forming a slight concavity on underside 
beyond the upper angle of cell ; neuration similar. 



441 



Sect. I. Female with fully formed wings. 

976. LsBlia suffusa, Tm. Cai. iv, p. 824. , •• i nn 
Lfelia an}?ulifera, Wlk. Cat.iv, p. 919; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. u, pi. 110, 

figs. 5,5 a; C. S. nos. 889, 1068. 
Lgelia prolata, Swinh. Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon. p. 195. 

S . Palpi and legs ochreous ; head, thorax, abdomen, and fore 
wing white with a slight reddish tinge; the last with a sub- 
marginal series of seven black spots bent round to the middle of 
interno-median interspace. Hind wing pale, suffused with fuscous 
towards outer margin. 

$ . Head, thorax, and fore wing uniform pale ochreous ; abdo- 
men and hind wing white. 

ffab. Assam; Ceylon; Burma; Mergui ; Java. Exp., 6 34, 
$ 38 millim. 

977. Lselia devestita, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 402 ; C. ^ S. no. 1061. 

Lfelia pallida, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 358 ; C. 8r S. no. 891. 
Lffilioides lactea, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 358 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 887. 

S . Head, collar, and legs bright ochreous ; thorax, abdomen, 
and wings white with a very slight ochreous tinge ; some speci- 
mens with slight traces of a submarginal curved series of black 
specks to the fore wing. 

Hab. Punjab; Bombay; Burma. Exp., S 36, $ 42 millim. 

978. Lselia lilacina, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 357 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 890. 

c? . Head, thorax, and fore wing pale with a violet tinge ; the 
submarginal spots prominent. Hind wing suffused with dark 
fuscous. 

$ . Head, thorax, and fore wing pale ochreous ; abdomen and 
hind wing white. 

Hab. Nilgiris. Exp., ^ 34, $ 38 millim. 

970. Lselia rubripennis, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1881. p. 358 ; C.^S 
no. 888. 

Laelioides fasciata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 84, pi. 110, fig. 6 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 886. 

Procodeca testar.ea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 574 (nom. prseocc.) ; 
C. ^ S. no. 1069. 

(S . Head, thorax, and fore wing reddish chestnut, the last 
irrorated with grey scales ; the interno-median interspace and outer 
area suffused with grey ; the black spot between veins 3 and 4 
displaced towards outer margin. Abdomen and hind wing paler. 

$ with the fore wing less suffused with grey. 

In the form rubripennis, from Burma, the spots are indistinct 
and the hind wing nearly white ; in fasciata, from Ceylon, the spots 
are more prominent and the hind wing fuscous. 

JIab. Ganjam ; Burma ; Ceylon. Exp., c? 36, $ 40 millim. 



442 



LYMA.NTI1IID7E. 



980. Laelia umbrina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 398 ; Butl. lU. Hd. vii, 
pi. r26, tig, 8. ' 

6 . Differs from nihripennis in the bead, thorax, fore wing, and 
legs being dark reddish brown ; palpi ochreous ; abdomen and 
hind wmg darli fuscous brown. 

Hah. Kulu. Ea-p. 39 millim. 



981. Laelia cardinalis, Hnqisn. 111. Het. ix, ined., pi. 158, figs. 29, 30. 

6 . Differs from umbrina in the head, thorax, legs, and fore 
wnig being brilliant scarlet or bright red-brown ; hind wdug black ; 
abdomen black M'ith a reddish tinge. 
Ilab. Ceylon. Ewj>. 32-68 millim. 



982. Laelia exclamationis, KoU. Hiigers Kaschmir, iv, p. 4G9 : Butl. III. 

Het. vii, pi. 138, fig. 6 (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 782. 
Lacida rotundata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 802; Moore, Lep. Ceul. ii. 

pi. 110, figs. 4, 4a; C. ^- ^. no. 883. 
Cycnia rubida, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 297 ; C. ^ S. no. 851. 
liymantria disjuncta, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 366. 
Eepeua cervina, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 800 ; C. ^ S. nos. 871, 1075. 

c? . Eed-brown or pinkish brown ; fore wing irrorated with 
black scales ; a black line on discocellulars, often extending round 
the angle of cell to vein 2, the veins crossing it pale. 

$ rather paler and redder. 




Larva brown, with tufts of long grey and brown hair ; dorsal 
tuft of short brown hair on 3rd to 6th somites ; a subdorsal series 
of very short orange tufts, three to each somite ; a lateral pale line. 

Bab. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; throughout India and Ceylon. 
Exp., cS 36, $ 44 miilim. 



983. Laelia testacea, Wlk. Cat. iii, p. 683 ; C. <^ S. no. 885. 
Pulomacra juvenis, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1099 ; C. Sf S. no. 1336. 
Charnidas colon, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 56, pi. 140, figs. 3, 19. 
Laelia uniformis ( $ ), Hr)ipsn. 111. Het. viii, p. 56, pi. 140, fig. 2. 

(S . Differs from exclamationis in having a blackish subapical 
patch to fore wing. 

$ of an ochreous tinge instead of red. 



LyTlLIA.— PANTANA. 443 

The typical form testacea is very pale, the female with scarcely 
a trace of dark irroration ; the form juvenis has the tore wmgs 

longer iu the male. , ac\ a() 

Hah. SiBcl ; Bombay ; Mhow ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. Exp., 6 4l)-4Z, 

$ 40-48 millim. 

984. Lffilia litura, Wlh. Cat. iv, p. 797 ; C. <S' S. no. 880. 

^ . Differs from ex-damationis in being dark fuscous brown ; the 
head, collar, and legs ochreous. ^ o/. -n- 

Hab. Kulu; Nepal; 8ikhim ; Teuasserim. Uxp. 30-d6milhm. 

985. L£elia venosa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 601, pi. lix, fig. 1 ; C. ^ S. 

no. 892. 

S . Pale brown ; abdomen with an orange tinge ; fore wing 
with the veins paler. 
$ paler. 

Eab. Sikhim ; S. Andamans. Exp., S 40, $ 54 milhm. 

986. Laelia atestacea. 

Harapa testacea, 3foore, Zep. AtJc. p. 47, pi. 2, fig. 15 (nom. praeocc.) ; 
a ^ S. no. 1077. 

S . Fore wing rather more produced than in that sex of the 
preceding species. Head and thorax pale yellowish brown ; abdo- 
men brownish yellow. Fore wing uniform pale yellowish brown ; 
hind wing paler. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exjo. 56 millim. 

Sect. II. Female with aborted wings. 

987. Lselia heterogyna, n. sp. 

(S . Dull brown ; clothed with long hair-like scales ; fore wing 
with the discocellulars smoky black ; some smoky suffusion between 
the bases of veins 2 to 4, and an indistinct patch beyond upper 
angle of cell. 

$ . Ochreous, with aborted wings. 

A development of L. testacea. 

Hab. Dras, Kashmir {Leech). Exp. ^ 44 millim. Type in 
coll. Leech. 

Genus PANTANA. 

Pantana, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 819 (1855). 

Birnara, Jiutl. Tram. Linn. Sac. (2) i, 1879, p. 560. 

Type, P. visum, Hiibn. 

Range. China ; N.E. India ; Burma ; Malacca ; Java. 

Differs from Orgyia in the palpi being slender and naked ; the 
legs not so hairy ; the female with fully developed wings and 
bipectinated antennae with short branches. 



444 



lymanthiid^. 



988. Pantana bicolor, Wlk. Cat iv, p. 787; C. ^ S. no. m 

benusa dehueata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 818: JJutl. III. Jlet.y, r^ F9 
fig. 8 ; C. ^ S. no. 896. » i • - » 

Genusa circumdata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 819 ; C. ^ S. no. 894. 
Genusa comparata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 340. 
Stilpnotia soidida, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1732 ; C. ^ S. no. 1074. 

d" . Head, collar, and palpi orange ; thorax and basal segments 
of abdomen white, the terminal segments orange. Wings yellowish 
white ; fore wing with a slight fuscous suffusion in the interspaces ; 
hind wing with the outer area broadly and irregularly suffused 
Mdth fuscous, leaving the veins white. Underside with the greater 
part of fore wing and a patch on disk of hind wing suffused with 
fuscous. 

$ with hardly a trace of fuscous suffusion. 
The Burmese form of the male is pure white, with no black 
suffusion on hind wing ; the female pure white. 

Hab. Throughout JN^E. India ; Burma. Exp. 48 millim. 

989. Pantana visnm, HUln. Zutr. iii, p. 33. 

Pantana dispar, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 820 ; C. Sf S. no. 1076. 

(S . Head orange-yellow ; thorax pale brown ; abdomen whitish. 
Fore wing yellowish white ; the costal half of wing suffused with 
pale red and brown, leaving the centre of costa and discocellulars 




Fig. 306. — Fantana visum, . 



pale ; two dark patches below the angle of cell. Hind wing pure 
Avhite. Underside with the costal half of fore wing orange except 
the apical black area. 

Hab. Throughout Burma. JExp. 44 millim. 

990. Pantana terminata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 340 ; C. ^ S. no. 898. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale fuscous. Fore wing with 
the basal area white or suffused with fuscous ; the apical area 
smoky black; the oblique medial white band with three black 
spots below the median nervure. Hind wing pure white or 
whitish, with the apical area black; the inner area suffused with 
brow'n. 

Bab. Karen Hills ; Beeling ; E. Pegu. E.rp. 40 millim. 



PANTANA. — THIACIDAS. 



445 



991. Pantana interjecta, Sivinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 478, pi. xix, 

fig. 2. 

cJ . Differs from terminata in being darker, the head, palpi, and 
coxge of fore legs bright fulvous. Eore wing with the basal area 
much darker ; the apical area blacker ; no black spots below median 
nervure. Hind wing either wholly suffused with fuscous, except 
a white patch on the outer half of costa, the black patch being 
placed below the apex, or white with the apical area black. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Khasis. Exp. 46 millim. 

992. Pantana albifascia, Wlh. Cat. xxxii, p. 325 ; C. 8^ S. no. 872. 
Orgyia subfascia, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 803. 

1^ . Differs from interjecta in the whole hind wing being dark 
brown. In the form subfascia the baud of the fore wing is more 
or less suffused with fuscous. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 42 millim. 

Genus THIACIDAS. 

Thiacidas, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1027 (1855). 
Casama, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 611 (1865). 

Type, T. postica, Wlk. 

Range. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Palpi porrect and slender, the 2nd joint fringed with hair. 
Legs naked, the spurs rather short. Fore wiug longer and narroM-er 
than in the preceding genera ; the neuration similar. Hind -v^-ing 
with veins 3 and 4 usually stalked and 6 and 7 usually from cell. 

Shot. I. (Thiacidas). Male with the proximal two-thirds of antennas 
pectinated, the distal part serrate. 

993. Thiacidas postica, Wlk. Cat, v, p. 1028 ; S^oinh. F. Z. 8 1885 

pi. 21, figs. 1, 1 ff, 2 ; C.8(S. no. 1060. 
Drymonia denotata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 414; C. <§• S. no. 1165. 
Heterocampa nigroscripta, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 423. 
Cnethocampa curvata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 429 ; C. 8)- 8. uo. 1040. 
Cnethocampa basifurca, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 430 ; C. 8. no. 10i4. 




Fig. 307. — Thiacidas postica, ^ \. 



Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish brown. Fore wing grevish 
brown, with obliquely curved subbasal and antemedial black double 
lines angled below median nervure ; a double postmedial line 



44G 



LTMANTBIIDJ;. 



excurved round end of cell and bent- inwards below the cell with 
some streaks from it to outer margin. ^ Hind wing with an 
indistinct curved postmedial line ; a brown patch at anal angle 
with a dark streak on it ; some striga3 on margin. 

Hah. Throughout India and Burma. Ejcp., s 38, 2 44 millim. 

Sect. II. {Casama). Male with antennae bipectinated to tips, 

the branches long. 

994. Thiacidas vilis, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 348; Hmpsn. III. Het. viii. 

pi. 148, figs. 2, 9 ; C. (§• -S'. no. 956. 
Casama indeterminata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 611 ; C. 8f S. no. 1779. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore Mdng grey, irrorated with brown 
scales ; the last with an indistinct dark mark on the discocellulars 
and a series of marginal dark specks. Hind wing white. 

Hab. ISIilgiris; Ceylon. Ex^., c? 26, $ 32 millim. 

Genus CIFUNA. 

Cifima, Wlk. Cat. v. p. 1172 (1855). 
Baryaza, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 45 (1879). 

Type, G. locuples, Wlk. 

Range. Japan ; Sikhim ; Khasi and Naga Hills. 

Palpi long, stout, and obliquely porrect. Antennae bipectinated, 
the median branches long in male. Legs hairy. Fore wing 
rather short, the outer margin nearly straight ; neuration as in 
preceding genera. Hind wing with veins 3 and 4 from angle of 
cell or stalked ; 5 from above the angle ; 6 and 7 from upper angle. 

995. Cifuna locTiples, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1173; Butl. III. Het. ii, pi. 27, 

fig. 6 ; C. ^- S. no. 1330. 

(S . Head, thorax, and fore wing reddish chestnut, the last with 
an indistinct broad irregular antemedial band ; a waved line on 
each side of the discocellulars ; a broad irregular postmedial band ; 




Fig. 308. — Cifuna locuples, ^. f. 

a series of irregular marginal marks; all these markings with 
slight purplish edging. Abdomen and hind wing ochreous. 
2 uniformly much darker. 

Hab. Japan ; Khasis ; Nagas. E.iy., 6 40, $ 52 millim. 



CTFUXA. DASYOHIRA. 447 

99G. Cifima cervina, Moore, Lep. Ath. p. 45, pi. 3, fig. 1 j C. ^ 8. 
no. 1062. 

c? . Differs from locuples in being dull dark brown ; fore wing 
with a purplish tinge ; a black lunule at end of cell ; the line 
inwardly edging the postmedial band nearly straight ; no marginal 
marks or purplish edging to the markings. Palpi and legs blackish. 
Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 54 millim. 



Genus DASYCHIRA. 

Dasychira, StepJi. III. Brit. Ent., Haust. ii, p. 58 (1829). 

Olene, Hiibn. Zutr. 2, p. 19, non descr. (1823). 

Nioda, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1069 (1855). 

Rilia, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1075 (1855). 

Psalis, JTiibn. Zutr. 2, p. 19, non descr. (1827). 

Arestha, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 805 (1855). 

Anchyneura, Feld. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, xliii, p. 331 (1861). 
Cadrusia, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 54 (1879). 

Type, D. pudihunda, Linn., from Europe. 

Range. Europe ; Africa ; Madagascar ; Japan ; China ; through- 
out India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java ; Australia. 

Palpi porrect, the 2nd joint heavily fringed with hair ; antennse 
with the branches long in male, short in female ; legs hairy. Pore 
wing with the outer margin oblique ; neuration as in preceding 
genera. Hind wing with veins 8, 4, 5 from close to angle of cell ; 
6 and 7 stalked. ' 



Sect. I. (Dasychira). Pore wing of female not produced at apex, 
the outer margin evenly curved. 

A. Abdomen clothed tvith long hair and without dorsal crests. 

997. Dasychira complicata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 362 : Butl III mt 
v, pi. 91, fi-s. 4, 5 ; C.{^S. no. 998. ' ^ ' ■ • 

TrisiUa pustulifera, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 576. 

S . Head and collar whitish ; palpi black at sides ; the branches 
of antennae red-brown ; thorax brown, with black spots behind the 
collar ; abdomen orange, the vertex black, the anal tuft and lateral 
fringe white. Pore wing red-brown : a subbasal waved black line 
with a maculate band between it and the double antemedial lines • 
reniform spot edged v^ith black ; a waved and curved postmedial 
line with a maculate band beyond it ; a waved submarginal line • 
all these markmgs slightly outlined with white; cilia chequered 
pale and black. Hmd wing yellowish white ; the basal inner area 
tinged with orange ; a dark spot at end of cell and postmedial 
band ; cilia spotted with black. 

$ paler. 

Hal. Sikhim. Ex'p., ^ 58, $ 86 millim. 



448 



LYMANTEIIDjE. 



B. Abdomen smootlily scaled. 

a. Female with the hmnches ofantennce long ; abdomen without 

dorsal crests. 

998. DasycMra lineata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 876 ; Bull. III. Het. v, pi. 91, 
fig. 3 ; C. c5- aS. no. 1023. 

$ . White. Fore wing with a fine antemedial black line angled 
on median nervure ; indistinct dentate postmedial and submarginal 
lines, the postmedial line dividing and outlining the discocellulars ; 
a marginal series of specks to both wings, 

Eab. Sikhim ; Sylhet ; E. Pegu. Exp. 85 millim. 



b. Female with the branches of antennce short ; abdomen with dorsal 
crests on anterior segments. 

999. DasycMra horsfieldi, Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc n. s. i, 1851, p. 162 ; 
Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. pi. xiv, figs. 13, 13 a (larva). 
Dasychira grotei, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 338 ; C. 8f S. no. 982. 
Dasychira kausalia, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 401 ; C. ^ S. no. 983. 
Dasychira arga, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 339. 

Dasychira nilgirica, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 58, pi. 141, figs. 13, 14. 




Fig. 809. — DasycMra horsfieldi, ^ . \. 

S . Head and thorax whitish grey, the branches of antennae red- 
brown ; abdomen orange with the anal tuft grey ; legs spotted 
with black. Pore M'ing greyish white, irrorated with dark scales 
and slightly suffused with brown ; a dentate subbasal black line ; 
two medial lines, the inner nearly straight, the outer waved ; the 
reniform spot with dark outline ; a waved postmedial line, bent 
outwards near inner margin ; an irregularly dentate submarginal 
line. Hind wing pale ; the inner area orange ; a more or less 
prominent dark spot at end of cell; ihe outer area generally 
suffused with fuscous. Underside with prominent cell-spots to both 

wings. n. , 1 1 J -ii 

9 . Head, thorax, and fore wing white, slightly powdered with 
grey ; the last with indistinct diffused antemedial, postmedial, and 
submarginal lines. Abdomen and hind wing pure white. 

Larva yellow, with tufts of long yellow hairs ; 4th to / th and 11th 



DASTCHIRA. 



449 



somites with thick dorsal shorter tufts; a black dorsal patch 
between 4th and 5th somites. 

Hah. Throughout India, Ceylon and Burma; Java. Exp., 
S 46, $ 70-86 millim. 

1000. Dasychira thwaitesi, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 98, pi. 116, figs. 1, 

la,b (larva); C. ^ S. no. 991. 
Dasychira pudica, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 538. 

S . Differs from Tiorsfieldi in the head and thorax being whiter. 
Fore wing pure white ; the two postmedial lines nearer the margin ; 
the submarginal line absent ; abdomen and hind wing pale brown 
without any orange. 

$ . "White, very slightly irrorated with black ; medial and post- 
medial dark streaks from the costa of fore wing ; the lines very 
faint ; hind wing pvire white. 

Hab. Ceylon. Exp., S 40, $ 50 millim. 

1001. Dasychira albescens, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 69, pi. iii, fig. 2 ; 

C. 8f S. no. 975. 

S . Palpi black at sides ; branches of antennae red-brown ; head, 
thorax, and abdomen white, slightly irrorated with grey. Fore 
wing silky white, slightly irrorated with grey ; a tuft of raised scales 
at end of cell ; almost obsolete ante- and postmedial waved Hues. 
Hind wing white, with an almost obsolete dark spot at end of cell 
and curved submarginal band forming a patch near anal angle. 

$ with the palpi white ; the fore wing thickly irrorated with 
fuscous, and with better defined antemedial, postmedial, and sub- 
marginal lines. 

Bob. Sikhim. Exp., (S 58, $ 68 millim. 

1002. Dasychira cinctata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 59; C. ^ S. no. 978. 

c? . Differs from albescens in the thorax being tinged with brown, 
the abdomen ringed with black. Fore wing with antemedial and 
postmedial black patches on the costa ; the antemedial, postmedial, 
and submarginal waved lines more prominent. Hind wing with a 
dark mark at end of cell, a submarginal band, and marginal line. 

$ . The thorax not tinged with brown ; fore wing more irro- 
rated with fuscous. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp., S 62, $ 82 millim. 

1003. Dasychira strigata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 58 ; C. ^ S. no. 989. 
Dasychira niveosparsa, ButL Lll. Het. v, p. 59, pi. 91, fig. 7 ; C. S. 

Head and thorax iron-grey; abdomen slightly tinged with 
yellovv. Fore wing dark iron-grey, slightly tinged with brown ; an 
indistinct angulated subbasalline ; a double antemedial waved line ; 
the reniform with dark outline ; a double waved postmedial line 



450 



LYMANTllIIByE, 



and single submarginal line. Hind wing fuscous, the inner area 
tinged with orange ; an indistinct dark spot at end of cell ; a post- 
medial band and marginal line. 

Hub. Simla ; Sikhim. Exp., S 62, $ 73 milliin. 

1004. Dasychira varia, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 868; C. 8r S. no. 992. 

DasycluKi maruta, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 339 ; BuU. III. Ud v 
pi. 91, tig. G ; a ^ S. no. 984. 

$. Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish grey ; palpi black afc 
sides. Fore wing brownish grey, with a nearly erect subbasal dark 
line ; an indistinct dark forked antemedial line ; a dark mark on 
discocellulars ; a doubly curved postraedial black line ; a sub- 
marginal lunulate Hne. Hind wing pale fuscous ; traces of a dark 
mark on discocellulars and postmedial band ; a marginal dark line. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 70 millim. 

*i005. Dasychira perdix, Moore, Up. Ath. p. 58, pi. iii, %. 3 ; C.^ -S. 
no. 988. 

S . Grey ; thorax speckled with brown ; antennae, sides of palpi, 
and legs pale ferruginous. Both wings with the veins and inter- 
spaces irrorated with prominent black-brown scales, forming on the 
fore wing indistinct sinuous bands and patches ; a suffused brown 
patch at end of cell, and a patch on centre of inner margin ; 
a submarginal line ; hind wing with the inner margin ferruginous 
grey ; a submarginal band. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 62 millim. 

*1006. Dasychira brunnescens, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 57 ; C. ^ S. no. 977. 

cJ. Head, thorax, and legs grey irrorated with brown; branches 
of antennae red-brown ; abdomen pale brown. Fore wing greyish 
white irrorated with brown scales ; a waved basal, two subbasal, 
and one medial line ; a submarginal lunulate pale-bordered line ; 
a line on discocellulars. Hind Aving greyish brown, the outer area 
palest ; the veins and a submarginal band darker. 

5 with the hind wing much paler. 

Bab. Sikhim. Exp., d 60, $ 70 millim. 

1007. (Dasychira chloroptera, n. sp. 

. Head and thorax dark green ; abdomen black-brown ; the 
first three segments with black crests ; anal tuft fulvous yellow. 
Fore wing dark green, with indistinct waved medial, postmedial, 
submarginal, and marginal lines. Hind wing black, with broad 
irregular bright yellow marginal band. Underside ochreous, the 
basal area sutfused with black ; a black spot at end of cell and 
waved postmedial line. 

Bab. Khasis. Exp. 56 millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 



DASYCHIEA. 



451 



1008. Dasychira virescens, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 64, pl.iii, fig. 16; C.^ S. 

no. 1079. 

2 ■ Head, thorax, and fore wing paler green ; abdomen orange, 
sometimes greenish above. Fore wing with the reniform spot 
more prominent and filled in with grey. Hind wing orange ; 
a large black spot at end of cell and submarginal spots towards 
apex and anal angle ; a sinuous marginal line. Underside without 
black suffusion. 

Hah. Sikhim. Ex;p. 76 millim. 

1009. Dasychira flavimacula, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 804 ; C. Sj S. 

no. 981. 

(S . Head and thorax dark brown ; abdomen paler, with the dark 
dorsal tuft large. Fore wing dark purplish brown ; a waved sub- 
basal black line with some dark and red-brown marks beyond it ; a 
waved antemedial black line ; a dark lunule on discocellulars 
bordering a brown patch ; a waved postmedial line bent inwards 
below the angle of cell, and with a series of dark and red- 
brown spots beyond it; a short oblique white line near outer 
angle. Hind wing fuscous. Underside with a cell-spot and 
postmedial line to both wings. 

2 paler, with the markings more prominent. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp., ^ 48, $ 60 millim. 

1110. Dasychira olearia, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 297, pi. 20, figs. 14, 15 ; 
a ^ S. no. 1038. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen smoky black; collar tinged with 
chestnut. Fore wing dark purpHsh browia, with some ochreous 
sufi'usion at base, near inner margin, and towards apex; dark 
streaks on the veins and interspaces of the apical area; the 
reniform spot ochreous with dark outline ; cilia with pale streaks 
at the veins. 

2 . Collar dark. Fore wing with a well-marked submarginal 
red-brown band not reaching the costa and outwardly edged with 
ochreous ; a waved submarginal line. 

Hab. Poona ; Nilgiri plateau. Ecvp., c? 36, § 43 millim. 

1011. Dasychira bhana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1866, p 804 ; 0. ^- S. no. 976. 
Dasychira nigritula, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 360 ; C. ^- S. no. 986. 
Dasychira tenebrosa, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 361 ; C. Sf S. no. 990. 
Mardara feminula, JEmpm. III. Het. viii, p. 58, pi. 141, figs. 1 , 7. 

<S . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Fore wing dark 
brown, with about six very indistinct waved dark lines slightly out- 
lined with purplish grey ; a submarginal series of dark lunulas ; an 
indistinct dark lunule at end of cell, in some specimens with a 
fulvous spot beyond it. Hind wing fuscous brown. 

2 similar but paler. 

In the Nilgiri race feminula the male has an ochreous tinge on 
fore wmg, and no purplish-grey edging to the lines ; the female is 

2g2 



452 



LYMANTBIIDjE. 



wholly purplish grey ; the fore wiug irrorated with dark specks 
with waved ante- and postmedial brown lines which meet at inner 
margin ; a brown spot at end oi" cell atid an irregular submarginal 
brown band ; the hind wing pale grey. 

Hah. Sikhim; Nilgiri plateau. Exji., S 43-52, $ 47-52 millim. 

1012. Dasychira mcerens, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 99, fig. 4(5); Hmnsn. 

111. Hot. ix, pi. 160, fig. 1 (J), pi. 17G, fig. 1 (larva) ; C. ^ S. 
no. 985. 

S ' Head, thorax, abdomen, and fore wing dark olive-brown ; 
the last with double subbasal, antemedial, and postmedial waved 
and angulated lines ; submarginal and marginal series of indistinct 
lunulate marks ; the reniform with indistuict dark outline. Hind 
wing black-brown, the cilia red-brown. Underside red-brown 
variegated with dark brown. 

2 much paler, the lines of the fore wing outHned with purplish 
grey. 

Larva dark brown with a reddish lateral line ; two long dark 
brown dorsal tufts on 4th and 11th somites, and two shorter pale 
brown tufts on 5th, 6th, and 7th somites. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp., S 42, § 60 millim. 

Sect. II. (Olene). Fore wing of female produced at apex, the outer 
margin excised ; abdomen with dorsal crests. 

1013. Dasychira mendosa, Hiibn. Zutr. ii, p. 19, figs. 293, 294 ; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 115, figs. 4, 4 «, 5 (larva) ; C.^ S. no. 1037. 
Olene basivitta, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 4-36 ; C. 8f S. no. 1035. 
Nioda fusiformis, Wlk. Cat. \, p. 1070 ; C. 8f 8. no. 1036. 
Rilia lauceolata, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1075. 
Antipha basalis, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 806 ; C. ^' S. no. 1040. 
Dasychira sawanta, Moore, Lep. E. L. Co. p. 340. 
Dasychira divisa, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 363. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown, the abdominal tuft 
dark. Fore wing with a subbasal incurved dark line ; waved ante- 
and postmedial lines, the latter recurved beyond end of cell and 
incurved below the end ; a waved submarginal line. Hind wing 
pale, the outer area slightly suffused with brown. 

In the form menclosa = fusiformis the fore wing is nearly uniform 
bi'own with a pale rovmd patch outside the subbasal hue : in divisa 
the whole costal half of the fore wing is suffused with Avhite except 
a patch on the costa before the apex : in basalis the subbasal patch 
is dark brown and elongate ; there is a pale line before the ante- 
medial line and on each side of the discocellulars, and some grey 
near apex and outer angle. 

$ . The subbasal line of foi-e wing almost obsolete ; the waved 
dark lines prominent ; the reniform pale brown with dark outline ; 
a diffused dark fascia from the base to outer margin, leaving the 
costa and inner margin pale, in some specimens interrupted by the 
area between the ante- and postmedial lines being pale. 



DASYOHIEA. 



453 



Zc/?'va blackish ; the head striped with red; the 1st somite 
with a white band crossed by red stripes and with tufts of 
long black hair ; a series of red lateral spots with a white line 
below them ; dorsal tufts of bright yellow hair rising from a dark 
patch on 4th to 7 th somites ; a lateral tuft of black hair from 5th 
somite ; 8th to 11th somites with subdorsal red spots ; 11th somite 
with a dorsal tuft of long black hair ; legs scarlet ; prologs spotted 
with scarlet. 

Another form is paler, with the whole head and a dorsal blotch 
on 1st somite scarlet ; the dorsal tufts on 4th to 7th somites grey. 

Hah. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma; Java; Australia. 
Exp., 6 34-42, $ 46-54 millim. 

1014. Dasychira inclusa, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1737 ; Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. 

pi. XV, tigs. 2,2 a (larva). 
Dasychira dalbergi*, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 399 ; Butl. III. Het. 
vii, pi. 123, figs. 9, 10, 11, pi. 138, tig. 12 (larva) ; C. 8f S. 
no. 979 A. 

(S . Differs from mendosa in the head, thorax, and abdomen 
being darker broAvn. Fore wing rather broader and shorter and 
more uniform dull brown ; the lines very indistinct, and with an 
indistinct waved brown band beyond the postmedial line. Hind 
wing brownish fuscous. 

One specimen has the fore wing slightly irrorated with white 
and a large white subbasal round spot. 

9 . The fore wing with a pale brown subbasal mark ; some 
pale brown along inner margin, on discocellulars, and beyond the 
postmedial line. Hind wing paler. 

Larva of male dark brown, Mdth lateral tufts of long hair ; head 
red-brown ; two white dorsal lines on 4th somite and dorsal tufts 
of silky reddish hair on 4th to 7th somites. 

Larva of female with the dorsal tufts dark brown ; a subdorsal 
white stripe and crimson dorsal spots on 9th and 10th somites. 

Bab. N.W. Himalayas ; Poena ; Java. Eccp., cS 40, $ 
52 milhm. 

Sect. III. (Psalis). Tore wing of male produced and falcate at 
apex ; abdomen with no dorsal crests. 

1015. Dasychira securis, ^mJtz. Z«/ir. ii, p. 19, tigs. 29J , 292 ; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. ii, pi. 116, figs. 1, 1 a (larva) ; C. Sf S. no. 1090. 
Arestha antica, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 806. 
Rigema falcata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 437. 
Rigema tacta, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 438. 
Anticyra approximata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p, 440. 

cJ . Head and thorax brownish ochreous ; abdomen ochreous 
white. Fore wing ochreous, the inner half irrorated w ith dark 
scales ; the central area from base to outer margin brownish 
suffused with white. Hind wing ochreous white. 



454 



liYMA-NTRIID^. 



Larva black, with ochreous dorsal and black lateral hairs ; long 
anterior and posterior tufts ; thick dorsal tufts of rufous hair on 
4th to 7th somites, and smaller tufts on 9th and 10th somites ; 
subdorsal and lateral series of greenish spots and lateral greenish 
line ; head and legs crimson. 

JIab. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java ; Australia. 
Exj)., ^ 34, $ 50 millim. 

Genus MARDARA. 

Mardara, mJc. Cat xxxii, p. 402 (1865). 
Mahoba, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 52 (1879). 

Type, M. caligramma, Wlk. 

Range. Simla ; Sikhim ; Nagas ; Manipur. 

Palpi porrect and rather slender ; antenna with the branches 
long in male, shorter in female ; legs with the spurs long. Shape 
and neuration. as in Dasychira, except that the fore wing is more 
rounded and vein 10 anastomoses with 7,8,9 to form the areole; 
hind wing with veins 6 and 7 from cell. 

Sect. I. Palpi reaching beyond the frons ; fore wing ^vith 
vein. 10 given off shortly after areole. 

1016. Mardara plagidotata, Wlk. Cat. xxv, p. 1483 ; Moore, Lep. Atk. 
pi. iii, fig. 6 ; C.8f 8. no. 1058. 

Head and collar black powdered with white ; palpi orange ; 
antennae black ; thorax and abdomen white powdered with fuscous; 
abdomen with the terminal segments orange. Pore wing white 




Fig. 310. — Mardara plagidotata, $. \. 



hickly irrorated with fuscous ; a brown lunule at end of cell ; brown 
patches on the costa before the middle, at middle, and near apex ; 
a brown band on outer margin from apex narrowing to vein 2. 



MAEDARA. — NUMENE3. 



455 



Hind wing white, with a round black spot at end of cell ; a sub- 
marginal patch on veins 2 and 3 ; a patch on costa before the 
apex and on outer margin below it ; outer area slightly irrorated 
Avith black. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Kagas. Exp., d" 66, $ 72 millim. 

*1017. Mardara irrorata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p, 52; C. ^ S. no. 1057. 

S . Head and thorax pale ochreous ; abdomen brighter ; antennae 
brown ; legs speckled with brown. Eore wing ochreous white, 
sparsely irrorated with red-brown scales ; a pale spot at end of 
cell enclosing a brown line on diseocellulars which is flecked with 
yellow. Hind wing ochreous white, the outer area sparsely 
irrorated with red-brown scales. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exjp. 57 millim. 

1018. Mardara caligramma, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 204 ; C.^ S. no. 997. 

c? . Head and thorax clothed with dark brown and yellow hairs ; 
fulvous-yellow tufts on metathorax ; abdomen fuscous, the segments 
fringed with yellow ; the anal tuft orange. Fore wing dark 
brown ; the veins yellowish ; a subbasal oblique yellow line ; an 
antemedial highly angled line conjoined to a doubly angled post- 
medial line which touches a waved submarginal line, thus forming 
large reticulations ; a yellow spot on diseocellulars. Hind wing 
smoky black ; cilia of both wings ochreous. 

Hah. Simla ; Sikhim ; Nagas. Exp., S 50, 5 58 millim. 

Sect. II. Palpi not reaching beyond the frons ; fore wing with 
vein 10 given olf towards apex. 

1019. Mardara albostriata, n. sp. 

cJ . Head and thorax red-brown ; abdomen black, the segments 
fringed with white, the anal tuft orange. Fore wing red-brown ; 
the A'eins streaked with white ; a basal white patch with a dark 
spot on it ; a subbasal white line ; an angulated antemedial line 
with a streak in the interno-median interspace from it to an 
excurved postmedial line which nearly touches an incurved sub- 
marginal line. Hind wing white, with some black spots near apex 
and on margin ; two large spots near anal angle. Undersides of 
both wings white, with the apices brown. 

Hah. Manipur; Nagas {Dolierty). Exp. 60 millim. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 

Genus NUMENES. 

Numenes, Wlk. Cat. iii, p. 662 (1855). 
Pseudomesa, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 923 (1865). 

Type, N. siletti, Wlk. 

Range. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Burma ; Java. 



456 



ITMANTEIID^. 



Palpi obliquely upturned, the first two joints thickly fringed 
with hair. Ajitenna) bipectiuate in both sexes, the branches long. 
Tore wing with the apex more produced and acute in the male 
than the female ; neuration as in Dasychira ; hind wing with veins 
6 and 7 from cell. 

1020. Numenes siletti, Wlk. Cat. iii, p. 663 ; C.8fS. no. 964. 

Pseudomesa quadriplaj^iata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 923 : Butl. III. Het. v, 
pi. 90, fig. 6 ; G ^ & no. 1031. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown, the last with the 
segments fringed with white. Wings dark brown; fore wing 
with an oblique white band from the centre of costa to near outer 
angle. Hind wing with a pale orange fascia from beyond the middle 
of cell to near outer margin. 

$ . Head and thorax black ; abdomen orange, with paired dorsal 
and ventral brown spots. Fore wing yellowish white ; a broad black 




Fig. 311. — Ntimcnes siletti. \. 



fascia along inner margin met by oblique ante- and postmedial 
chocolate bands, the latter sometimes enclosing some white spots ; 
cilia chocolate. Hind wing pale orange, with a black-brown spot 
towards apex and another towards anal angle, the former some- 
times absent. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Assam ; Burma. Exjp., S 50, $ 53 millim. 

1021. Numenes patrana, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 367 ; C. ^' S. no. 963. 
Numenes partita, Wlk. Cat. xxxi, p. 290 ; C. S. no. 962. 

. Head and thorax red-brown ; abdomen ochreous. Fore 
wing white ; a basal dark red-brown patch with a spot on the 
costa beyond it ; a broad medial Y-shaped band, with an oblique 



NUMENES. — PIDA. 



457 



stripe from the same point on the costa to centre of outer margin. 
Hind wing pale yellow, with a large fuscous spot towards outer 
angle. 

2 . Tore wing pale pinkish brown ; antemedial, medial, and 
subapical dark spots on the costa, and a Y-shaped or rounded spot 
on inner margin and one or two small spots at outer angle. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Bernardmyo. Ecvp., ^ 50, $ 76 millim. 

Genus PIDA. 

Pida, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 399 (1865). 
Locharna, Moore, Lep, Atk. p. 53 (1879). 

Type, P. apicalis, Wlk. 
Range. Sikhim ; Khasis. 

Palpi upturned, reaching above vertex of head ; antennae of 
male with the branches long, short in female ; legs heavily fringed 
with hair. Shape and neuration as in Dasychira. 

1022. Pida apicalis, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 400 : Butl. III. Set. v, pi. 89, 
%. 15; C. aS-. no. 960. 

S . Palpi black, fringed with orange. Head and thorax pale 
brown; abdomen blackish, with orange anal tuft. Fore wing 




Fig. 312.— PicZa apicalis, . |. 



pale brown irrorated with dark scales, which are thickly dis- 
posed towards the large apical yellow patch. Hind wing pale 
yellow, the inner area clothed with long brown hairs. Underside 
yellow. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 64 millim. 

1023. Pida strigipennis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 63, pi. iii, fig. 11 : C. (§• S. 
no. 1066. 

Head and thorax dark and red-brown ; antenna black, with 
the sides of the shaft white ; metathorax with a black tuft. Fore 
wing yellowish white, closely striated with black, the least striated 
area being the postmedial costal area ; a black spot at end of cell. 



LTMANTEIII)^. 

Abdomen and hind wing orange-yellow, the latter with a few black 
stru-o at apex. Some specimens are much paler than others. 
JJab. Sikhim ; Khasis. j;^?^., c? 40, $ 55 millim. 



Genus DAPLASA. 
Daplasa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 61 (1879), 

Type, D. irrorata, Moore. 
Range. Sikhim. 

Palpi very slender, short, and closely appressed to the frons ; 
antennae bipectinated in male. Fore wing with vein 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; 9 arising from 10 and anastomosing with 7 and 8 to 
form the areole. Hind wing with veins 6 and 7 from angle of 
cell or stalked. 



1024. Daplasa variegata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 48, pi. ii.fig. 24 ; C.8c S. 
955. 



no. 



S . Head, thorax, and abdomen white and olive-yellow. Pore 

wing with the basal area white, irro- 
rated with black and olive-yellow 
scales forming ill-defined subbasal, 
antemedial, and medial bands ; an 
indistinct forked postmedial band 
conjoined to the outer olive-yellow 
area irrorated with black scales. Hind 
wing white, a dark speck at end of 
cell, and broad marginal fuscous band 
Underside of fore wing almost wholly 




Fig. 313. 
Daplasa variegata, . 



not reaching anal angle 
suffused with black. 

Hab. Sikhim. Kvp. 30 millim 



*1025. Daplasa irrorata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 52, pi. ii,fig. 17 ; C.^S. 
no. 1086. 

S . White ; thorax brown-speckled ; palpi and legs above bright 
yellow. Pore wing irrorated with minute brown scales, forming 
four indistinct oblique bands most distinct towards inner margin, 
the outer baud extending to the apex. Abdomen and hind wing 
pale yellow. 

JIab. Sikhim. E.vjy. 28 millim. 



Genus HERACULA. 
Heracula, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 804. 

Type, //. disdvitta, Moore. 
lianr/e. Sikhim. 

Palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head, and heavily fringed 



HEEACULA. — LTMANTKIA. 



459 



with hair ; antennjo minutely ciliated in female. Tore wing broad, 
the apes rounded ; vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 5 from above 
angle ; 6 from below upper angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked, 10 being 
given off near the apex. Hind wing with veins 3, 4, 5 from near 
angle of cell ; 6 and 7 from upper angle. 

1026. Heracula discivitta, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 804, pi. 43, fig. 2 ; 
C. ^ S. no. 1063. 

Head, collar, and protborax dark brown; meso-, metatborax, 




Fig. 314. — Heracula discivitta, 5 • t- 



and abdomen fulvous. Fore wing with a small basal dark brown 
mark on the costa ; a large rounded basal fulvous patch with white 
edge ; the medial area dark brown ; the outer area fulvous, irro- 
rated with black scales and edged inwardly by a curved white line. 
Hind wing fuscous brown ; a broad marginal fulvous band with 
slightly waved inner edge. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 64 millim. 



Genus LYMANTRIA. 

Lymantria, Mibn. Verz. p. 160 (1818). 

Liparis, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. iii, p. 186 (1810, praeocc). 

Porthetria, Hiibn. Verz. p. 160 (1818). 

Enome, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 883 (1855). 

Nagunda, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 53 (1879). 

Barbona, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 56 (1879). 

Pegella, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1922 (1866). 

Type, L. monacha, Linn., from Europe. 

Range. Europe; Japan, and throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma ; Java ; Amboina ; Celebes. 

(S . Palpi porrect and hairy ; antennae with the branches long. 
Eore wing with veins 3, 4, 5 from close to angle of cell ; 6 from 
below upper angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked, 7 being given off further 



460 



LYMANTHlIDJi:. 



from the cell than 10. Hind wing with veins 3, 4, 5 from close 
to angle of cell ; 6 and 7 from upper angle. 

$ . Antenna) serrate ; wings either fully developed, or partially 
aborted, or reduced to scales. 



Sect. I. (Enome). Pemale with scale-like wings ; hind wing of 
male with the inner margin long; hind tibia) with a minute 
terminal pair of spurs. 

1027. Lymantria incerta, Wlk. Cat. Iv, p. 880 ; C. 8,- 8. no. 1030. 
Ljmantria aryama, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 345 ; C. 8f S. no lOOO."" 
Enome detersa, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 366 : Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885.1)1 21, 

figs. 3, 4 ; a 4- S. no. 1029. ^ 
Lymantria costalis, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 365 ; C. ^ S. no. 1006. 

. Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown ; a crimson line 
behind the head ; abdomen banded with crimson ; legs spotted with 
black and marked with crimson. Pore wing greyish brown ; a black 
subbasal line with some spots beyond it ; an antemedial waved 
line ; a spot at middle of cell and lunule at end of it ; a diffused 
postmedial band and double waved postmedial line, the outer line 
more or less obsolescent. Hind wing brown, with an indistinct 
waved postmedial line ; an elongate black mark near anal angle ; 
cilia of both wings spotted with black. 

The form detersa is pale and small (36 millim.), 
2 . Head, thorax, and aborted wings whitish, the last with 
traces of markings ; abdomen very large and brown, 

Hab. Throughout S. India and Ceylon, Kvp., c? 36-54 millim, 

1028, Lymantria ampla, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 883; Moore, Lep. K I. Co. 

pi. 9 a, fig. 4, and pi. 15, tigs. 7, 7 a, 8, 8 a (larva) ; C. ^ -S. no. 1028. 

c? . Differs from incerta in being much yellower brown, and 
without crimson on head, abdomen, or legs, 

2 . Head, thorax, and aborted wings white, spotted with black ; 
abdomen blackish. 

Larva brown, clothed with tufts of short hair and long hair 
from the anterior and posterior somites ; male with a pale subdorsal 
line and dorsal and sublateral white spots ; female with black 
dorsal spots and a white spot on 9th somite. Head and legs 
ochreous. 

Mab. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. jEr^?. 40 millim. 



Sect, II. Pemale with less aborted wings ; bind wings of male 
with inner margin short. 

1029. Lymantria obfuscata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 367 ; C. ^- S. no. 1013. 
J . Differs from ampla in being greyish brown ; fore wing with 



LYMANTRIA. 



461 



the postmedial double lines more regular ; hind wing with a dark 
lunule at end of cell and dark marginal band. 

2 . Pale ochreous ; a dark mark at end of cell of fore wing. 

Larva pale brown, with shoi't dorsal tufts of hair and long lateral 
tufts ; a dark brown dorsal band, with pale lines down the centre 
and on each side. 

Ilab. N.W. Himalayas. Kvp. cS 32 millim. 



Sect. III. (Lymantria). Eemale with fully developed wings ; 
hind tibisB with two pairs of spurs. 

1030. Lymantria rhodina, WlJc. Cat. xxxii, p. 366; C. 4- S. no, 1016. 

S . Head and thorax black, with a crimson line behind the head ; 
abdomen crimson above. Pore wing smoky black ; an indistinct 
black spot near end of cell and lunule on discocellulars ; an indis- 
tinct postmedial waved line ; cilia chequered brown and black. 
Hind wing whitish ; the inner area tinged with crimson ; a 
marginal fuscous band. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Khasis. Exp. 40 millim. 

1031. Lymantria obsoleta, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 880 ; C.SrS. no. 1014. 
Lymantria bhascara, Moore, Lep. E. 1. Co. p. .345. 
Lymantria vinacea, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 402. 

Lymantria albolunulata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 403 ; C.S,' S. no. 999. 
Lymantria sobrina, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 402, pi. 33, fig. 5. 

d" . Differs from rhodina in being brown ; the abdomen slightly 
tinged with crimson. Pore wing irrorated with dark scales; 
indistinct double lunulate antemedial, medial, and postmedial lines ; 
a black lunule at end of cell, but no spot in the cell. Hind wing 
pale brownish fuscous. 

5 . Abdomen crimson, with a dark line on A^ertex and series of 
lateral black spots, the extremity brown ; hind wing with the inner 
area suffused with crimson. 

The form albolunulata from the N.W. Himalayas has the fore 
wing more irrorated with black ; the postmedial lines with whitish 
lunules between them. A form from the Khasis has the ground- 
colour of fore wing paler ; the hind wing nearly pure white, with 
a fuscous lunule at end of cell and irregular submarginal band ; 
the cilia of both wings chequered black and pinkish. 

In the form sobrina the lines of the fore wing are better defined ; 
the hind wing with the inner margin tinged with pink ; female 
with the abdomen yellowish. 

Jfab. China; Pormosa; throughout India and Ceylon. Bxv 
6 42, $ 72 millim. ^ 



462 



LYMANTEIIDiE. 



1032. Lymantria ascetria, nubn. Samml. exot. Schmett. ii, Phal. ver 

tigs. 1-4; C. ^ S. uo. 1001. 
liymantria pramestra, Moore, Lep. JE. I. Co. p. 344, pi. ix a, fig. 3. 

d" . Head and thorax white ; antennae black ; a crimson line 
behind the head; tegulse with a black spot; abdomen crimson, 
with fuscous spots on vertex and fringe to the segments. Fore 
wing white ; two black spots at base and curved subbasal series ; 
an antemedial waved fuscous line arising from a black spot on 
costa ; a black speck near end of cell and lunule at end ; two post- 
medial and one subraarginal lunulate fuscous lines arising from 
black spots .on the costa, the two former approaching each other 
towards inner margin ; a series of marginal black spots. Hind 
wing white, with submargiual fuscous baud and marginal series of 
spots. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen suffused with brown. Fore 
wing wholly suffused with brown, except the costal area and some 
white diffused along the lines ; tue markings considerably obscured. 
Hind wing often suffused with pale fuscous. 

Hah. Moulmein ; Tavoy ; Java. jEa^., (5" 46, $ 52-70 millim. 

1033. Lymantria concolor, Wlh. Cat. iv, p. 876 ; Bull. III. Set. v, 

pi. 90, tigs. 9, 10 ; C.<^ S. no. 1005. 
Lymantria superans, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 876 ; C. ^ S. no. 1019. 
Lymantria carnecolor, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 399; C. ^ S. 
no. 1004 A. 

Lymantria micans, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 99, fig. 2 ; C. ^ 8. no. 1011. 

c5' . Differs from ascetria in the head and thorax being marked 
with black. Fore wing with the markings black ; the antemedial 
line much more irregularly waved, and with a black streak in the 
cell beyond it ; the two postmedial lines more lunulate and more 
or less connected by black blotches ; the submarginal line also 
more irregular. Hind wing whitish or suffused with black, and 
with traces of a submarginal band. 

$ with the line behind the head yellow, and the ground-colour 
of abdomen yellow. 

Some specimens have the head, thorax, and wings yellowish. 

Larva brown, with tufts of brown and black hair ; speckled and 
the back blotched with black ; a conspicuous blotch on 2nd 
somite. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Sylhet ; Nagas ; Burma. Exp., 
S 56, $ 88 millim. 



1034. Lymantria similis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 402 ; C. 8,- S. no. 101 7. 
Lymantria cara, Butl. 111. Het. v, p. 56, pi. 90, fig. 13 ; C. 8f S. 
no. 1004. 

cJ. Differs from ascetria in the tegulsB being without black 
spots. Fore wing with the black patches on costa, from which 



LTMANTBIA. 



463 



the waved lines arise, absent or large ; a patch on inner margin at 
junction of the postmedial lines. 

$ . With the tuft from basal joint of antennae and line behind 
the head yellow ; the abdomen crimson. Fore wing with the waved 
lines obsolescent ; the black patches on costa and inner margin 
large, the first three on costa crossing the cell ; a patch on centre 
of outer margin. Hind wing whitish, with fuscous submarginal 
band and marginal spots. 

Hah. Sikhira ; Bhutan; Assam; Calcutta; Borneo; Sumatra. 
Exjj., 52-58, $ 80 milhrn. 

1035. Lymantria todara, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 402, pi. 33, fig. 6 ; 

Hmpsn. III. Set. viii, pi. 141, tig. 16 ( § ) ; C. ^ S. no. 1020. 

. Differs from ascetria in the line behind the head being 
yellow ; two black spots on collar, and four on vertex of thorax ; 
abdomen yellow. Fore wing with the postmedial waved lines 
single towards inner margin. Hind wing pale yellow, with a 
fuscous marginal band. 

2 . Abdomen yellow and black. Eore wing as in similis, the 
black patches better defined, and the one on inner margin Y-shaped. 
Hind wing fuscous white, slightly tinged with yellow ; the sub- 
marginal band almost obsolete. 

Hab. Nilgiris; Ceylon. Exp., c? 54, $ 88 millim. 

1036. Lymantria beatrix, Stoll, Cram. Pap. Exot. v, p. 173, pi. 40, 

fig. 2 _; C.SfS. DO. 1003. 
Lvmantria marginata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 877. 

Lymantria fuliginosa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 17 ; C. S. no. 1007. 
Lymantria pusilla, FeM. Pels. Nov. pi. 99, fig. 3 ; C. ^ S. no. 1015. 
Lymantria nigra, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 399 ; C. ^ S. no. 1012 a. 
Porthetria umbrina, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 55 ; C. ^ 8. no. 1027. 

(S . Head and thorax pale fuscous, marked and spotted with 
black ; the line behind the head yellow ; 3rd joint of palpus 
orange ; two orange spots on mesothorax ; abdomen orange, with 
a black line on vertex or short segmental bands ; anal tuf fc black. 
Fore wing pale fuscous ; an orange speck and three black spots 
at base ; a broad subbasal black band ; an antemedial line ; a spot 
near end of cell and lunule on discocellulars ; a medial band ; two 
postmedial and one submarginal lunulate line; a marginal series 
of spots. Hind wing black, with yellow streaks on median and 
submedian nervures, or on the "veins tow^ards outer margin. 
Underside more or less suffused with yellow^ 

2 . Head and thorax white ; collar 'outlined with black ; thorax 
marked with black ; the line behind the head and two spots on 
th orax yellow ; abdomen yellow, with dorsal and lateral series of 
black spots. Fore wing white, with the black markings broad and 
more or less conjoined into blotches. Hind wing white, with a 
broad marginal black baud, some specimens havingVhhe spots on 
it at centre ; cilia white. 



464 



lymanteiid;e. 



Hah. Throughout India and Ceylon; Java. Exp., s 54, 
$ 68 millim. 

1037. Lymantria gi-isea, Moore, Lev. Atk. p. 65, pi. iii, ^s.5;C.8cS 

no. 1009. ^ , b , gro. 

. Head and thorax pale brown ; abdomen whitish. Fore 
wing pale brown, with numerous indistinct dark lunulate lines, 
the most distinct being two irregular submarginal lines with white 
lunules between them ; a dark mark on discocellulars. Hind wing 
yellowish white, with an indistinct marginal fuscous band. 
Hab. Sikhim. Exj). 42 millim. 

1038. Lymantria mathura, Moore, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 805 : C. & S. 

no. 1026. 

Lymantria aurora, JButl. A. M. N. JI. (4) xx, p. 403. 

. Differs from heatrix in the black spots on vertex of abdomen 
being small ; the ground-colour of fore wing paler ; the hind wing 




Fig. 315. — Lymantria mathura. \. 

orange, with a black spot at end of cell and conjoined series of 
submarginal spots forming a curved band ; some spots on centre 
of outer margin. 

$ . Head and thorax white ; frons fuscous ; two black spots each 
on collar, meso- and metathorax ; palpi, antennal tuft, and two spots 
on mesotborax crimson ; abdomen crimson, with small black spots 



LTMANTEIA. 



465 



on. verrex, tne terminal segments whitish ; legs black and crimson. 
Eore wing white ; some crimson and black basal spots ; a subbasal 
line ; an antemedial waved line joining at inner margin two post- 
medial lunulate lines, the space between which is often completely- 
filled in with fuscous ; a fuscous spot towards end of cell ; some 
lunulate submarginal marks forming a more or less complete band ; 
a marginal series of spots ; costa and cilia crimson. Hind wing 
crimson, with a fuscous spot at end of cell ; a submarginal macu- 
late band and some spots on centre of margin. 

The variety aurora, from Japan, where the tvi)ical form also 
occurs, is suffused with fuscous in both sexes. 

Hab. Japan; N.W. Himalayas; Sikliim. Exp., c? 40-54, 
? 96-112 millim. 



1039. Lymantria viola, Swinh. P. Z. 8. 1889, p. 406. 

. Differs from mathura in having the orange markings re- 
placed by crimson, except that the abdomen is somewhat orange 
towards extremity. Fore wing with the ground-colour greyish. 

9 . Differs 1 Tom mathuva in the black markings being somewhat 
reduced ; the collar without spots, and the mesothorax with one 
black spot between the two crimson spots, and none behind them. 
Hah. Bombay. Exp., cJ 50, ? 90 millim. 



1040. Lymantria grandis, Wlh. Cnt. iv, p. 874 ; C. 8,- S. no. 1008. 

Lymantria maculosa, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 681. 

Lymautria metarhoda, Wlk. Trans. JSnt. Soe. (3) i, 1862, p. 78. 

S- Differs from viola in the shaft of autenuse and ground- 
colour of thorax and fore Mdng benig pure white. Fore wing with 
all the bands reduced to well-separated spots ; collar and thorax 
spotted as in mathura. 

$ . Differs from mathura in the frons being black, the 2nd joint 
of palpus with a black spot. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp., S 58, ? 110 millim. 



1041. Lymantria rosea, m7ipsn. III. Het. ix, ined., pi. 158, fig-. 28. 

c? . Differs from grandis in the palpi, head, thorax, and le<^s 
being black and white without any crimson. Fore wing with^'a 
prominent black lunule at end of cell ; the antemedial and two 
postmedial lunulate lines not reduced to spots. Hind wing with 
a broad marginal smoky black band. Und(;rside suffused' with 
fuscous. 

Hah. Margharita, near Sadiya, Assam ; Ceylon. ^0,7?. 54 millim. 

1042. Lymantria lepcha, Moore, Lop. Ath. p. -54 ; C.Sf S. no. 1025 
Baihona carneola, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 50 ; C. ^' S. no. 1083. 

cS . Head and thorax white ; the line behind the head crimson • 

VOL. I. 2 H ' 



406 



XYMANTEIID^. 



thorax with black spots ; abdomen white, with a slight crimson 
tinge. Fore wing ochreous white; a crimson speck at base of 
costa ; four lunulate equidistant lines ; a small black spot in the 
cell and luuule on discocellulars. Hind wing whitish; the basal 
and inner areas tinged with crimson ; a faint submarginal fuscous 
band. 

2 . Pale pink ; antennae, palpi, and legs black ; the 1st joint of 
antennffi and line behind the head crimson. Fore wing with a 
black lunule from costa to costal nerviire at middle of cell ; a 
liinule on discocellulars and line from vein 1 to centre of inuer 
margin. 

Mab. Silihim. Kvp., J 62, $ 92-98 millim. 

1043. Lymantria bivittata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 57 ; C. 4- S. no. 1022. 

$ . Head and thorax white ; palpi and antennas black ; frons 
tinged with crimson ; basal joints of antennae and line behind the 
head crimson ; abdomen crimson, the basal and terminal segments 
white. Fore wing silvery white ; two black basal marks ; an out^ 
wardly oblique antemedial line with waved edges, joined at inner 
margin by an inwardly oblique postmedial line ; a series of marginal 
spots. Hind wing white. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Sylhet. Ea)p. 100 millim. 

1044. Lymantria semicincta, Wlk. Cat. iii, p. 620 ; Butl. III. Set. v, 

pi. 90, fig. 7 ; C.^S. no. 1047. 

Palpi, antennae, and legs black ; head yellowish white, with a 
black spot behind it ; the basal joints of antennae orange ; thorax 
yellowish white, with a large black patch on vertex and spot on 
tegulae ; abdomen crimson. Fore wing black ; a yellowish-white 
spot at base of inner margin and one in end of cell ; three con- 
joined postmedial spots from costa and three from inner margin. 
Hind wing crimson, with a broad marginal black border decreasing 
to anal angle ; cilia of both wings chequered yellow and black. 

Mab. Simla; Sikhim. ^.1^3. 60 millim. 

Genus IMAUS. 

Imaus, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 54 (1879). 
Dura; Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 50 (1879). 

Tvpe, /. viundus, Wlk. 

Range. N.E. India ; Java ; Celebes. 

Palpi rather long, slender, and porrect. Antennae with the 
branches long in both sexes. Fore wing with veins 3, 4, 5 from 
near angle of cell ; 6 from below upper angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked, 
7 being given olf further from the cell or from the same point as 
10. Hind wing with veins 3, 4, 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 and 
7 from upper angle ; the outer margin produced at vein 3. 



IMAUS. — HIMALA. 



467 



Sect. I. (Lnaiu). Fore wing with vein 11 not anastomosing 
with 12. Hind wing with outer margin slightly produced. 

1045. Imans mnndus, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 875; C. ^ S. no. 1012. 

Pale brown ; legs spotted with black. 'Fore wing with promi- 
nent subbasal and antemedial series of spots; a prominent spot 
in the cell and line on each side of discocellulars ; a prominent 
very highly dentate postmedial line ; well-marked series of sub- 
marginal lunules and marginal spots. Hind wing with indistinct 
submarginal band and marginal series of specks. 

Hab. Throughout N.E. India ; Java. Ba:^. 80 raillim. 



Sect. II. (Dura). Pore wing with vein 11 anastomosing with 12. 
Hind wing produced and angled at vein 3. 

1046. Imaus albns, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 56; C. 8f S. no. 1084. 

White, with a slight brownish tinge ; palpi black at sides ; 
branches of antennae red-brown. Eore wing with about seven 




Fig. 316. — Imatis albus, . j. 



indistinct brownish waved lines ; orbicular and reniform stigmas 
with brownish outline ; a marginal series of black spots to both 
wings. 

Eab. Sikhim. Exjy., 6 38, $ 58 milHm. 



Genus HIMALA. 

Himala, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 67 (1879). 

Type, H. argentea, Wlk. 
Range. Himalayas ; Assam. 

Palpi slender, porrect, and reaching beyond the frous ; antennae 
with tufts of long hair from the basal joint, the branches long. 
Hind tibiae with two pairs of spurs. Eore wing with veins 3, 4, 5 
from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 7, 8, 9 stalked. 
Hind wing with veins 3, 4, 5 from near lower angle of cell ; 6 and 
7 stalked. 

2h2 



468 



LYMANTEIIDiE. 



1047. Himala argentea, im. Cat iv, p. 827 ; C. & S. no. 1050 
Dasychira ilita, Moore, Lcp. E. I. Co. p. 341. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white. Fore wing sih ery w lilte. 




Fig. 317. — Himala argentea, \. 



the veins black ; outer margin fuscous. Hind wing white ; the 
veins black towards outer margin ; a marginal black line. 

Hah. ]Sr,"W. Himalayas ; Dehra Dun ; Sikhim ; Assam. E.vp., 
6 44, $ 54 millim. 

Genus GAZALINA. 

Gazalina, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 398 (1865). 

Oligoclona, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 94, fig. 10, Erk. p. 7 (1874). 

Type, G. apsara, Moore. 
Range. Himalayas. 

Palpi very minute. Antennae with the branches of moderate 
length in male, sei'rate in female; tufts of long hair from the 
basal joint. Mid and hind tibiae with minute tei*miual pairs of 
spurs. Abdomen of female with a very large anal tuft. Fore 
■wing with veins 3 and 4 coincident or rarely forking just before 
the margin ; 5 from lower angle of cell ; 6 from just above middle 
of discocellulars ; 7 from upper angle ; 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind 
wing with veins 3 and 4 from near angle of ceU ; 5 from near 
upper angle ; 6 and 7 stalked. 



1048. Gazalina apsara, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p. 341 ; C. 8f S. no. 993. 
Gazahna venosata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 398 ; Butl. III. Ret. v, pi. 89, 

fig. 5 ; C. 8f 8. no. 996. 
Oligoclona nervosa, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 95, fig. 8. 

S . Head and thorax white ; 
frons, legs, and shafts of antennfe 
black, the branches of the last 
brown ; collar sometimes tinged 
with fulvous ; abdomen black, 
the segments fringed with white 
and with a lateral white fringe. 
Fore wing white, the veins black 

Txg.2,\9>.-Gazalina apsara, \. towards outer margin. Hind 

wing white. 

$ . The segments of abdomen less fringed with white, and with 
a very large fulvous anal tuft. 




GAZALINA. — TOPOMESA. 



469 



The form venosata, from Sikhim, has the costa and the whole of 
the veins of fore wing black, and the veins of hind wing black 
towards outer margin ; the segmental white fringes of abdomen 
narrower in both sexes. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim. Kvp., c? 44, $ 50 millim. 

1049. Gazalina chrysoloplia, EoU. Hu^jeVs Kaschmir, iv, p. 470; 

C. ^" S. no. 994. 

Dasychira antica, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 867 ; Butl. III. Het. x, pi. 89, 
fig. 4. 

Oligoclona chordigera, Feld. Heis. Nov. pi. 94, fig. 10. 

Differs from cipsara in the fore wing having an indistinct sub- 
basal black line : a streak along median nervure ; two slightly 
vva\ ed medial oblique lines, beyond which the veins are black ; the 
thorax and collar sometimes tinged with fulvous. 

Larva brown,, with tufts of long pale brown hair ; a dorsal series 
of short fulvous tufts. Head and legs fulvous ; 5 pairs of prolegs. 

JIab. N.W. Himalayas ; Sikhim.. J 46, 5 54 millim. 

1050. Gazalina transversa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 47, pi. ii, fig. 22 ; 

C. S. no. 995. 

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen pure white ; the anal tuft white. 
Wings pure white ; fore wing with the antemedial line represented 
by a line from vein 1 to inner margin ; the postmedial line nearly 
straight and not reaching the costa ; no black marks at base or 
streaks on the veins. 

JIab. Sikhim. Ed-p. 30 millim. 



G-enus TOPOMESA. 

Topomesa, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1921 (1866). 

Type, T. subinanis, Wlk. 
Mange. Burma ; Borneo ; Java. 

2 . Palpi obliquely upturned; antennae with the branches long ; 
mid tibiae with one pair of spurs, hind tibiae with two pairs. Fore 
wing with the apex somewhat acute, the outer margin excised 
below the apex ; vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 4 and 5 from 
close to angle ; 6 from below upper angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. 
Hind wing with veins 3, 4, 5 from near lower angle of cell ; 6 
and 7 from upper angle. 



1051. Topomesa subinanis, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1921. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen sulphur-yellow ; frons and palpi 
red-brown ; antennae with the branches brown. Wings sulphur- 
yellow; fore wing with a red-brown spot beyond the lower angle 



470 



LYMANTEIID^. 



of cell, and some marks on outer margin ; hind wing with a red- 
brown mark on outer margin towards anal angle. 




Fig. 319. — Topomesa subinanis, ? . |, 



Hah. Tenasserim ; Borneo ; Java. Exp. 42-56 millim. 

Genus DACTYLORHYNCHA, nov. 

Type, B. pallida, Hmpsn. 
Range. Nilgiris. 

Palpi porrect and very long, the 3rd joint short ; antenna long 
and with the branches long ; legs with the spurs long. Fore wing 
with veins 3, 4, 5 from near lower angle of cell ; 6 from below 
upper angle ; 7 from angle ; 8, 9, 10 stalked. Hind wing with 
reins 3 and 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from above angle ; 6 and 7 
stalked. 

1052. Dactylorhynclia pallida, Hmpsn. Bl. Het. viii, p. 56, pi. 140, 
fig. 10. 

<S . Uniform pale silky grey-brown ; fore wing with some dark 
marginal marks below the apex ; branches of antennae dark. 




Pig. 320. — Dactylarhyncha pallida, ^ . \. 
Hah. Xilgiris. Exp. 28 millim. 



Genus EUPROCTIS. 

Euproctis, mihn. Verz. p. ]59 (1818). 
Artaxa, Wlk. Cai;. iii, p. 794 (]855). 
AdluUia, Wlh. Cat. xxxii, p. 392 fl86o). 
Chjprotricha, Feld. Bets. Nov. pi. 98, Erk. p. 3 (1874). 
Themaca, Wlk. Cat.xxxu, p. 394 (1865). 
Bembina, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 505 (1865). 



EUPEOCTIS. 



471 



Somena, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1734 (1855). 
Orvasca, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 502 (1865). 
Lopera, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 919 (1855). 
Go^ana, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1920 (1866). 
Antiplia, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 806 (1856). 
Utidava, Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1689 (1862). 
Arna, Wlk. Cat. v, p. 1176 (1855). 

Type, E. chrysorrlioea, Linn., from Europe. 

Bcmge. Palfearctic, African, Oriental and Australian regions. 

Palpi obliquely porrect, reaching beyond the frons ; antennse 
bipectinated in both sexes, the branches long in male, each with a 
spine to keep it in position with regard to the contiguous branch. 
Mid tibiae with one pair of long spurs, hind tibiae with two pairs ; 
female with a large anal tuft. Fore Mdng with veins 3, 4, 5 from 
near angle of cell ; 6 from or from below upper angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 
stalked, 10 being given off towards apex. Hind wing with veins 
3 and 4 stalked or from angle of cell ; 5 from above angle ; 6 and 7 
stalked. 

A. Fore wing white., pale ochreous, yelloi-v, grey, or blacJc, without, 
or with hardly a trace of, lines or hands. 

1053. Enproctis negrita, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen black, the anal tuft orange ; legs 
whitish. Wings black, with the bases white, in some specimens 
slightly, in others to the middle, except the costa of fore wing ; 
ciha sometimes white-tipped. 

2 . White, suffused wdth black, especially on outer area. 

Hah. Sikhim {Mdller). Mvp., d" 33, $ 40 millim. Type in 
coll. Elwes. 

1054. Euproctis renominata. 

Chariiidas uniformis, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 66, pi. 140, fig. 4 
(prseocc). 

c? . Head, thorax, and fore wing smoky grey-brown ; the last 
with the costa and cilia paler. Abdomen and hind wing pale. 
Hah. Nilgiris. Exp. 36 millim. 

1055. Euproctis divisa, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 836 ; C. 8^ S. no. 938. 
Euproctis melanophila, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 349 j C. S. no. 945 

(part.). 

Euproctis metamelana, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 349 ; C. ^ S. no. 949. 

Head and thorax pure white ; the branches of antennae and in 
some specimens the collar tinged with fulvous ; abdomen deep 
black, yvith orange anal tuft. Wings pure shining white, some 
specimens with scattered black scales on inner area of fore wing. 

Hah. Sikhim ; Nagas. Ex2)., 6 34, $ 42-50 millim. 



472 

ITMANTEIID.!:. 

1056_ Euproctis latifascia, Wlk. Cat. i v, p. 831 ; e. * 5 no 945 f nart ) 
Euproc ,s antica, Wlk. Cat iv, p. 835 • C. ^-'s. „I oSj 
Euproctis po.t.ca, W/k Cat. xxxii, p. 348 ;C'. ^ S. no 950 

^vI.>'^^''^°'^/^''T ^'^o'-^'^' and wings being dull 

te or tinged with ochreous, the abdomen fuscous black f anal 
tutt brownish orange. 

Some specimens have the base of costa of fore wing black and a 
black mark at outer angle. 

Kashmir; Dhlrmsala; Nepal; Manipur. Exp., j 32 
X 4b millim. a ' > 

1057. Euproctis subfasciata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. .332 : C.&S no 918 
Artaxa tnfasciata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 51 ; C. ^' S. no. 919. 

Differs from latifascia in the abdominal tuft being whitish, very 
s ightljtmged with orange in male; some specimens with very 
slight traces of a medial band of dark scales on fore wing from 
lower angle of cell to inner margin. 

la the form trifasciata the head, thorax, and fore Avintr are 
suflused with pale brownish ochreous, the pale lines being better 
defined. ^ 

Bab. Sikhim; Cachar ; Assam; Calcutta; Nilgiris. IIxp.,cS36, 
¥ 48 millim. 

1058. Euproctis bimaculata, W/k. Cat. iv, p. 836; Moore, Lep. Ceul. 

n, p]. 112, fig-s. 6, 6 a, b (larva) ; C. ^ 8. no. 936. 
Euproctis bigutta, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 837 ; C. ^- S. no. 935 
Euproctis lutescens, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 837 ; C. ^- S. no. 947. 
Euproctis immaculata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 358 ; C. &■ S. 
no. 942. 

Euproctis celsa, Wlk. Cat. xxxv, p. 1915. 

6 Pure white, or in the form lutescem the head, thorax, and 
fore wing slightly tinged with ochreous ; a black spot at end of 
cell of fore wing, which is very large in the form bimaculata, 
smaller in bir/utta, and entirely absent in the form immaculata. 

2 with the anal tuft golden orange. 

Larva purplish brown, with dorsal and lateral series of white- 
speckled tubercles bearing tufts of short brown hair. 

Hab. Philippines ; Sikhim ; Canara ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Mergui ; 
Andamans ; Java. Kvjy., c? 38-48, ? 28-66 millim. 

1059. Euproctis lunata, B^lk. Cat. iv, p. 837 ; Lutl. Lll. Bet. v,pl. 89, 

fig. 9 ; Forsayeth, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, pi. 14, fig's. 6 a-c (larva) ; 
a ^ S. no. 946. 

c? . Pale bright ochreous ; fore w-ing with a large black lunule 
on discocellulars. 

9 . Pore wing whitish ochreous ; the anal tuft brownish 
ochreous. 



EUPEOCTIS. 



473 



Larva brown, with anterior, posterior, and lateral tufts of long 
hair ; thoracic somites with dorsal quadrate white marks ; the third 
somite with paired dorsal tubercles ; hfth to anal somites with 
paired dorsal quadrate white marks. Spins a hairy cocoon on 
twigs. 

Hah. N.W. Himalayas ; Bengal ; throughout S. India and Ceylon. 
Exp., (S 34, $ 38 millim. 

1060. Euproctis semisignata, TH/c. CV/<. xxxii, p. 356 ; C. c^- ^S. no. 927. 

Artaxa leithiana, 3Ioore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 399, pi. 32, tig. 9 ; C.Sf S. 
no. 968. 

Artaxa citrina, Mooi'e, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 344 ; C. 8f S. no. 907. 
Artaxa brevivitta, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 400, pi. 32, fig. 10 ; 
a df S. no. 905. 

Artaxa erecta, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 400, pi. 32, fig. 6; C. 8f S. 
no. 910. 

Euproctis illanta. Szoinh. Tram. Ent. Sac. 1891, p. 138. 
Artaxa howra, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 61 ; C ^ S. no. 912. 

. Yellowish white or pale bright ochreous ; fore wing with a 
smoky black spot at end of cell and a series of four spots from the 
lower angle to inner margin, any or all of which may be absent, 
or be conjoined into a band. 

$ with the band slight and often ferruginous. 
Ifah. Throughout the plains of India and Ceylon. Exj)., S 
33-40, 2 40-52 millim. 

*1061. Euproctis venosa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 50, pi. ii, fig. 5 ; C. 4- S. 
no. 922. 

White ; the antennae, frons, palpi, fore legs, and anal tuft pale 
ochreous. Fore wing with subbasal, medial, and marginal yellow 
bands crossed by the white veins ; an interrupted ill-defined band 
of brown scales from the upper angle of cell to inner margin and 
a narrower submarginal band. 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 38 millim. 

1062. Euproctis rhoda, Szvinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 138. 
Artaxa obsoleta, Hmpsn. 111. Het. viii, p. 57, pi. 140, fig. 12. 

S. Head, thorax, and fore wing bright orange-yellow; the last 
with some dark scales on inner basal area ; traces of an oblique 
antemedial line and more prominent postmedial band of scales 
excurved beyond end of cell, sometimes reduced to two conjoined 
spots below the angle of cell. 

The more heavily-marked and brighter form rlioda has a black 
spot at end of cell of fore wing, which is absent in the paler obsoleta, 
though present in another pale form. 

Bab. N. Kanara NiJgiris ; Ceylon. Exp. 26-32 millim. 



474 

I-YMANTRIIDiE. 

1063 Euproctis inconcisa, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 882 ; C. ^ S no 918 
Artaxa dispersa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 50, pi! ii, lig.'e ; C. i^ Tr^^ 

Hah, Sikhim. ^r^,., 36, ? 48 miUim. 

1064. Euproctis sulphurescens, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 399- Butl 

III. Het. vu, p. 35, pi. 123, figs. 6, 7. ^ ' 

d. Ochreous white or bright ochreous ; abdomen black, the 
anal tuft orange ; fore wing with very slight traces of a medial 
Dand towards inner margin ; hind wing paler. 

$ with the abdomen ochreous. 

Hal. Kangra. Exp., j 38-45, $ 48 millim. 

1065. Euproctis fulvipuncta, Hmpm. 111. Het. ix, iued., pi. 159, 

figs. 2, 8, pi. 175, fig. 14 (larva). ^ ' 

S . Pure white, the branches of antennae pale brown • fore wing 
with an orange spot at end of cell and one or two subapical orange 
Spots. 

$ with orange anal tuft. 

Larva deep blue-black ; a narrow grey spiracular stripe : the 1st 
somite with paired small lateral tubercles, each \nth a tuft of black 
hairs ; 2nd to 11th somites with lateral tufts of white hairs; the 
2nd, 3rd, and 10th somites with paired dorsal white bristles 4th 
to 9th somites each with four short brownish dorsal tufts ; 8th to 
11th with four orange tufts; the 11th with four mouse-brown 
tufts ; 8th and 9th with a small yellow dorsal tubercle. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp., e 26, $ 32 millim. 

B. Fore wing white, with well-defined lines. 

1066. Euproctis postincisa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 400, pi. 32 fi? 5 • 

C. ^- S. no. 951. ^ ' 8- > 

_ S ' Pure white ; fore legs and tarsi of mid legs blackish. Fore 
wing with a nearly straight black medial Kne not reaching the costa 
and a black streak beyond it above vein 1. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 34 millim. 

*1067. Euproctis semivitta, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 48, pi. ii, fig. 25; 
C. S. no. 953. 

S ■ White ; thorax pale ochreous ; abdomen ochreous white, 
slightly banded with black ; anal tuft bright ochreous ; antennae 
pale brown ; second joint of palpi black ; fore legs ochreous in 
front. Fore wing with a medial band of black scales from the 
subcostal nervure to inner margin ; a few black scales on inner 
margin on each side of the band. 
Hab. Khasis. ^(p. 30 millim. 



ET7PE0CTIS. 



475 



1068. Euproctis bifascia, mniym. lU. Het. viii, p. 58, pi. 141, fig. 8. 

5 . Pure white ; fore wing with antemedial and submarginal 
slightly waved lines composed of short orange streaks. 
iTai. Nilgiri plateau. &7p. 42 millim. 



C. Fore wing orange-yellow {rarely hrownish), ivith ante- and post- 
medial pale lines which may be almost obsolete. 

a. Fore wing with no submarginal blade spots. 

1069. Euproctis flavinata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 331. 

. Head, thorax, and fore wing bright orange-yellow ; the last 
with an orange spot at end of cell, and indistinct ante- and post- 
medial pale cui-ved lines, furthest apart towards costa, the area 
between them powdered with dark scales— these markings being 
always very indistinct and often almost obsolete. Abdomen and 
hind wing paler. 

$ with the anal tuft brown. 

Eab. China; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma; Borneo. 
Fxp., 6 28, $ 38-44 milUm. 

1070. Euproctis varians, Wlk. Cat. iii, p. 796 ; C. S. no. 921. 
Artaxa pusiUa, Moore, Lep: Ceyl. ii, p. 86, pi. 112, fig. 4 ; C. Sf S. 

no. 917. 

Euproctis pygmsea, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 48 (nee Wlk.). 

cf. Differs from /avinato in its small size; the two pale lines 
of the fore wing more pronjinent, but with no dark powdering 
between them ; the orange cell-spot generally absent. 

5 . Paler and without markings. 

Hab. China ; Formosa ; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. 
Exp., 6 18-22, $ 18-29 millim. 



1071. Euproctis subfuscula, Hmpsn. III. Set. viii, p. 56, pi. 140, 
fig3. 5, 11. 

Differs ivova jlavinata in being more or less suffused with brown, 
or generally uniform reddish brown ; fore wing with the cell-spot 
and lines indistinct ; hind wing not paler. Underside of fore wing 
with the costa tinged with fuscous in male. 

Hab. Nilgiris. Exp., S 38, $ 46 millim. 



1072. Euproctis cervina, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4^ xx, p. 345 ; id. Lep. 

Ceyl. ii, pi. 1 12, fig. 3 ; Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, pi. 158, fig. 16 ( $ ) ; 
C.> S. no. 906. 



S . Head, thorax, and fore wing brownish fulvous, the last 



476 



LYMANTRlIDiE. 



,^ - ^^'''l''''^^Se-y(^^\ow ; thorax, abdomen, and wiues naln 
ochreouswhite,_ with a slight fuscous tinge, the margin ofwint 
^ 't/*"'® ™S pale lines. n or w ings 

ihe Kashmir form in the male has the fore wing darker with 

^a6. Kashmn-; Ceylon. Eap., J 26, $ 30 millim. 



1073. Euproctis anguligera, Butl. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 385. 

6 . Head and thorax bright yellow ; abdomen slightly tineed 
wit,h fuscous, the anal tuft orange. Pore wing brtht canary- 
yellow ; a broad medial dark-speckled band with pale edges, its 
outer edge angled at vein 3 ; dark spots beyond it near outer 
angJe and above vein 3. Hind wing paler. 

Ilab. Murree ; Burma ; Andamans. Kvp. 28-32 millim 



1074. Euproctis arenacea, n. sp. 

d . Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish ochreous. Pore wino- 
pale yellow, irrorated with dark scales ; the ante- and postmedial 
pale lines indistinct;, the former with a broad diffused dark band 
preceding it ; the latter with a large dark patch beyond it on the 
costa and shghtly outlined with dark scales. Hind wino- pale 
yellow. ° ^ 

Mab. Sikbim {IMler). Exp. 22 millim. Type in coU. Elwes. 

b. Fore wing with suhnarginal black spots. 

1075. Euproctis Vitellina, Koll. HiigeVs Kaschmir, iv, p. 471 ; Butl 

111. Het. vii, pi. 138, tig. 13 (larva) ; C. ^ 8. no. 957. 
Euproctis gamma, Wlk. Cat. vii, p. 1731 ; C. ^- S. no. 940. 
Artaxa princeps, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 331 ; C. 8fS. no. 916. 
Themaca comparata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 395 ; C. ^ S. no. 901. 

c? . Bright orange-yellow ; fore wing vsdth a medial pale-edged 
band of dark scales, which bifurcates at the lower angle of cell and 
does not reach the costa ; one or two submarginal black spots 
towards apex, which are almost obsolete in some specimens. Hind 
wing paler. 

$ with the anal tuft ochreous. 

Larva dull black ; an imperfect dorsal series of white dots, and 
a few scattered lateral dots ; each somite with eight small rust-red 
tubercles bearing white hairs. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas. Exp., cJ 38, $ 54 miUim. 



EUPEOCTIS. 



477 



1076. Euproctis digramma, Guer.^ Cuv. Icon. R. Anim., Ins. p. 508, 
pi. 8(i, fig. 4 ; a ^- S. no. 008 (part.). 
Artaxa uuimacula, Moore, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 309 ; C. ^ S. no. 920. 

Head, thorax, and fore wings 
bright orange-yellow ; abdomen 
more or less tinged with fuscous, 
the anal tuft orange ; fore wing 
with ante- and postraedial curved 
pale lines, the space between 
Fig. 321.— Euproctis difframma,(S • h t^iem being slightly powdered 

with dark scales towards inner 
margin ; two prominent subapical black spots. Hind wing paler. 
The form unimacula has only one subapical spot to fore wing. 
Hah. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java. Exp., 
S 25-34, $ 40 milUtn. 



1077. Euproctis guttata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 795. 

Artaxa digramma, Moore, Lep. Cnjl. ii, pi. 112, figs. 1, 1 a ; C. ^ S. 

no. 908 (part.), nec Bomljyx digramma, Giter. 
Artaxa pelona, 8winh. Trmis. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 138. 

Diifers from digramma in having no fuscous on abdomen ; the 
fore wing with an orange spot at end of cell, and an additional 
black spot towards outer angle. 

Some specimens have the two pale lines of the fore wing more 
or less outlined with red-brown or fuscous, and the space between 
them filled in with fuscous. The submarginal black sjDots are 
occasionally almost or completely obsolete. 

Larva black, the head chestnut ; long anterior and short lateral 
tufts of grey hair ; the thoracic somites with dorsal grey tufts ; 
the others with dorsal tufrs of short brown hair. 

Hah. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma Eay., c? 30, $ 
40 millim. 



1078. Euproctis fraterna, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 85 ; Hmjmi. III. 
Met. ix, pi. 176, fig. 2 (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 911. 

c? • Differs from guttata in its smaller size, and the fore wing 
being shorter and squarer. 

5 sometimes with an almost complete submarginal series of 
black spots to fore wing. 

Larva. Head crimson ; body black ; the 1st somite with long 
lateral tufts of black hair rising from prominent tubercles ; the 
other somites with dorsal and lateral tufts of white hair ; subdorsal 
pale lines; 9th and 10th somites with white dorsal spots; 11th 
somite with a dorsal black tuft. 

Hah. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma. Exp., 24 
$ 30-38 milUm. 




478 



LYMANTRIID^. 



1079. Euproct S apicahs, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 505 ; Moore, Lap. Ceyl. 

u, pi 111, fig 5, $ ; Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, pi. 169, fig. 1, , pi. 175, 
fig. 11 (larva) ; C 8f 8. no. 1087. , b , o , P • i/u, 

S . Head, thorax, abdomen, aad wings fulvous yellow. Fore 
wing with ante- and postmedial indistinct pale waved lines, with 
diffused red-brown scales on their edges; one subapical white- 
ringed black spot, and another towards outer angle. 

$ . Head, thorax, and anal tuft dirty grey ; abdomen orange • 
fore wing bright orange-red, the lines indistinct and without dark 
edges ; two black specks towards apex and two near anal angle • 
hind wing orange, ' 

Larva black; the head scarlet; long anterior and posterior tufts 
of black hair ; each somite with lateral tufts of white hair curved 
upwards over the back ; white bands on 1st and 2nd somites, and 
dorsal spots on 9th and 10th. 

Hub. Newera Ellia, Cejlon. Ex;p., ^ 40, $ 33 millim. 

1080. Euproctis antiphates, n. sp. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown, the anal tuft yellow. 
Fore wing brownish grey, more or less suffused with brown ; the 
ante- and postmedial pale lines outlined with brown ; a dark spot 
at end of cell sometimes nearly obsolete ; the outer area from the 
postmedial line deeply suffused with brown ; a submarginal series 
of dark lunules outlined with grey. Hind wing brownish white, 
the veins darker, a dark spot at end of cell and diff used postmedial 
band. 

Hah. Naga Hills, 2000 feet (Doherty). Exp. 24 millim. Type 
in coll. Elwes. 



1081. Euproctis COStalis, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 806; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, 
pi. 110, figs. 2, 2 a, h (larva) ■,C.^ 8. no. 1041. 
Lacida complens, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 336. 
Rilia illepida, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 436. 

Utidava incomptaria, Wlk. Cat. xxvi, p. 1089 ; C. Sf 8. no. 3690. 

c^* . Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous. Fore wing whitish, 
with the basal and costal areas suffused with dark brown ; a large 
diffused brown patch with three dark spots on it at end of cell, 
joined by an oblique diffused streak from the apex ; an indistinct 
submarginal series of dark spots. Hind wing pale fuscous. 

$ . The base and oosta of fore wing not suffused with brown, 
the three spots at end of cell not on a bi'own patch, and separated 
from the oblique streak. 

Larva blackish brown, tufted with short hair ; a pink line 
between oth and 6th somites. 

Hah. Ceylon. Exp., d 24, ? 30 millim. 



EUPROCTIS. 



479 



1082. Euproctis antica, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 802 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl ii, 

pi. 110, fig. 3; C. Sf -S.no. 1039. 
Anaxila notata, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 919. 

S . Differs from costalis in its larger size ; the fore wing wholly 
suffused with brown ; the oblique stripe less prominent, the sub- 
marginal series of spots more so. 

9 like costalis, but larger. 

Hab. Ceylon. Evp., c? 34, ? 38 millim. 

D. Fore iving with diffused red-brown or vinous-broivn bands, ivliich 
may occupy the ivhole luing except a di&cal patch. 

a. Fore wing with no submarginal blacJc spots. 

1083. Euproctis plana, Wlk. Cat. vii,p. 1731 ; Butl III. Set. v, pi. 89, 

fig. 13; id. III. Het. vii, pi. 138, fig. 6 (larva) ; C.^S. no. 971. 
Euproctis discinota, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 601 ; C. ^ S. no. 937. 
Cheerotricha immaciilata. Butl. III. Het. v, pi. 89, fig. 14; C. Sf S. 
no. 9C.7. 

Euproctis muelleri, Snell. Tijd. v. Ent. xx, 1877, p. 13. 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen fulvous. Eore wing bright 
orange-yellow, usually slightly powdered with black scales ; a 
ferruginous band from near base of costa to middle of median 
nervure, then straight to inner margin ; a postmedial band excurv ed 
beyond end of cell ; a black spot at end of cell ; long black hairs 
on inner margin. Hind wing paler. 

5 with the bands nearly obsolete, the black spot being also 
absent in the specimen named immaculata. 

Larva dark brown, marbled with red-brown ; a series of deep 
red lateral tubercles bearing short white processes and tufts of 
white hair ; small dorsal tubercles on thoracic somites bearing 
tufts of white hair ; fourth to anal somite with dorsal tubercles 
bearing short silky-brown tufts. 

Hab. Kangra; iSikhim ; Burma; Andamans. Exp., S 44-54, 
$ 60-72 millim. 

1084. Euproctis icilia, Stoll, Cram. Pap. Exot. v, p. 158, pi. 35, fig. 5 ; 

C. 8f S. no. 941. 

Chserotricha decussata, Moore, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 345 ; id. Lep. 
Ceyl. ii, pi. 113, figs. 2,2 b (larva) ; C. ^ S. no. 966. 

Differs from plana in the whole base of the fore wing being 
purplish brown, and often conjoiued to the broad postmedial band 
below the cell. 

Larva purplish brown, tufted with short grey hair, and marked 
with numerous irregular reddish lines ; pale speckled dorsal tuber- 
cles on 4th, .5th, and 11th somites connected by a chain-like band ; 
thoracic somites with a black dorsal line. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas and throughout S. India and Ceylon. 
Exp., cS 38-48, 2 54 millim. 



480 



LYirANTEIID.^;. 



1085. Euproctis plagiata, Blk. Cat. iv, p. 858 ; C. ^ S. no. 970. 

fni ' ^'^r- 'f'"" ^^'^ basal purple-brown area of the 

Irfn "l?"f ^"'"^^ postmedia/baid atthe costal Ts wel 

n.ri n ve W 'Ti ^"^^^^ ^^^^ ^"^^ ^he outer 

Jp 7 ^Sr . ' "° b'^'-"^ spot at end of cell. 
JJah. JSTepal. E.vp. 60 millim. 

1086. Euproctis madana, Moore, Lep. E. L Co. p. 348 ; C 8,- S. no. 948. 

thorax, and abdomen yellow. Fore wing yellow, 
^Mth the basal area brovvn, running out to a point on the median 
nervure ; a black spot at end of cell ; a postmedial baud excurved 
beyond cell, widest at costa, and sending a spur to outer margin 
between vems 5 and 6. Hind wing pale. 
Hah. SikLim. Exjj. 64 millim. 

1087. Euproctis varia, mk. Cat. iv, p. 840; Moore, Lep. E I Co. 

pi. 9 a, fig. 5 ; C. 8. no. 974. 

Differs from plana in the abdomen being black above, the anal 
tuft orange. Fore wing with a red-brown spot near base; a 
black spot at end of cell ; an irregular oblique postmedial red- 
brown band irrorated with dark scales, becoming very mucli wider 
from lo^yer angle of cell to inner margin. 

A variety from Sikhim has the whole outer area of the fore 
wing red-brown, and the hind wing tinged with rufous. 

Hah. Simla; Sikhim; Nagas ; Mergui. Exp., S 46, $58 
millim. 



1088. Euproctis flavimaculata, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax reddish brown ; abdomen fuscous, the 
anal segment orange. Fore wing uniform vinous brown, irrorated 
with dark scales ; a yellow patch at end of cell with a black spot 
on it. Hind wing greyish white, the central marginal area irro- 
rated with brown scales. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 64 millim. Type in coll. Knyvett. 



b. Fore wing with black suhmarginal spots. 

1089. Euproctis marginata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 49 ; C. 8f S. no. 969. 
Cbeerotricha quadrangularis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 60, pi. ii, fig. 23 ; 
a S. no. 972. 

Differs from plagiata in having the abdomen black above, except 
the anal segment and tuft which are orange. Fore wing with the 
red-brown suffusion darker and better defined from the yellow 
marginal area, which bears a series of eight black spots. 

The form quadrangular is has one subapical and two medial 
spots of the series absent ; the hind wing paler. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp., S 46, $ 60 millim. 



BUPEOOTIS. 



481 



E. Pore wing suffused with vinous or olive-brown and with 

two pale lines. 

a. Fore wing luithout suhmarginal black spots, 

1090. Euproctis albopunctata, n. sp. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen rufous brown, the anal tuft 
yellow. Fore wing vinous brown, irrorated with dark scales ; an 
antemedial, curved, pale line and postmedial line much excurved 
beyond end of cell ; a broken series of marginal white spots ; 
cilia white and brown. Hind wing pale fuscous, with an irregular 
pale margin and brown marginal line ; cilia whitish. 
ffab. Sikhim. Bxp. 52 millim. Type in coU. Elwes. 



1091. Euproctis albodentata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 401: C. ^ 
no, 959. 

Differs from albopunctata in the head, thorax, and abdomen being 
brownish white. Fore wing suffused with olive-brown, the veins 
and margins pale ; the pale lines more angled and approaching 
each other towards inner margin ; a complete marginal series of 
triangular white marks. Hind wing pale ochreous fuscous, the 
marginal area whitish. 

Hab. N.W. Himalayas ; Burma. Exp. 45 millim. 



1092. Euproctis lativitta, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 49, pi. ii, fig. 18 ; C. ^ S. 
no. 961. 

$ . Head and thorax whitish, the branches of antennae brown; 
abdomen blackish, the anal tuft ochreous. Fore wing with the 
outer margin slightly angled at vein 5 ; whitish, slightly irrorated 
with ochreous and dark scales, especially between the white bands 
which approach each other towards inner margin, and near centre 
of outer margin ; a black lunule at end of cell. Hind wing white, 
slightly irrorated with dark scales, especially on the disk. 

Hab. Sikhim ; Naga Hills. Exp. 52 millim. 



1093. Euproctis variegata, Hmpsn. III. Set. viii, p. 56, pi. 140, 

fig. 6. > tf ) } 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous. Fore wing 
ochreous white, irrorated with dark brown scales ; the pale ante- 
and postmedial lines indistinct ; a conspicuous orange spot at end 
of cell edged with dark scales ; some whitish marks beyond the 
postmedial line. Hind wing pale ochreous. 

Hab. Nilgiris. Exp. 38 millim. 

1094. Euproctis nigripennis, n. sp. 

cJ . Head and thorax fulvous ; abdomen black, with orange anal 
tuH. Fore wing fulvous yellow, irrorated with black scales the 

VOL. I. o T 



482 



LYMANTRIIDJE, 



jiiite- and postmedial pale lines waved, the latter excurved beyond 
the cell, the space between them and the apical area suffused 
with black, except the veins ; a submarginal, pale, waved line. 
Hind wing deep black, with a broad, marginal, fulvous-yellow 
band. 

$ paler ; abdomen with a large fulvous anal tuft ; hind wing 
with broad pale fawn border. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp., s 42, $ 55millim. Type in coll. Elwes. 

1095. Euproctis abjecta, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 405, pi. 43, fig. 13. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous brown, the anal tuft orange. 
Fore wing vinous brown, irrorated with dark scales; the ante- 
medial line angled on the median nervure, the postmedial line ex- 
purved beyond end of cell. Hind wing brownish ochreous. 

Hah. Lower Sind. Exp., S 24, $ 30 millim. 

*1096. Euproctis rana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 806 ; C. ^ S. no. 952. 

J . Yellow ; antennae and abdomen brown. Fore wing with 
the basal two-thirds irrorated with dark scales and sending an 
elbowed spur to the centre of outer margin, below which the wing 
is whitish ; ante- and postmedial pale lines. Hind wing with the 
inner area suffused with brown. 

Hah. Sylhet. Exp. 63 millim. 

b. Fore wing with submarginal black spots. 

1097. Euproctis Mpartita, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 49, pi. ii, fig. 4 ; C.8^S. 

no. 965. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen fulvous brown, the anal tuft 
fulvous. Pore wing reddish brown, irrorated with dark scales ; 
the ante- and postmedial lines excurved in and beyond the cell ; 
some specimens with a black speck in the cell ; the apex and a 
narrow marginal line yellow; one subapical black spot. Hind 
wing yellow, often slightly suffused with brown, except the marginal 
area. 

Hah. Sikhim. Exp. 52 millim. 

F. Fore wing uniform hroivn or purplish broivn, irrorated witJi dark 
scales, the outer margin yellow, but no yellow on disk. 

a. Fore wing luithout submarginal hlacTc spots. 

1098. Euproctis sagroides, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii, p. 57, pi. 140, fig. 14. 

cJ . Uniform yellowish brown; the cilia yellow. 
Hah. Nilgiris. Exp. 22 millim. 



EUPEOOTIS. 



483 



1099. Euproctis uniformis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 49 ; C. 8f S. no. 973. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown ; anal tuft orange. Fore 
wing vinous brown, irrorated with dark scales ; the cilia yellow. 
Hind wing fuscous brown, with a broad, marginal, yellow baud. 
Eah. Sikhim ; E. Pegu. Ea;2J. 57 millim. 



1100. Euproctis luteifascia, Hmpsn. III. Het. viii,p. 67, pi, 141, fig. 2. 

. Head yellow ; thorax brownish ochreous. Fore wing vinous 
brown, irrorated with dark scales; an antemedial, orange-red, 
maculate line ; cilia yeUow. Abdomen, hind wing, and underside 
yellow. 

Hah. Nilgiris. Ex^. 36 millim. 



1101. Euproctis scmtillans, Wlh. Cat. vu, p. 1734 : Butl. III. Het. v, 
pi. 90, fig. 1 ; C.^ 8. no. 924. 
' Orvasca subnotata, Wlk. Cat. xxxii, p. 502 ; C. 8. no. 925. 
; Artaxa limbata, Butl. III. Het. v, p. 53, pi. 90, fig. 3 : C. & 8. 
no. 915, 

Somena irrorata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. ii, p. 87 ; C. 8f 8. no. 923. 
Artaxa justiciae, Moore, Lep. E. I. Co. p, 352 ; C. 8^ 8. no. 914. 

Head yellow ; thorax brown ; abdomen black or yellow, the anal 
tuft orange. Fore wing vinous brown, irrorated with dark scales, 
which colour extends as two spurs across the yellow marginal area 
below the apex and to centre of margin, but sometimes not 
reaching the margin ; costa often yellow. Hind wing yellow, or 
in some specimens fuscous brown, with a broad yellow margin.' 

Larva dark brown, with a series of crimson lateral tubercles on a 
yellow Ime bearing tufts of grey hair ; the 3rd somite banded with 
yellow; dorsal tufts of short brown hair on 4th, 5th, and 11th 
somites ; 5th to 10th somites with a broad, dorsal, yellow stripe • 
a yellow spot on anal somite, ' 

Another form of the larva has the anterior and posterior somites 
slate-colour, whUst a third form has the dorsal tufts black ; a series 
of subdorsal, white-speckled, black spots, and no red tubercles on 
the lateral line. 

.^S^oJ*'o'W^°oi^''.S.^^''^^®^^°°5 Burma; Andamans. Exp., 
d" zu-Jb, y 32-38 milhm. 



*1102. Euproctis basalis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 51, pi. ii, fig. iQ-c.Sf 8. 



6 . Head, thorax, and palpi yellow ; abdomen and legs whitish: 
Fore wmg with the basal two-thirds red-brown, its outer edge 
obhque and angled outwards at the middle, and with a spot beyond 

tmsh "^^'^"^^ ^""^ wing and undeVside 

Hab. Sikhim. Exp. 32 millim. 

2i 2 



484 



LYMANTiUIDjiC. 



b. Fore wing with suhmanjinal blade spots. 

1103. Euproctis bipnnctapex, Hmjysn. III. Het. viii, p. 57, pi. 140, 
fig. 13. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown, the anal tuft brownish 
yellow. Pore wing red-brown, irrorated with dark scales; the 
marginal area yellow, with a spur from the brown area to the centre 
of outer margin ; two subapical black spots. Hind wing brown, 
with a broad, marginal, yellow band. 

In some specimens a brown spot at the end of the cell of the 
fore wing is visible, and a male from the Ndga Hills has only one 
subapical spot. 

Ecib. China ; Kangra ; Nagas ; Nilgiris ; Burma. Exp., S 24, 
$ 26^0millim. 



1104. Euproctis atomaria, Wlk. Cat. iv, p. 796 ; Butl. III. Het. v, pi. 90, 

fig. 2 ; C.^ 8. no. 903. 
Arna apicalis, Wlh. Cat. y, p. 1177 ; C. 8f S. no. 902. 

Differs from bipunctapex in being deeper red-brown, with t